Pakatan Harapan

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH; stylized as HARAPAN) is a Malaysian political coalition consisting of centre-left political parties which was formed in 2015 to succeed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. It has been the ruling coalition since November 2022 after it formed the coalition government with other political coalitions and parties as a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, and after it won the 2018 Malaysian general election to February 2020 when it lost power as a result of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis at the federal level for 22 months. The coalition deposed the Barisan Nasional coalition government during the 2018 election, ending its 60-year-long reign (together with its predecessor, Alliance) since independence.

Alliance of Hope
Malay namePakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
Chinese name希望联盟
Tamil nameநம்பிக்கை கூட்டணி
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
ChairmanAnwar Ibrahim
Deputy President
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[1]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
  • Newspapers:
  • The Rocket
  • RoketKini
  • Suara Keadilan
  • Media Harapan
  • Harapan Daily
  • Kenyalang Tribune
  • Borneo Update
Student wingPakatan Harapan Student Movement
Youth wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Women's wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Political positionCentre-left
Colours  Red and   white
Dewan Negara
5 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
82 / 222
State Legislative Assemblies
198 / 607
Chief minister of states
3 / 13
Election symbol
2022 campaign website
Alliance of Hope
Traditional Chinese希望聯盟
Simplified Chinese希望联盟

It is currently the largest coalition in the Dewan Rakyat with 82 seats. At the state level, it is the ruling coalition in 7 of the 13 states in the country, Penang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, Melaka and Sabah. It also holds two-thirds majorities in the state legislative assemblies of Penang and Selangor, while it rules Perak, Pahang and Melaka in coalition governments with Barisan Nasional (BN) and Sabah with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS).

The coalition consists of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party, and United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation. Its main ally is the Malaysian United Democratic Alliance.

The coalition lost its majority in parliament and fell from power in February 2020 when its chairman and then-Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned after 22 months in office (compared to his 22 years as Prime Minister while with UMNO), and the Malaysian United Indigenous Party together with 11 members of parliament from the People's Justice Party left the coalition.[4][5][6]

After the 2022 general election that resulted in a hung parliament, the Alliance of Hope returned to power with a two-thirds majority by forming a coalition government with National Front (BN), Sarawak Parties' Alliance (GPS), Sabah People's Alliance (GRS), Heritage Party (WARISAN), Malaysian People's Party (PBM), Social Democratic Harmony Party (KDM), and independents led by Prime Minister and PH Chairman Anwar Ibrahim. Meanwhile Muhyiddin Yassin's Perikatan Nasional takes the role as the opposition, with 74 seats.



Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[7][8] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party.[9][10]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[11][12] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[13] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[14]

2018 general election

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word "Harapan" with the "A" shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[15] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[16] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[17][18][19]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[20] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[21] In that election, Pakatan Harapan swept the election and formed the government in a surprise upset overturning the former ruling party UMNO's decades of uninterrupted rule, as the Malay vote was dissatisfied and mainly went to Amanah and popular former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's party Bersatu, while the Chinese vote was solidly behind parties like DAP and PKR. Following the surprise victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[22] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each other's in Sabah.[23]

At the state level, due to 2018 general election results the coalition formed the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also forms a government with a two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.


On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[24] After winning the power in 2018, the coalition made some efforts in ensuring an independent trial for Najib's corruption charges, an independent anti-corruption commission, and repealing anti-fake news law. On the other hand, other issues such as decentralisation of powers to Sabah and Sarawak, educational reform, issues relating to indigenous people (orang asli), racial equality, and political patronage remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the Pakatan Harapan government was distracted by factional infighting.[25]

On 24 February 2020, Mahathir resigned as the Prime Minister. BERSATU which had 26 MPs, withdrew from the ruling Pakatan Harapan coalition. In addition, 11 MPs from PKR resigned from the party to form an independent bloc. This leaves Pakatan Harapan 37 seats short of the 112 seats needed to form a government. The surprise announcement came amid speculation that Mahathir was attempting to form a new ruling coalition that would exclude his designated successor Anwar Ibrahim.[4][5][6] However, Anwar later clarified to reporters that Mahathir did not orchestrate the act. These events also resulted in the number of Pakatan Harapan coalition member parties returned to the original three.[26]

At the state level, Pakatan Harapan lost control of Johor, Malacca, Perak and Kedah. A few PKR, DAP and AMANAH representatives in the state legislative assemblies quit their party and expressed support for the new government Perikatan Nasional in those four states.[27][28][29][30]

Party-to-party relations

Pakatan Harapan at coalition level doesn't have any allegiance with political internationals. Some of its component parties does, as PKR was recognized as observer party of Liberal International while DAP co-founded the Progressive Alliance. On the aftermath of 15th general election, Anwar Ibrahim received congratulatory message from Ennahda Party of Tunisia.[31] The party previously was present at an event organised by AMANAH in 2015.

Member parties and allied party

Flag Name Ideology Position Leader(s) Seats
2022 result Current
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Centre-left Anthony Loke 55 15.61%
40 / 222
40 / 82
PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Liberal democracy
Social liberalism
Centre Anwar Ibrahim 102 15.74%
31 / 222
31 / 82
AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Islamic modernism
Centre-left Mohamad Sabu 54 5.70%
8 / 222
8 / 82
UPKO United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation
Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu
Sabah regionalism N/A Ewon Benedick 5 0.47%
2 / 222
2 / 82
Allied party
MUDA Malaysian United Democratic Alliance
Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia[32][33]
Youth politics Centre-left Syed Saddiq 6 0.48%
1 / 222
1 / 82

Former member party

List of leaders


No. Name
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
14 July 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 225 days BERSATU
2 Anwar Ibrahim
(b. 1947)
14 May 2020 Incumbent 2 years, 262 days PKR


No. Name
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
(b. 1952)
14 July 2017 Incumbent 5 years, 201 days PKR

Women Chiefs

No. Name


Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Zuraida Kamaruddin
(b. 1958)
14 August 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 194 days PKR
2 Chong Eng
(b. 1957)
18 March 2021 12 September 2021 178 days DAP
3 Aiman Athirah Sabu
(b. 1972)
12 September 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 141 days AMANAH

Youth Chiefs

No. Name


Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad
(b. 1982)
31 October 2017 13 December 2018 1 year, 43 days PKR
2 Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman
(b. 1992)
13 December 2018 24 February 2020 1 year, 73 days BERSATU
3 Shazni Munir Mohd Ithnin
4 March 2021 6 August 2021 155 days AMANAH
4 Howard Lee Chuan How
(b. 1983)
12 September 2021 29 July 2022 320 days DAP
5 Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen
(b. 1986)
29 July 2022 Incumbent 186 days DAP

Leadership structure

Central Leadership Council

Youth Wing (Angkatan Muda Harapan)

  • Youth Chief:
    • Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen
  • Deputy Youth Chiefs:
    • Hasbie Muda
    • Adam Adli
    • Nurthaqaffah Nordin
    • Felix Joseph Saang
  • Vice-Youth Chiefs:
    • Nik Abdul Razak Nik Md Ridzuan
    • Young Syefura Othman
    • Muhammad Kamil Abdul Munim
    • Kennedy John Angian
  • Youth Secretary:
    • Musaddeq Khalid
  • Deputy Youth Secretary:
    • Omar Mokhtar A Manap
  • Youth Treasurer:
    • Lim Yi Wei
  • Deputy Youth Treasurer:
    • Nur Najihah Muhaimin
  • Youth Communications Director:
    • Muhammad Haziq Azfar Ishak
  • Youth Public Policies Directors:
    • Ong Chun Wei
    • Nadia Fathin Syahira Ahmad Nazri
    • Ammar Atan
  • Youth Mobilization Directors:
    • Umar Khair
    • Abbas Azmi
    • Jason Raj Kirupanantha
  • Youth Elections Directors:
    • Asmaaliff Abdul Adam
    • Prabakaran Parameswaran
    • Keristinah Philip Selvaraju


Women's Wing (Wanita Pakatan Harapan)

  • Women's Chief:
    • Raj Munni Sabu
  • Deputy Women's Chiefs:
  • Vice-Women's Chiefs:
  • Women's Secretary:
  • Deputy Women's Secretary:
    • Norhayati Bidin
  • Women's Treasurer:
    • June Leow
  • Women's Information Chief:
    • Soraya Salim
  • Women's Communications Director:
  • Women's Elections Director:
    • Rozita Abdul
  • Women's Training Director:
    • Sangetha Jayakumar
  • Media and IT Bureau Chief:
    • Loh Ker Chean
  • Public Policies Chief:
  • Mobilization Chief:
    • Anfaal Saari

Elected representatives


Members of Parliament of the 15th Malaysian Parliament

Pakatan Harapan has 82 members in the House of Representatives (with allied parties).

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 KedahP015Sungai PetaniMohammed Taufiq JohariPKR
 PenangP043BaganLim Guan EngDAP
P045Bukit MertajamSteven Sim Chee KeongDAP
P046Batu KawanChow Kon YeowDAP
P047Nibong TebalFadhlina SidekPKR
P048Bukit BenderaSyerleena Abdul RashidDAP
P049TanjongLim Hui YingDAP
P050JelutongSanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji RayerDAP
P051Bukit GelugorRamkarpal SinghDAP
P052Bayan BaruSim Tze TzinPKR
P053Balik PulauMuhammad Bakhtiar Wan ChikPKR
 Perak P060TaipingWong Kah WohDAP
P062Sungai SiputKesavan SubramaniamPKR
P063TambunAnwar IbrahimPKR
P064Ipoh TimorHoward Lee Chuan HowDAP
P065Ipoh BaratKulasegaran MurugesonDAP
P066Batu GajahSivakumar Varatharaju NaiduDAP
P068BeruasNgeh Koo HamDAP
P070KamparChong ZheminDAP
P071GopengTan Kar HingPKR
P076Teluk IntanNga Kor MingDAP
P077Tanjong MalimChang Lih KangPKR
 PahangP080RaubChow Yu HuiDAP
P089BentongYoung Syefura OthmanDAP
 Selangor P096Kuala SelangorDzulkefly AhmadAMANAH
P097SelayangWilliam Leong Jee KeenPKR
P098GombakAmirudin ShariPKR
P099AmpangRodziah IsmailPKR
P100PandanMohd Rafizi RamliPKR
P101Hulu LangatMohd Sany HamzanAMANAH
P102BangiSyahredzan JohanDAP
P103PuchongYeo Bee YinDAP
P104SubangWong ChenPKR
P105Petaling JayaLee Chean ChungPKR
P106DamansaraGobind Singh DeoDAP
P107Sungai BulohRamanan RamakrishnanPKR
P108Shah AlamAzli YusofAMANAH
P110KlangGanabatirau VeramanDAP
P111Kota RajaMohamad SabuAMANAH
P113SepangRaj Munni SabuAMANAH
 Kuala LumpurP114KepongLim Lip EngDAP
P115BatuPrabakaran ParameswaranPKR
P116Wangsa MajuZahir HassanPKR
P117SegambutHannah Yeoh Tseow SuanDAP
P118SetiawangsaNik Nazmi Nik AhmadPKR
P120Bukit BintangFong Kui LunDAP
P121Lembah PantaiFahmi FadzilPKR
P122SeputehTeresa Kok Suh SimDAP
P123CherasTan Kok WaiDAP
P124Bandar Tun RazakWan Azizah Wan IsmailPKR
 Negeri SembilanP128SerembanAnthony Loke Siew FookDAP
P130RasahCha Kee ChinDAP
P132Port DicksonAminuddin HarunPKR
 Malacca P135Alor GajahAdly ZahariAMANAH
P137Hang Tuah JayaAdam Adli Abdul HalimPKR
P138Kota MelakaKhoo Poay TiongDAP
 Johor P140SegamatYuneswaran RamarajPKR
P141SekijangZaliha MustafaPKR
P142LabisPang Hok LiongDAP
P144LedangSyed Ibrahim Syed NohPKR
P145BakriTan Hong PinDAP
P146MuarSyed Saddiq Syed Abdul RahmanMUDA
P149Sri GadingAminolhuda HassanAMANAH
P150Batu PahatOnn Abu BakarPKR
P152KluangWong Shu QiDAP
P158TebrauJimmy Puah Wee TsePKR
P159Pasir GudangHassan Abdul KarimPKR
P160Johor BahruAkmal Nasrullah Mohd NasirPKR
P161PulaiSalahuddin AyubAMANAH
P162Iskandar PuteriLiew Chin TongDAP
P163KulaiTeo Nie ChingDAP
 SabahP170TuaranWilfred Madius TangauUPKO
P171SepanggarMustapha SakmudPKR
P172Kota KinabaluChan Foong HinDAP
P174PenampangEwon BenedickUPKO
P186SandakanVivian Wong Shir YeeDAP
 SarawakP192Mas GadingMordi BimolDAP
P195Bandar KuchingKelvin Yii Lee WuenDAP
P196StampinChong Chieng JenDAP
P211LanangAlice Lau Kiong YiengDAP
P212SibuOscar Ling Chai YewDAP
P219MiriChiew Choon ManPKR
TotalKedah (1), Penang (10), Perak (11), Pahang (2), Selangor (16), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (10), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (3), Johor (15), Sabah (5), Sarawak (6)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)

State No. Parliamentary


No. State Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P02 KangarN8Indera KayanganGan Ay LingPKR
 Kedah P05 JerlunN3Kota SiputehSalmee SaidAMANAH
P08 Pokok Sena N11DergaTan Kok YewDAP
P09 Alor Setar N12Suka MenantiZamri YusufPKR
N13Kota Darul AmanTeh Swee LeongDAP
P10 Kuala Kedah N16Kubang RotanMohd Asmirul Anuar ArisAMANAH
N17Pengkalan KundorIsmail SallehAMANAH
P12 Jerai N22GurunJohari AbdulPKR
P14 Merbok N25Bukit SelambauSummugam RengasamyPKR
P15 Sungai Petani N28Bakar ArangOoi Tze MinPKR
P18 Kulim-Bandar Baharu N35KulimYeo Keng ChuanPKR
 Penang P41 Kepala BatasN3Pinang TunggalAhmad Zakiyuddin Abdul RahmanPKR
P42 Tasek Gelugor N6Telok Ayer TawarMustapha Kamal AhmadPKR
P43 Bagan N7Sungai PuyuPhee Boon PohDAP
N8Bagan JermalSoon Lip CheeDAP
N9Bagan DalamSatees MuniandyDAP
P44 Permatang Pauh N11Permatang PasirMuhammad Faiz Mohamed FadzilAMANAH
N12PenantiNorlela AriffinPKR
P45 Bukit Mertajam N13BerapitHeng Lee LeeDAP
N14Machang BubokLee Khai LoonPKR
N15Padang LalangChong EngDAP
P46 Batu Kawan N16PeraiRamasamy PalanisamyDAP
N17Bukit TengahGooi Hsiao LeungPKR
N18Bukit TambunGoh Choon AikPKR
P47 Nibong Tebal N19JawiH'ng Mooi LyeDAP
N20Sungai BakapAmar Pritpal AbdullahPKR
P48 Bukit Bendera N22Tanjong BungaZairil Khir JohariDAP
N23Air PutihLim Guan EngDAP
N24Kebun BungaJason Ong Khan LeePKR
N25Pulau TikusChris Lee Chun KitDAP
P49 Tanjong N26Padang KotaChow Kon YeowDAP
N27Pengkalan KotaGooi Zi SenDAP
N28KomtarTeh Lai HengDAP
P50 Jelutong N29Datok KeramatJagdeep Singh DeoDAP
N30Sungai PinangLim Siew KhimDAP
N31Batu LancangOng Ah TeongDAP
P51 Bukit Gelugor N32Seri DelimaSyerleena Abdul RashidDAP
N33Air ItamJoseph Ng Soon SeongDAP
N34Paya TerubongYeoh Soon HinDAP
P52 Bayan Baru N35Batu UbanKumaresan AramugamPKR
N36Pantai JerejakSaifuddin Nasution IsmailPKR
N37Batu MaungAbdul Halim HussainPKR
P53 Balik Pulau N38Bayan LepasAzrul Mahathir AzizAMANAH
N39Pulau BetongMohd.Tuah IsmailPKR
 Perak P60 TaipingN17Pokok AssamOng Seng GuanDAP
N18AulongTeh Kok LimDAP
P62 Sungai Siput N22JalongLoh Sze YeeDAP
P63 Tambun N24Hulu KintaMuhamad Arafat Varisai MahamadPKR
P64 Ipoh Timur N25CanningJenny Choy Tsi JenDAP
N26Tebing TinggiAbdul Aziz BariDAP
N27Pasir PinjiGoh See HuaDAP
P65 Ipoh Barat N28BerchamOng Boon PiowDAP
N29KepayangNga Kor MingDAP
N30BuntongThulsi Thivani ManogaranDAP
P66 Batu Gajah N31JelapangCheah Pou HianDAP
N32MenglembuChaw Kam FoonDAP
N33TronohSteven Tiw Tee SiangDAP
P68 Bruas N37Pantai RemisWong May IngDAP
N38AstakaJason Ng Thien YeongDAP
P70 Kampar N41Malim NawarBavani VeraiahDAP
N42KeranjiAngeline Koo Haai YenDAP
N43Tualang SekahMohd Azlan HelmiPKR
P71 Gopeng N44Sungai RapatMohammad Nizar JamaluddinAMANAH
N45Simpang PulaiWong Chai YiPKR
N46TejaSandrea Ng Shy ChingPKR
P75 Bagan Datuk N54Hutan MelintangWasanthee SinnasamyPKR
P76 Teluk Intan N55Pasir BedamarWoo Kah LeongDAP
P77 Tanjong Malim N57SungkaiSivanesan AchalingamDAP
 Pahang P78 Cameron HighlandsN1Tanah RataHo Chi YangDAP
P80 Raub N7TrasTengku Zulpuri Shah Raja PujiDAP
P82 Indera Mahkota N13SemambuChan Chun KuangPKR
P83 Kuantan N14TeruntumSim Chon SiangPKR
P88 Temerloh N30MentakabWoo Chee WanDAP
P89 Bentong N33BilutLee Chin ChenDAP
N34KetariThomas Su Keong SiongDAP
P90 Bera N38TriangLeong Yu ManDAP
 Selangor P92 Sabak BernamN2SabakAhmad Mustain OthmanPKR
P93 Sungai Besar N4SekinchanNg Suee LimDAP
P94 Ulu Selangor N6Kuala Kubu BaharuLee Kee HiongDAP
P95 Tanjong Karang N9PermatangRozana Zainal AbidinPKR
P96 Kuala Selangor N10Bukit MelawatiJuwairiya ZulkifliPKR
N11IjokIdris Ahmad (politician)PKR
P97 Selayang N14RawangChua Wei KiatPKR
N15Taman TemplerMohd Sany HamzanAMANAH
P98 Gombak N16Sungai TuaAmirudin ShariPKR
N18Hulu KelangSaari SungibAMANAH
P100 Pandan N21Pandan IndahIzham HashimAMANAH
P101 Ulu Langat N23Dusun TuaEdry Faizal Eddy YusofDAP
P102 Bangi N25KajangHee Loy SianPKR
N26Sungai RamalMazwan JoharAMANAH
N27BalakongWong Siew KiDAP
P103 Puchong N28Seri KembanganEan Yong Hian WahDAP
N29Seri SerdangSiti Mariah MahmudAMANAH
P104 Subang N30KinraraNg Sze HanDAP
N31Subang JayaMichelle Ng Mei SzeDAP
P105 Petaling Jaya N32Seri SetiaHalimey Abu BakarPKR
N33Taman MedanSyamsul Firdaus Mohamed SupriPKR
N34Bukit GasingRajiv RishyakaranDAP
P106 Damansara N35Kampung TunkuLim Yi WeiDAP
N36Bandar UtamaJamaliah JamaluddinDAP
N37Bukit LanjanElizabeth WongPKR
P107 Sungai Buloh N38Paya JarasMohd.Khairuddin OthmanPKR
N39Kota DamansaraShatiri MansorPKR
P108 Shah Alam N40Kota AnggerikNajwan HalimiPKR
N41Batu TigaRodziah IsmailPKR
P109 Kapar N42MeruMohd. Fakhrulrazi Mohd. MokhtarPKR
P110 Klang N45Bandar Baru KlangTeng Chang KhimDAP
N46Pelabuhan KlangAzmizam Zaman HuriPKR
N47PandamaranLeong Tuck CheeDAP
P111 Kota Raja N48SentosaGunaraj GeorgePKR
N49Sungai KandisMohd.Zawawi Ahmad MughniPKR
N50Kota KemuningGanabatirau VeramanDAP
P112 Kuala Langat N52BantingLau Weng SanDAP
N53MoribHasnul BaharuddinAMANAH
P113 Sepang N54Tanjong SepatBorhan Aman ShahPKR
N56Sungai PelekRonnie Liu Tian KhiewDAP
 Negeri Sembilan P126 JelebuN1ChennahAnthony Loke Siew FookDAP
N4KelawangBakri SawirAMANAH
P127 Jempol N8BahauTeo Kok SeongDAP
P128 Seremban N9LenggengSuhaimi KassimAMANAH
N10NilaiArul Kumar JambunathanDAP
N11LobakChew Seh YongDAP
N12TemiangNg Chin TsaiDAP
N13SikamatAminuddin HarunPKR
N14AmpanganMohamad Rafie Ab. MalekPKR
P129 Kuala Pilah N18PilahMohamad Nazaruddin SabtuPKR
P130 Rasah N20LabuIsmail AhmadPKR
N21Bukit KepayangNicole Tan Lee KoonDAP
N22RahangMary Josephine Pritam SinghDAP
N23MambauYap Yew WengDAP
N24Seremban JayaGunasekaren PalasamyDAP
P131 Rembau N25ParoiMohd Taufek Abd GhaniAMANAH
P132 Port Dickson N29ChuahYek Diew ChingPKR
N30LukutChoo Ken HwaDAP
N33Sri TanjungRavi MunusamyPKR
P133 Tampin N36RepahVeerapan SuperamaniamDAP
 Malacca P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N16Ayer KerohKerk Chee YeeDAP
N17Bukit KatilAdly ZahariAMANAH
P138 Kota Melaka N19KesidangSeah Shoo ChinDAP
N20Kota LaksamanaLow Chee LeongDAP
N22Bandar HilirLeng Chau YenDAP
 Johor P140 SegamatN2JementahNg Kor SimDAP
P144 Ledang N10TangkakEe Chin LiDAP
P145 Bakri N12BentayanNg Yak HoweDAP
N13Simpang JeramSalahuddin AyubAMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat N23PenggaramGan Peck ChengDAP
P152 Kluang N28MengkibolChew Chong SinDAP
P158 Tebrau N41Puteri WangsaAmira AisyaMUDA
P159 Pasir Gudang N42Johor JayaLiow Cai TungDAP
P160 Johor Bahru N45StulangChen Kah EngDAP
P161 Pulai N46PerlingLiew Chin TongDAP
P162 Iskandar Puteri N48SkudaiMarina IbrahimDAP
P163 Kulai N51Bukit BatuArthur Chiong Sen SernPKR
N52SenaiWong Bor YangDAP
 Sabah P169 Kota Belud N11KadamaianEwon BenedickUPKO
P171 Sepanggar N18InanamPeto GalimPKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) N19LikasTan Lee FattDAP
N20Api-ApiChristina LiewPKR
N21LuyangPhoong Jin ZheDAP
P174 Penampang N25KapayanJannie LasimbangDAP
P186 Sandakan N56Tanjong PapatFrankie PoonDAP
 Sarawak P195 Bandar Kuching N09PadunganChong Chieng JenDAP
N10PendingViolet Yong Wui WuiDAP
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (10), Penang (33), Perak (24), Pahang (8), Selangor (40), Negeri Sembilan (20), Malacca (5), Johor (13), Sabah (7), Sarawak (2)

Pakatan Harapan state governments

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri SembilanMenteri BesarAminuddin HarunPKRSikamat
 PenangChief MinisterChow Kon YeowDAPPadang Kota
 SelangorMenteri BesarAmirudin ShariPKRSungai Tua

Pakatan Harapan also forms the state governments of Pahang, Perak and Melaka in coalition with Barisan Nasional, and the state government of Sabah in coalition with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, following the formation of the federal unity government (Kerajaan Perpaduan) in the aftermath of the 15th general election of November 2022.

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 PenangDeputy Chief Minister IAhmad Zakiyuddin Abdul RahmanPKRPinang Tunggal
 PenangDeputy Chief Minister IIRamasamy PalanisamyDAPPerai
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri SembilanSpeakerZulkefly Mohamad OmarAMANAHNon-MLA
 Negeri SembilanDeputy SpeakerRavi MunusamyPKRSri Tanjung
 PahangDeputy SpeakerLee Chin ChenDAPBilut
 PenangSpeakerLaw Choo KiangPKRNon-MLA
 PenangDeputy SpeakerAmar Pritpal AbdullahPKRSungai Bakap
 PerakDeputy SpeakerJenny Choy Tsi JenDAPCanning
 SelangorSpeakerNg Suee LimDAPSekinchan
 SelangorDeputy SpeakerHasnul BaharuddinAMANAHMorib

Ministerial posts

Portfolio Office bearer Party Constituency
Prime Minister and

Minister of Finance

Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim MP PH (PKR) Tambun
Minister of Economy Mohd. Rafizi Ramli MP PH (PKR) Pandan
Minister of Home Affairs Dato' Seri Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PH (PKR) Senator
Minister of Education Fadhlina Sidek MP PH (PKR) Nibong Tebal
Minister of Transport Anthony Loke Siew Fook MP PH (DAP) Seremban
Minister of Agriculture and Food Security Mohamad Sabu MP PH (AMANAH) Kota Raja
Minister of Health Dr. Zaliha Mustafa MP PH (PKR) Sekijang
Minister of Local Government Development Nga Kor Ming MP PH (DAP) Teluk Intan
Minister of Youth and Sports Hannah Yeoh Tseow Tsuan MP PH (DAP) Segambut
Minister of Human Resources Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu MP PH (DAP) Batu Gajah
Minister of Domestic Trade and Living Costs Dato' Seri Salahuddin Ayub MP PH (AMANAH) Pulai
Minister of Entrepreneurship Development and Cooperative Datuk Ewon Benedick MP MLA PH (UPKO) Penampang
Minister of Science and Technology Chang Lih Kang MP PH (PKR) Tanjong Malim
Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad MP PH (PKR) Setiawangsa
Minister of Digital Communication Ahmad Fahmi Mohamed Fadzil MP PH (PKR) Lembah Pantai

General election results

Election Total seats won Seats contesed Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
122 / 222
222 5,615,822 45.56% 53 seats; Governing coalition (2018–2020)
later Opposition coalition (2020–2022)
Mahathir Mohamad
82 / 222
220 5,801,327 37.46% 41 seats; Governing coalition with Barisan Nasional, Gabungan Parti Sarawak and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Anwar Ibrahim

State election results

State electionState Legislative Assembly
PerlisKedahKelantanTerengganuPenangPerakPahangSelangorNegeri SembilanMalaccaJohorSabahSarawakTotal won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
10 / 82
3 / 15
18 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
37 / 40
29 / 59
9 / 42
51 / 56
20 / 36
15 / 28
36 / 56
29 / 60
241 / 587
32 / 73
5 / 28
5 / 28
2 / 82
2 / 62
12 / 56
12 / 50
1 / 15
24 / 59
8 / 42
33 / 115
0 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
0 / 40
0 / 56
0 / 36

See also


  1. The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.


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