Abdullah of Pahang

Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta'in Billah (Jawi: السلطان عبدﷲ رعاية الدين المصطفى بالله شاه الحاج ابن المرحوم سلطان حاج أحمد شاه المستعين بالله; listen ; born 30 July 1959) has reigned as the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia and the 6th Sultan of Pahang since January 2019. He was proclaimed as sultan on 15 January 2019, succeeding his father, Sultan Ahmad Shah, whose abdication was decided at a Royal Council meeting on 11 January 2019.[3]

Abdullah
عبدﷲ
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Reign31 January 2019 – present
Installation30 July 2019
PredecessorMuhammad V
DeputyNazrin Shah
Prime Ministers
See list
Sultan of Pahang
Reign11 January 2019 – present
Proclamation15 January 2019
PredecessorAhmad Shah
Heir apparentTengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah
Chief MinisterWan Rosdy Wan Ismail
Personal Life
Born (1959-07-30) 30 July 1959
Istana Mangga Tunggal, Pekan, Pahang, Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia)
Spouse
Issue
  • Tengku Amir Nasser Ibrahim (adopted)
  • Tengku Ahmad Iskandar Shah (deceased)
  • Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah
  • Tengku Muhammad Iskandar Ri’ayatuddin Shah
  • Tengku Ahmad Ismail Mu’adzam Shah
  • Tengku Puteri Afzan Aminah Hafidzatullah
  • Tengku Puteri Jihan Azizah Athiyatullah
  • Tengku Puteri Iman Afzan
  • Tengku Puteri Ilisha Ameera
  • Tengku Puteri Ilyana
Names
Tengku Abdullah ibni Tengku Ahmad Shah
Regnal name
Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta'in Billah [fn 1]
HouseBendahara
FatherSultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mu’azzam Shah
MotherTengku Ampuan Hajah Afzan Rahimahallah binti Almarhum Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku Muhammad
ReligionSunni Islam
Signature
Education
Military career
Allegiance Malaysia
Service/branch Malaysian Army
Years of service1978–present
Rank Field marshal
Unit
Abdullah of Pahang
Medal record
Polo
Representing  Malaysia
SEA Games
1983 SingaporeMen's tournament[2]

On 24 January 2019, days after his accession to the throne of Pahang, he was elected as the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, of Malaysia,[4] and was sworn in on 31 January 2019. He was also a member of the FIFA Council from 2015 to 2019.[5] Abdullah had considerable involvement in the 2020–22 Malaysian political crisis.[6]

Early life

Tengku Abdullah was born on 30 July 1959 at Istana Mangga Tunggal, Pekan, Pahang. He is the first son of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang and Tengku Ampuan Afzan. He is the fourth child among eight siblings. His eldest sibling is Tengku Meriam.[7][8]

Tengku Abdullah received his early education in Clifford School, Kuala Lipis in 1965. He continued his primary education in Sekolah Kebangsaan Ahmad, Pekan from 1966 to 1969 and St. Thomas Primary School and his secondary education in St. Thomas Secondary School from 1970 to 1974, both located in Kuantan. He went to Aldenham School, Elstree, Hertfordshire, UK – Advance School from 1975 to 1977. He also attended The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, United Kingdom from 1978 to 1979 as well as Worcester College Oxford and Queen Elizabeth College, United Kingdom from 1980 to 1981 graduating with a Diploma in International Relations and Diplomacy.[7]

Tengku Mahkota and Regent of Pahang

Abdullah was appointed as the Tengku Mahkota, the crown prince of Pahang on 1 July 1975. He was formally installed on 23 October 1977 at Istana Abu Bakar, Pekan.[7]

He was also appointed as the Regent of Pahang twice. The first time was when his father was elected as the seventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong, where he became Regent for five years, starting from 28 April 1979 until 25 April 1984. When his father's health deteriorated in 2016, Abdullah served again as the Regent from 28 December 2016 until he ascended the throne and became the Sultan of Pahang in 2019.[7]

Sultan of Pahang

On 15 January 2019, at the age of 59, Abdullah was proclaimed as the sixth Sultan of modern Pahang upon the abdication of his father due to ill health. The ceremony took place at Istana Abu Bakar, the official residence of the Sultan of Pahang. His reign was declared retroactively began on 11 January 2019, the day the Regency Council decided his succession.[3][9]

Upon his accession to throne of Pahang, Abdullah took the regnal title "Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah".[10] His royal consort, Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah Binti Almarhum Sultan Iskandar, the Tengku Puan (Crown Princess) of Pahang was proclaimed as the Tengku Ampuan (Queen consort) of Pahang on 29 January 2019.[11]

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

On 24 January 2019 Thursday, the Conference of Rulers elected Sultan Abdullah as the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia to replace Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan who abdicated weeks earlier.[4] Sultan Abdullah was sworn in as the 16th King of Malaysia on 31 January 2019 in a public ceremony as he officially took up the residency of the Istana Negara, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim.[12] The Conference of Rulers also elected Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah of Perak as the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong.[4]

Regarding the regency of Pahang throughout Sultan Abdullah's tenure as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the duty of ruling the state was handed to Sultan Abdullah's son, Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah, who was proclaimed as the Tengku Mahkota and Regent of Pahang on 29 January 2019.[11]

On the date of appointment, Tengku Hassanal was still pursuing his studies at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, United Kingdom. He was assisted in carrying out his duties by the Majlis Jumaah Pangkuan Diraja Negeri Pahang ('Pahang Council of Regency') led by Sultan Abdullah's eldest younger brother who is also Tengku Hassanal's uncle, Tengku Abdul Rahman Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, from 15 February 2019 until his graduation on 15 December 2019.[13]

Sultan Abdullah ceremonial installation as King took place at the Throne Hall of the Istana Negara on 30 July 2019, seven months after his assumption of the throne[14] on his 60th birthday.

The installation on 30 July 2019 has yet another historical significance because Sultan Abdullah and the Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah, are the children of sultans who had been previously elected as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

He holds the rank of Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force in his full constitutional duties as Commander-in-Chief of the Malaysian Armed Forces as well as the ranks of Field Marshal of the Malaysian Army and Admiral of the Fleet of the Royal Malaysian Navy, in addition, he is the current Colonel-in-chief of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, having taken over the duties since his assumption to the throne, previously he acted as his father's representative to RMAF events and ceremonies twice in his capacity as Regent.

He is the chancellor of MARA University of Technology (UiTM), National Defence University of Malaysia (UPNM) and University of Kuala Lumpur (UniKL).[15][16]

Events during Kingship

As Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Sultan Abdullah reigned during a politically unstable period of Malaysian history. His reign witnessed the fall of the Pakatan Harapan administration of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad after the Sheraton Move incident on 21 February 2020, which eventually led to Mahathir's resignation on 24 February 2020. To maintain political stability until the decision to appoint a new Prime Minister had been made, Sultan Abdullah asked Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to serve as Interim Prime Minister until 1 March 2020 when Muhyiddin Yassin was chosen as the new Prime Minister to succeed Tun Mahathir.

On 25 October 2020, Sultan Abdullah rejected Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin's request for him to declare a state of emergency in response to a spike in COVID-19 cases throughout Malaysia.[17] On 12 January 2021, Sultan Abdullah issued a nationwide Proclamation of Emergency until 1 August to address the ongoing spread of COVID-19 and a political crisis involving Muhyiddin Yassin's Perikatan Nasional government. Under this Proclamation of Emergency, parliament and elections will be suspended while the Malaysian Government will be empowered to introduce laws without Parliamentary scrutiny and oversight.[18][19] The decision on the new administrative policies changes and the government's mismanagement in handling the COVID-19 growing cases in Malaysia provoked widespread anger among Malaysians.[20][21][22] On July 31, 2021, hundreds of protesters gathered in Kuala Lumpur calling for Muhyiddin's resignation over his government's response to the pandemic.[23][24]

On 8 July 2021, UMNO withdrew support for Muhyiddin and called for his resignation in July 2021. As a response to the call for him to resign, Muhyiddin Yassin submitted a motion of confidence to Sultan Abdullah on 4 August 2021 stating that he still had the majority support within the lower house of parliament Dewan Rakyat.[25][26]

On 15 August 2021, Muhyiddin and his cabinet submitted their resignation to Sultan Abdullah on Monday, 16 August 2021.[27] Sultan Abdullah then decided to appoint the Deputy Prime Minister, Ismail Sabri as the 9th Prime Minister of Malaysia after he had commanded the confidence of the majority in Parliament, with a total of 114 from 220 members of the Dewan Rakyat nominating him in accordance with Article 40(2)(a) and Article 43(2)(a) of the Federal Constitution. He was formally sworn in as Prime Minister at the Istana Negara on 21 August 2021.[28]

On 10 October 2022, following days of speculation over the potential dissolution of the Malaysian parliament, it was announced that Sultan Abdullah, as per the Federal Constitution, had approved Ismail Sabri's request to dissolve parliament,[29] thereby paving the way for Malaysia's 15th general election. The election produced Malaysia's first ever hung parliament.[30] With neither the opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim nor the former Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin winning the simple majority needed to form a government, the decision on who would be the next Prime Minister fell to the King.[31] Abdullah would eventually name Anwar Ibrahim as Malaysia's 10th Prime Minister, and the 4th Prime Minister of his reign,[32] making Abdullah the Yang di-Pertuan Agong who had presided over the most number of tenures of Malaysian Prime Ministers since independence. Sultan Abdullah is also the King who has appointed the most prime ministers since Malaysia's independence, with incumbent, Anwar, being the third consecutive prime minister appointed by Abdullah.

Military career

Tengku Abdullah began his military career at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, the United Kingdom in 1978 as Officer Cadet. There, he became good friend with Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, who would later become the President of the United Arab Emirates and Ruler of Abu Dhabi and Zulkiple Kassim, his senior and later became the Chief of Army.[33][34] He was commissioned as Second lieutenant by Queen Elizabeth II in 1979. In 1980, he was promoted to captain and served as cavalry officer in the Royal Armoured Corps.[35] In 1987, he was promoted to Major, the Royal Armoured Corps.[36]

In 1999, he was assigned to the Territorial Army Regiment (Malay: Rejimen Askar Wataniah) and in the same time was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and one year later, in 2000, he was promoted again to Colonel.[36]

Tengku Abdullah was then promoted to Brigadier general in 2004.[36]

Sport career

Tengku Abdullah is also active in sports. Amongst his favourite sports are polo, football and hockey. He participates in local as well as international tournaments. He led the Pahang Royal Polo team in an international tournament at the Windsor Polo Club, England. He has also participated in tournaments in Singapore, the Philippines, Brunei, Argentina, the United States, Spain, Belgium and Thalland. His prowess in polo gave him a gold medal at the 12th SEA Games Singapore in 1983.[37]

He is a vice-president of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) executive committee and president of the Asian Hockey Federation. He is also the Honorary Member of International Hockey Federation (FIH).

Family

Abdullah with his consort, Tunku Azizah in 2019

His first marriage was to Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah binti Almarhum Al-Mutawakkil Alallah Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj, at the Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque, Johor Bahru, on 6 March 1986. She is the third daughter of Sultan Iskandar of Johor by his first wife, Enche' Besar Kalsom binti Abdullah (née Josephine Ruby Trevorrow). Azizah has now thus been titled Tengku Ampuan Pahang (Queen Consort of Pahang) in addition to her Johor title of Paduka Puteri in 1986. She is the younger sister of the current Sultan of Johor, Sultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar. They have four sons and two daughters together.

His second marriage was in 1991 to Julia Rais (born at Kota Bharu, Kelantan, (1971-02-19) 19 February 1971, a former actress and daughter of Abdul Rais, in a private ceremony at Fraser's Hill in 1991.[38] They have three daughters together.

Sons

  • Tengku Ahmad Iskandar Shah, born and died on 24 July 1990(1990-07-24) (aged 0), son of Tunku Azizah
  • Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah, the Crown Prince and Regent of Pahang, (Tengku Hassanal) born at Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan on (1995-09-17) 17 September 1995, son of Tunku Azizah
  • Tengku Muhammad Iskandar Riayatuddin Shah, the Tengku Arif Bendahara (Tengku Muhammad), born on (1997-08-03) 3 August 1997, son of Tunku Azizah
  • Tengku Ahmad Ismail Muadzam Shah, the Tengku Panglima Perang (Tengku Ahmad), born on (2000-09-11) 11 September 2000, a twin with his sister Tengku Puteri Afzan Aminah. He is a son of Tunku Azizah

Daughters

  • Tengku Puteri Iman Afzan, daughter of Julia Abdul Rais (born on (1992-11-11) 11 November 1992 at Pantai Hospital Kuala Lumpur. On 24 August 2018, she married Tengku Abu Bakar Ahmad Bin Almarhum Tengku Arif Bendahara Tengku Abdullah. The couple's first child, a son named Tengku Zayn Edin Shah, was born on 23 July 2019. The couple's second child, a daughter named Tengku Aleya Norlini, was born on 2 February 2022
  • Tengku Puteri Ilisha Ameera, daughter of Julia Abdul Rais (born on (1993-10-01) 1 October 1993 Pantai Hospital Kuala Lumpur
  • Tengku Puteri Ilyana, daughter of Julia Abdul Rais, (born on (1997-04-20) 20 April 1997 at Gleneagles Hospital Kuala Lumpur
  • Tengku Puteri Afzan Aminah Hafidzatu’llah (Tengku Afzan), born on (2000-09-11) 11 September 2000, twin with her brother Tengku Ahmad, daughter of Tunku Azizah
  • Tengku Puteri Jihan Azizah Athiyatullah (Tengku Jihan), born on (2002-04-27) 27 April 2002, daughter of Tunku Azizah

Adoptive son

Abdullah also adopted a son before the birth of his own:

  • Tengku Amir Nasser Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Tengku Arif Bendahara Ibrahim, the Tengku Panglima Raja (shortly Tengku Amir), adopted in 1987. He was born on (1986-08-25) 25 August 1986 as the youngest son of the late Tengku Arif Bendahara Ibrahim and his third wife, Czarina binti Abdullah.

Tengku Amir Nasser Ibrahim and Puteri Suraiya Afzan Binti Mohamed Moiz married on 19 December 2013. The couple's first child, a son named Tengku Adam Ibrahim Shah, was born on 27 December 2015. Their second child, a son named Tengku Sulaiman Abdullah Shah, was born 25 June 2018. Their third child, a son named Tengku Nuh Muhammad Shah was born on 31 January 2022.

Styles, titles and honours

Styles of
Al-Sultan Abdullah
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleTuanku

Styles and titles

  • 30 July 1959 – 8 May 1974: His Highness Tengku Abdullah Ibni Tengku Ahmad Shah
  • 8 May 1974 – 1 July 1975: His Highness Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah
  • 1 July 1975 – 28 April 1979: His Royal Highness Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, Crown Prince of Pahang
  • 28 April 1979 – 25 April 1984: His Royal Highness Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, Crown Prince and Regent of Pahang
  • 25 April 1984 – 28 December 2016: His Royal Highness Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, Crown Prince of Pahang
  • 28 December 2016 – 11 January 2019: His Royal Highness Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, Crown Prince and Regent of Pahang
  • 11 January 2019 – 15 January 2019: His Royal Highness Sultan Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, Sultan of Pahang
  • 15 January 2019 – 31 January 2019: His Royal Highness Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, Sultan of Pahang
  • 31 January 2019 - 22 May 2019: His Majesty Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al Mustafa Billah Shah Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, The 16th Yang Di-Pertuan Agong
  • 22 May 2019 – present: His Majesty Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al Mustafa Billah Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, The 16th Yang Di-Pertuan Agong

His current official regnal name is His Majesty The Yang Di-Pertuan Agong XVI Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, D.K.P., D.K.M, D.K., D.M.N. , S.S.A.P., S.I.M.P., D.K.(Terengganu)., D.K.(Johor)., S.P.M.J., D.K.M.B.(Brunei)., D.K.(Kedah)., D.K.(Perlis)., D.K.(Perak)., D.K (Selangor).

Military ranks

Malaysia

Awards and recognitions

He has been awarded :

Honours of Pahang

  •  Pahang :
    • Grand Master and Member of the Royal Family Order of Pahang (DKP)
    • Grand Master and Member 1st class of the Family Order of the Crown of Indra of Pahang (DK I)
    • Grand Master and Grand Knight of the Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang (SSAP, 24 October 1980)
    • Grand Master and Grand Knight of the Order of the Crown of Pahang (SIMP)

Malaysia and its other states

  •  Malaysia:
    • Recipient (DKM, 11 July 2019) and Grand Master of the Order of the Royal Family of Malaysia (31 January 2019)[40]
    • Recipient (DMN, 14 February 2019) and Grand Master of the Order of the Crown of the Realm (31 January 2019)[41]
    • Grand Master of the Order of the Defender of the Realm (31 January 2019)
    • Grand Master of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia (31 January 2019)
    • Grand Master of the Order of Merit of Malaysia (31 January 2019)
    • Grand Master of the Order of Meritorious Service (31 January 2019)
    • Grand Master of the Order of Loyalty to the Royal Family of Malaysia (31 January 2019)
    • Warrior of the Order of Military Service of Malaysia (PAT)
  •  Terengganu :
    • Member first class of the Family Order of Terengganu (DK I)
  •  Johor :
  •  Kedah :
    • Member of the Royal Family Order of Kedah (DK, 5 September 2019)
  •  Perlis :
    • Member of the Perlis Family Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail (DK, 28 October 2019)[42]
  •  Perak :
    • Recipient of the Royal Family Order of Perak (DK, 28 November 2019)[43]
  •  Selangor :
    • First Class of the Royal Family Order of Selangor (DK I, 11 December 2020)[44][45]

Foreign honours

Honorary degrees

Places named after him

Several places were named after him, including:

  • Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah Mosque in Jengka, Pahang
  • Hospital Al-Sultan Abdullah Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Puncak Alam, Selangor
  • Al-Sultan Abdullah Camp of the Joint Forces Headquarters in Kuantan, Pahang
  • Al-Sultan Abdullah Foundation Hemodialysis Cantres in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur; Setiawangsa, Kuala Lumpur; Taman Melati, Kuala Lumpur and Pekan, Pahang
  • Al-Sultan Abdullah Mosque in Masjid Tanah, Malacca
  • Tengku Mahkota Abdullah Mosque in Jerantut, Pahang
  • Tengku Mahkota Abdullah Mosque in Rompin, Pahang
  • Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Mosque in Balok, Pahang
  • Tengku Abdullah Science School (SEMESTA Raub), a secondary school in Raub, Pahang

Ancestry

Notes

  1. The meaning of his regnal name is "Sultan Abdullah as the protector of Islam who is chosen by Allah".[1]

References

  1. Bernama (15 January 2019). "Sultan of Pahang officially addressed as Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah". Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  2. "Raja Permaisuri Agong bercerita tentang pingat emas YDP Agong" [Raja Permaisuri Agong bercerita tentang pingat emas YDP Agong]. kosmo,com (in Malay). 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  3. "Tengku Abdullah to be proclaimed Pahang sultan on Jan 15". MalaysiaKini. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  4. "Sultan Pahang, Agong Malaysia ke-16" [Sultan Pahang, 16th Malaysia Agong]. Bernama,com (in Malay). 24 January 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  5. Bernama (20 February 2019). "We will miss you - Infantino thanks YDP Agong after FIFA Council exit". Stadium Astro. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  6. "Malaysia politics reflects growing influence of King Abdullah". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  7. "Biodata Pemangku Raja Pahang Tengku Abdullah Sultan Ahmad Shah". Berita Harian. 12 January 2019. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  8. "Former Pahang ruler Sultan Ahmad Shah dies at age 88". The Star (Malaysia). 23 May 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  9. Nadirah H. Rodzi (16 January 2019). "Sultan Abdullah takes oath as the sixth Sultan of Pahang". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  10. Bernama (15 January 2019). "Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah gelaran rasmi Sultan Pahang". Berita Harian. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  11. Amin Ridzuan Ishak; Raja Norain Hidayah Raja Abdul Aziz; Siti Insyirah Tajuddin (29 January 2019). "Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah dimasyhurkan Tengku Ampuan Pahang". Harian Metro. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  12. "Sultan Abdullah lafaz sumpah jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong ke 16" [Al-Sultan Abdullah affirmed the oath of office of the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong]. BH Online (in Malay). 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  13. Bernama (22 February 2019). "Sultan appoints Pahang council of regency, Tengku Muda as chairman". New Straits Times. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  14. Saraya Mia (28 June 2019). "30 Julai cuti am sempena pertabalan Agong" [30 July general leave in conjunction with the Agong rites]. Astro Awani (in Malay). Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  15. Bernama (19 March 2019). "King proclaimed chancellor of UiTM | New Straits Times". NST Online. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  16. Bernama (14 November 2019). "Agong proclaimed as UPNM Chancellor | New Straits Times". NST Online. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  17. "Malaysia's king rejects PM's push for COVID emergency rule". Al Jazeera. 25 October 2020. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  18. Ratcliffe, Rebecca (12 January 2021). "Malaysia declares Covid state of emergency amid political turmoil". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  19. "Malaysia's king declares state of emergency to curb spread of Covid-19". CNN. 12 January 2021. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  20. "#MuhyiddinOut paling trending selepas Covid-19 meningkat". 7 October 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  21. "Tamparan buat Kerajaan PN, Hashtag #KerajaanGagal Trending No 1 Di Twitter". 17 April 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  22. "#KerajaanGagal kembali trending". 2 May 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  23. "Hundreds take to Kuala Lumpur's streets in anti-gov't protest". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  24. "Malaysian protesters demand PM Muhyiddin's resignation". DW.COM. Deutsche Welle. 31 July 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  25. "'Muhyiddin fights back, claims he still possesses majority'". Kini Tv. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  26. "'Muhyiddin says he will not resign, to table motion of confidence in September'". The Star. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  27. Lee, Yen Nee (16 August 2021). "Malaysia's Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin and cabinet resign, palace confirms". CNBC. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  28. Palansamy, Yiswaree (20 August 2021). "Agong appoints Ismail Sabri as Malaysia's ninth prime minister | Malay Mail". www.malaymail.com. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  29. Teoh, Shannon (10 October 2021). "Malaysia's PM Ismail dissolves Parliament for snap elections; King 'disappointed' at political developments | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com/global. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  30. Gahagan, Jeremy (20 November 2022). "Malaysia elects first ever hung parliament". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  31. Latiff, Rozanna (23 November 2022). "Malaysia king to choose prime minister in post-election crisis". www.reuters.com/. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  32. Ng, Eileen (24 November 2022). "Malaysia King names reformist leader Anwar Ibrahim as Prime Minister". time.com/. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  33. "'Best friends' Tuanku rupanya..." Sinar harian (in Malay). 2 August 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  34. "Latihan ketenteraan gilap keperibadian Sultan Abdullah". Berita Harian (in Malay). 26 July 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  35. Mohd. Saiful Sahak (29 July 2019). "Anakanda kepada dua bekas Agong". Utusan (in Malay). Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  36. "Tengku Abdullah now a Brig-Jen". The Star Online. 12 May 2004. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  37. "Sukan polo dekat di hati Al-Sultan Abdullah". Astro Awani (in Malay). 9 July 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  38. "Tengku Mahkota of Pahang weds Julia Rais | KLiK".
  39. "Sultan Abdullah Dimasyhur Sultan Pahang Ke VI". Portal Rasmi Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia TUDM (in Malay). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  40. "Agong receives D.K.M award". Bernama.com. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  41. "Agong receives Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara award". Bernama.com. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  42. Bernama (28 October 2019). "Agong berkenan terima darjah kebesaran Perlis" (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  43. "Agong terima DK Perak". Berita Harian. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  44. "King heads Selangor Sultan's 75th birthday honours list". Bernama. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  45. "Agong terima Darjah Kerabat Selangor". Berita Harian (in Malay). 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  46. Bernama (19 August 2020). "Brunei Sultan confers nation's highest award on visiting Agong". New Straits Times. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  47. Bernama (7 October 2017). "Agong attends Sultan of Brunei's Golden Jubilee royal banquet". New Straits Times. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  48. "Agong conferred Turkiye's highest award by Erdogan". Bernama. 17 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  49. "Agong conferred honorary doctorate by Turkey's Marmara University". New Straits Times. 20 August 2022. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
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