2018 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Wednesday, 9 May 2018.[1] At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of parliament. The 13th Parliament was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.[2]

2018 Malaysian general election

9 May 2018 (2018-05-09)

All 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat
112 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Mahathir Mohamad Najib Razak Abdul Hadi Awang
Alliance Pakatan Harapan Barisan Nasional Gagasan Sejahtera
Last election 36.10%, 68 seats[lower-alpha 1] 47.38%, 133 seats 15.07%, 21 seats[lower-alpha 2]
Seats won 113 79 18
Seat change 45 54 3
Popular vote 5,518,638 4,080,797 2,041,186
Percentage 45.67% 33.77% 16.89%
Swing 9.57pp 13.61pp 1.83pp

  Fourth party Fifth party
Leader Shafie Apdal Jeffrey Kitingan
Party Warisan STAR
Alliance Pakatan Harapan United Sabah Alliance
Last election
Seats won 8 1
Seat change New New
Popular vote 280,520 67,175
Percentage 2.32% 0.56%
Swing New New

Prime Minister before election

Najib Razak

Elected Prime Minister

Mahathir Mohamad

In an unprecedented victory, the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, which had been the country's federal opposition prior to the elections, won a majority in the Dewan Rakyat together with the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN), with PH and WARISAN together winning 121 seats.[3][4] The elections marked the first time in Malaysia's history that the ruling party was voted out of power. The Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition had previously enjoyed an uninterrupted reign over the country since Malaya's independence in 1957, but this came to an end following the elections.[3][5] PH's leader, Mahathir Mohamad, who previously served as Malaysia's Prime Minister from 1981 to 2003, was sworn in for the second time on 10 May, a day after the elections. At 93 years of age, Mahathir was also the world's oldest elected head of government.[6] Barisan Nasional (BN), led by Najib, held onto 79 seats and became the new federal opposition, along with Gagasan Sejahtera (GS), which won 18 seats. The United Sabah Alliance (USA) won one seat, while three seats were won by independent politicians.[7][8] The elections were widely regarded as one of the greatest political upsets worldwide in 2018.[9]

In the simultaneous state elections held for 12 of the state legislative assemblies, PH retained Penang and Selangor with larger majorities, while gaining Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor, Kedah and Perak from BN. WARISAN also seized Sabah from BN, which retained only two states – Perlis and Pahang. GS held onto Kelantan while gaining Terengganu from BN. State-level elections were not held in Sarawak, as the state had held its elections separately in 2016. However, as a consequence of the elections, Sarawak-based BN component parties left the coalition to form Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS), thereby taking over the state from BN.[10]

Following the elections, Mahathir secured a royal pardon for the jailed PH leader, Anwar Ibrahim, and indicated that he would give way to the latter within the next few years.[11] Meanwhile, Najib resigned as BN's chairman on 12 May and was succeeded as Leader of the Opposition by his party colleague, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi.[12] Investigations within Malaysia into the 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) scandal, which had been halted during Najib's tenure, were resumed in the aftermath of the elections, resulting in several ongoing criminal indictments against the former Prime Minister.[13][14][15] However, PH only ruled for 22 months before being replaced by a new Government named Perikatan Nasional, a coalition led by Muhyiddin Yassin after BERSATU left the Pakatan Harapan coalition together with ex-PKR members to join with Barisan Nasional (BN), Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS) and again replaced back to Barisan Nasional led by Ismail Sabri Yaakob 17 months later.[16][17]


In the previous general elections in 2013, the incumbent Barisan Nasional government was re-elected for the thirteenth consecutive time, but with a decreased mandate and losing the majority vote. Barisan Nasional chairman, Najib Razak, was re-elected as Prime Minister to a second term. The main opposition, Pakatan Rakyat, led by Anwar Ibrahim, won the majority vote but was unable to win enough seats to form the government due to Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system and alleged gerrymandering. The elections marked the first time Barisan Nasional lost the majority vote in the party's history.

Electoral system

Elections in Malaysia exists at two levels: the federal level and the state level. Federal elections are held to elect members of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state elections are held to elect members of the 13 State Legislative Assemblies of Malaysia. The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers respectively, are indirectly elected, usually filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures

The Dewan Rakyat is made up of 222 members of parliament, elected for a five-year term; these seats are distributed between the thirteen Malaysian states in proportion to the states' voting population. Members are elected from single-member constituencies that each elects one representative to the Dewan Rakyat using the first-past-the-post voting system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition. Malaysia does not practice compulsory voting and automatic voter registration. The voting age is above 21[18][19] although the age of majority in the country is 18.[20]

The redistribution of electoral boundaries for the entire country had been presented to and passed by the Dewan Rakyat, and subsequently gazetted on 29 March 2018 after obtaining the royal consent of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ahead of the 14th general election.[21] Elections are conducted by the Election Commission of Malaysia (EC), which is under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister's Department.

Date and cost

The Constitution of Malaysia requires a general election to be held at the end of five (5) years from the date of the first Parliament of Malaysia proceeding after a general election unless it is dissolved earlier by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong due to a motion of no-confidence or at the request of the Prime Minister. Whenever Parliament (Dewan Rakyat) is dissolved, a general election shall be held within sixty (60) days from the date of the dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than one hundred and twenty (120) days from that date (Article 55 of the Constitution of Malaysia).[22]


The key dates are listed below in Malaysia Standard Time (GMT+8):

28 MarchPrime Minister Najib Razak tabled the Election Commission's redelineation report in the Dewan Rakyat[23]
6 AprilNajib Razak announced his intention to dissolve the Malaysian Parliament[24]
7 AprilFormal dissolution of Parliament[25]
10 AprilElection Commission chairman Hashim Abdullah announced that the general election would take place on 9 May 2018[1]
28 AprilNomination process of candidates for the general election begins, and the deadline (10am) for the delivery of candidate nomination papers[26][27]
28 AprilOfficial 11-day campaigning period begins[28]
5 MayEarly voting begins[29]
9 MayPolling day
10 MayInauguration of the new Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad at Istana Negara[30]


The cost to the taxpayer of organising the election was RM500 million – RM100 million more than the previous general election.[1]

Part of the spending was spent on indelible ink, which costed around RM4.8 million for a total of 100,000 bottles of 60mL ink imported from Mysore Paints and Varnish Limited in India.[31]

Election spending

Before the campaign, there were no limits to what a political party, candidate, or third party (corporations, unions, special interest groups, etc.) can spend: Spending rules are only in force after the writs have been dropped and the campaign has begun. Malaysian election law set election spending limit at RM200,000 for each parliamentary candidate and half of the latter for each state legislature candidate.[32]

Dissolution of state legislative assemblies

While any state may dissolve its assembly independently of the Federal Parliament, the traditional practice is for most state assemblies to be dissolved at the same time as Parliament. In accordance with Malaysian law, the parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of each state (Dewan Undangan Negeri) would automatically dissolve on the fifth anniversary of the first sitting, and elections must be held within sixty days of the dissolution, unless dissolved prior to that date by their respective Heads of State on the advice of their Heads of Government.

Below are the dates of which the legislative assembly of each state dissolved:

State legislatives
First legislative day Expected last legislative day Expected election day
(on or before)
Dissolution day
Kelantan13 June 201313 June 201813 August 2018 7 April 2018[33]
Terengganu16 June 201316 June 201816 August 2018 9 April 2018[34]
Negeri Sembilan17 June 201317 June 201817 August 2018 7 April 2018[35]
Johor20 June 201320 June 201820 August 2018 7 April 2018[36]
Selangor21 June 201321 June 201821 August 2018 9 April 2018[37]
Kedah23 June 201323 June 201823 August 2018 7 April 2018[33]
Perlis28 June 201328 June 201828 August 2018 7 April 2018[38]
Penang 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 10 April 2018[39]
Perak 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 9 April 2018[40]
Pahang1 July 20131 July 20181 September 2018 7 April 2018[33]
Malacca 1 July 2013 1 July 2018 1 September 2018 7 April 2018[41]
Sabah13 June 201313 June 201813 September 2018 7 April 2018[42]

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly was not dissolved as the last elections were held in 2016 and the term of the state assembly is due to end in 2021.

Parties and leaders

Altogether 53 parties were eligible to contest in the elections and get on the ballot and can therefore elect a representative in the Dewan Rakyat.[43] Furthermore, there are several independent candidates running in single-member constituencies.

The leader of the party commanding a majority of support in the Dewan Rakyat is the person who is called on by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to form a government as Prime Minister, while the leader of the largest party not in government becomes the Leader of the Opposition.

The table below lists parties which were represented in the 13th Dewan Rakyat.

Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
2013 result Seats in 13th
Dewan Rakyat
Votes (%) Seats
BN Barisan Nasional
National Front
National conservatism Najib Razak 222 47.38%
133 / 222
130 / 222
PH[lower-alpha 3] Pakatan Harapan
Alliance of Hope
Reformism / Progressivism Mahathir Mohamad 204 36.1%
67 / 222
72 / 222
GS Gagasan Sejahtera
Ideas of Prosperity
Islamic conservatism Abdul Hadi Awang 158 14.78%
21 / 222
13 / 222
WARISAN Parti Warisan Sabah
Sabah Heritage Party
Sabah Regionalism Mohd. Shafie Apdal 17 New Party
0 / 222
2 / 222
PSM Parti Sosialis Malaysia
Socialist Party of Malaysia
Democratic socialism Mohd. Nasir Hashim 4 0.19%
1 / 222
1 / 222
Independents 24
0 / 222
2 / 222

Last election pendulum

The previous General Election witnessed 133 governmental seats and 89 non-governmental seats filled the Dewan Rakyat. The government side had 44 safe seats and 34 fairly safe seats, while theopposition had 33 safe seats and 18 fairly safe seats.

Extended content
Mas GadingNogeh GumbekSPDP40.6
KeningauJoseph Pairin KitinganPBS43.8
PensianganJoseph KurupPBRS44.3
Kota MaruduMaximus Johnity OngkiliPBS45.9
Palanivel K. GovindasamyMIC46.2
TenomRaime UnggiUMNO46.7
BaramAnyi NgauSPDP48.9
RanauEwon EbinUPKO49.2
BentongLiow Tiong LaiMCA49.4
BeaufortAzizah Mohd DunUMNO49.4
LabisChua Tee YongMCA49.5
Sungai BesarNoriah KasnonUMNO49.6
Kuala SelangorIrmohizam IbrahimUMNO49.6
Pasir GudangNormala Abdul SamadUMNO49.6
Bagan SeraiNoor Azmi GhazaliUMNO49.7
Hulu SelangorKamalanathan PanchanathanMIC49.9
KeterehAnnuar MusaUMNO50.1
MachangAhmad Jazlan YaakubUMNO50.1
TebrauKhoo Soo SeangMCA50.1
Kota BeludAbdul Rahman DahlanUMNO50.1
JeraiJamil Khir BaharomUMNO50.2
SegamatSubramaniam SathasivamMIC50.3
Kuala KangsarWan Mohammad Khair-il Anuar
Wan Ahmad
ArauShahidan KassimUMNO50.6
BeraIsmail Sabri YaakobUMNO50.6
TitiwangsaJohari Abdul GhaniUMNO50.6
LedangHamim SamuriUMNO50.7
Tasek GelugorShabudin YahayaUMNO50.8
SetiawangsaAhmad Fauzi ZahariUMNO50.8
TuaranMadius TangauUPKO50.8
Bandar Baharu
Abd. Aziz Sheikh FadzirUMNO51.0
MuarRazali IbrahimUMNO51.0
PulaiNur Jazlan MohamedUMNO51.0
Balik PulauHilmi YahayaUMNO51.1
PendangOthman AbdulUMNO51.5
MerbokIsmail DautUMNO51.9
Bagan DatokAhmad Zahid HamidiUMNO52.1
Sabak BernamMohd Fasiah Mohd FakehUMNO52.1
BalingAbdul Azeez Abdul RahimUMNO52.5
SikMansor Abd RahmanUMNO52.6
SepanggarJumat IdrisUMNO52.6
SaratokWilliam IkomSPDP52.6
JerlunOthman AzizUMNO52.8
Tanjong MalimOng Ka ChuanMCA53.0
Tanah MerahIkmal Hisham Abdul AzizUMNO53.1
SekijangAnuar Abdul ManapUMNO53.2
JerantutAhmad Nazlan IdrisUMNO53.7
Kepala BatasReezal Merican Naina MericanUMNO53.8
Padang RengasMohamed Nazri Abdul AzizUMNO53.8
TawauMary Yap Kain ChingPBS53.8
KangarShaharuddin IsmailUMNO53.9
Sri AmanMasir KujatPRS54.4
Tanjong KarangNoh OmarUMNO54.5
Padang TerapMahdzir KhalidUMNO54.6
Lubok AntuWilliam Nyallau BadakPRS54.7
Tanjong PiaiWee Jeck SengMCA55.0
LipisAbdul Rahman MohamadUMNO55.1
TambunAhmad Husni HanadzlahUMNO55.3
LarutHamzah ZainudinUMNO55.6
Johor BahruShahrir Abdul SamadUMNO55.8
Fairly safe
Batu SapiLinda Tsen Thau LinPBS56.0
BesutIdris JusohUMNO56.1
SetiuChe Mohamad Zulkifly JusohUMNO56.1
TapahSaravanan MuruganMIC56.1
Sri GadingAziz KaprawiUMNO56.4
JeliMustapa MohamedUMNO56.5
Hulu TerengganuJailani JohariUMNO56.5
KemamanAhmad Shabery CheekUMNO56.9
ParitMohd Zaim Abu HassanUMNO56.9
JempolMohd Isa Abdul SamadUMNO56.9
Liang Teck MengGERAKAN57.0
Pasir SalakTajuddin Abdul RahmanUMNO57.4
Kuala KrauIsmail Mohamed SaidUMNO57.5
BintuluTiong King SingSPDP57.6
LenggongShamsul Anuar NasarahUMNO58.1
SelangauJoseph Entulu BelaunPRS58.1
SilamNasrun MansurUMNO58.2
JulauJoseph Salang GandumPRS58.3
Kubang PasuMohd Johari BaharumUMNO58.4
Paya BesarAbdul Manan IsmailUMNO58.4
JelebuZainuddin IsmailUMNO58.4
Ayer HitamWee Ka SiongMCA58.4
KanowitAaron Ago DagangPRS58.5
PutatanMarcus MojigohUPKO58.7
MaranIsmail MuttalibUMNO59.1
Alor GajahKoh Nai KwongMCA59.2
JasinAhmad HamzahUMNO59.5
KimanisAnifah AmanUMNO59.5
Padang BesarZahidi Zainul AbidinUMNO59.6
KudatAbdul Rahim BakriUMNO60.2
TampinShaziman Abu MansorUMNO60.4
GerikHasbullah OsmanUMNO60.6
Parit SulongNoraini AhmadUMNO60.9
Gua MusangTengku Razaleigh HamzahUMNO61.0
Kuala PilahHasan MalekUMNO61.0
LibaranJuslie AjirolUMNO61.2
Tangga BatuAbu Bakar Mohamad DiahUMNO61.4
Hulu RajangUgak KumbongPRS61.8
RembauKhairy JamaluddinUMNO62.1
MambongJames Dawos MamitPBB62.8
SembrongHishammuddin HusseinUMNO63.7
SibutiAhmad Lai BujangUMNO63.8
PaparRosnah Abdul Rashid ShirlinUMNO63.9
KalabakanAbdul Ghapur SallehUMNO64.0
PagohMuhyiddin YassinUMNO64.8
PontianAhmad MaslanUMNO65.0
RompinJamaluddin JarjisUMNO65.5
LabuanRozman IsliUMNO65.6
KinabatanganBung Moktar RadinUMNO67.0
LangkawiNawawi AhmadUMNO67.2
SipitangSapawi AhmadUMNO67.3
PutrajayaTengku Adnan Tengku MansorUMNO69.0
Masjid TanahMas Ermieyati SamsudinUMNO69.7
BeluranRonald KiandeeUMNO69.7
MersingAbdul Latiff AhmadUMNO70.2
LawasHenry Sum AgongPBB70.6
LimbangHasbi HabibollahPBB72.8
SerianRichard Riot JaemSUPP73.5
TenggaraHalimah Mohamed SadiqueUMNO73.7
PekanNajib RazakUMNO75.2
Batang LuparRohani Abdul KarimPBB75.4
MukahLeo Michael ToyadPBB75.5
BetongDouglas Uggah EmbasPBB75.9
Kota SamarahanRubiah WangPBB76.8
KapitAlexander Nanta LinggiPBB77.1
Petra JayaFadillah YusofPBB77.8
SempornaMohd Shafie ApdalUMNO81.1
PengerangAzalina Othman SaidUMNO81.9
Kota TinggiNoor Ehsanuddin
Mohd Harun Narrashid
SantubongWan Junaidi Tuanku JaafarPBB84.4
Batang SadongNancy ShukriPBB85.5
IganWahab DolahPBB85.8
Tanjong ManisNorah Abdul RahmanPBB87.4
Alor SetarGooi Hsiao-LeungPKR47.4
SepangMohamed Hanipa MaidinPAS49.1
BachokAhmad Marzuk ShaaryPAS49.5
Kuala NerusMohd Khairuddin Aman RazaliPAS49.9
Telok KemangKamarul Bahrin AbbasPKR49.9
TemerlohNasrudin HassanPAS50.1
Batu PahatMohd Idris JusiPKR50.1
Bukit GantangIdris AhmadPAS50.2
SarikeiWong Ling BiuDAP50.4
Pasir PutehNik Mazian Nik MohamadPAS50.8
Lembah PantaiNurul Izzah AnwarPKR51.0
SandakanWong Tien FattDAP51.0
MiriMichael Teo Yu KengPKR51.0
Kuala KraiMohd Hatta RamliPAS51.2
GombakMohamed Azmin AliPKR51.4
DungunWan Hassan Mohd RamliPAS51.9
Sungai SiputMichael Jeyakumar DevarajPKR51.9
RaubAriff Sabri Abdul AzizDAP52.1
SibuOscar Ling Chai YewDAP52.1
Pokok SenaMahfuz OmarPAS52.2
Kuala LangatAbdullah Sani Abdul HamidPKR52.2
SerembanLoke Siew FookDAP52.2
Kuala KedahAzman IsmailPKR52.3
MarangAbdul Hadi AwangPAS52.6
Bukit KatilShamsul Iskandar Md. AkinPKR52.6
Padang SeraiSurendran NagarajanPKR53.0
BakriEr Teck HwaDAP53.4
KluangLiew Chin TongDAP54.0
KuantanFuziah SallehPKR54.1
Wangsa MajuTan Kee KwongPKR54.4
Sungai PetaniJohari AbdulPKR54.7
KamparKo Chung SenDAP54.7
LumutMohamad Imran Abdul HamidPKR54.8
KaparManivannan GowindasamyPKR55.1
BeruasNgeh Koo HamDAP55.5
Shah AlamKhalid SamadPAS55.7
TumpatKamarudin JaffarPAS55.8
Pasir MasNik Mohamad Abduh Nik Abdul AzizPAS55.8
Fairly safe
Kuala TerengganuRaja Kamarul Bahrin ShahPAS56.0
Indera MahkotaFauzi Abdul RahmanPKR56.1
Telok IntanSeah Leong PengDAP56.3
Bandar Tun RazakAbdul Khalid IbrahimPKR56.4
SelayangWilliam Leong Jee KeenPKR56.7
Rantau PanjangSiti Zailah Mohd YusoffPAS56.9
Nibong TebalMansor OthmanPKR57.1
Hulu LangatChe Rosli Che MatPAS57.1
Gelang PatahLim Kit SiangDAP57.2
BatuChua Tian ChangPKR57.9
KulaiTeo Nie ChingDAP57.9
TaipingNga Kor MingDAP58.5
GopengLee Boon ChyePKR58.5
Permatang PauhWan Azizah Wan IsmailPKR58.6
AmpangZuraida KamarudinPKR58.8
SubangSivarasa K. RasiahPKR58.8
Parit BuntarMujahid Yusof RawaPAS58.9
LanangAlice Lau Kiong YiengDAP59.3
Kota BharuTakiyuddin HassanPAS61.5
PenampangIgnatius Dorell LeikingPKR61.8
Kota MelakaSim Tong HimDAP62.3
Petaling Jaya
Hee Loy SianPKR63.0
Pengkalan ChepaIzani HusinPAS63.2
Bayan BaruSim Tze TzinPKR63.4
StampinJulian Tan Kok PingDAP63.7
KlangCharles Anthony R. SantiagoDAP63.9
Kota RajaSiti Mariah MahmudPAS63.9
SegambutLim Lip EngDAP64.6
Kubang KerianAhmad Baihaki AtiqullahPAS64.7
RasahTeo Kok SeongDAP65.1
Kelana JayaWong ChenPKR65.8
PandanRafizi RamliPKR65.9
PuchongGobind Singh DeoDAP66.7
SerdangOng Kian MingDAP67.1
JelutongJeff Ooi Chuan AunDAP70.3
Ipoh BaratKulasegaran MurugesonDAP72.2
Kota KinabaluWong Sze PhinDAP72.2
Bukit BintangFong Kui LunDAP72.8
Batu KawanKasthuriraani PattoDAP73.1
Bandar KuchingChong Chieng JenDAP73.8
Ipoh TimorSu Keong SiongDAP75.5
Batu GajahSivakumar Varatharaju NaiduDAP76.7
Bukit BenderaZairil Khir JohariDAP77.2
BaganLim Guan EngDAP77.8
Bukit GelugorKarpal Singh Ram SinghDAP80.1
Bukit MertajamSteven Sim Chee KiongDAP80.5
CherasTan Kok WaiDAP81.2
Petaling Jaya
Tony Pua Kiam WeeDAP81.3
KepongTan Seng GiawDAP81.8
TanjongNg Wei AikDAP82.8
SeputehTeresa Kok Suh SimDAP85.7

Opinion polls

Date Pollster Sample BN PH GS Others Lead
May 2018Merdeka Center1,57937.3%43.4%19.3%-6.1%
April 2018Merdeka Center1,206 40.3%43.7%16%-3.4%
January 2017IM104,34027%41%21%14% (Und.)14%
26-30 Aug 2016IDE31,341 29%59%12%-30%
5 May 2013General election11,257,14747.38%50.87%15.1%-1.32%

Note also that in the 2013 general election, the current component parties of Pakatan Harapan and Gagasan Sejahtera were competing together under an informal coalition, Pakatan Rakyat. In 2015, disagreements between those component parties over the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and their desire to implement hudud law prompted a split, with PAS leaving to form the Gagasan Sejahtera coalition. The remaining parties in Pakatan Rakyat, together with PAS splinter party Amanah and former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's PPBM, formed the Pakatan Harapan coalition. Hence, while Pakatan Rakyat won the popular vote in 2013, the component parties forming Pakatan Harapan did not.

  1. ^ - Survey presented findings of Peninsular Malaysia respondents only.
  2. ^ - Survey presented findings of Selangor respondents only

Politicians not standing

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election

MP Seat First elected Party Reason Ref
Shaharuddin Ismail Kangar 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [44]
Gooi Hsiao-Leung Alor Setar 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Bukit Tengah state seat [45]
Ismail Daut Merbok 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [46]
N. Surendran Padang Serai 2013 People's Justice Party Dropped by party [47]
Izani Husin Pengkalan Chepa 2013 Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Transferred to Kijang state seat [48]
Ahmad Baihaki Atiqullah Kubang Kerian 2013 Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Dropped by party [48]
Nik Mazian Nik Mohamad Pasir Putih 2013 Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Dropped by party [48]
Che Mohamad Zulkifly Jusoh Setiu 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [49]
Jailani Johari Hulu Terengganu 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [49]
Zairil Khir Johari Bukit Bendera 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Tanjong Bunga state seat [50]
Ng Wei Aik Tanjong 2013 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [51]
Jeff Ooi Jelutong 2008 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [51]
Mohd Zaim Abu Hassan Parit 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [52]
Ko Chung Sen Kampar 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Kepayang state seat [53]
Mohamad Imran Abdul Hamid Lumut 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Bukit Chandan state seat [54]
Ong Ka Chuan Tanjong Malim 2008 Barisan Nasional Not selected [55]
G. Palanivel Cameron Highlands 2013 Independent Not seeking re-election [56]
Ariff Sabri Abdul Aziz Raub 2013 Democratic Action Party Health concerns [57]
Tengku Azlan Jerantut 1999 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [58]
Fauzi Abdul Rahman Indera Mahkota 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Sungai Lembing state seat [59]
Abdul Manan Ismail Paya Besar 2008 Barisan Nasional Death [60]
Rafizi Ramli Pandan 2013 People's Justice Party Court conviction [61]
Hee Loy Sian Petaling Jaya Selatan 2008 People's Justice Party Transferred to Kajang state seat [62]
G. Manivannan Kapar 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Hutan Melintang state seat [63]
Siti Mariah Mahmud Kota Raja 2008 National Trust Party Transferred to Seri Serdang state seat [62]
Tan Seng Giaw Kepong 1982 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [64]
Tian Chua Batu 2008 People's Justice Party Failed in the nomination process [65]
Ahmad Fauzi Zahari Setiawangsa 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [66]
Abdul Khalid Ibrahim Bandar Tun Razak 2008 Independent Retired from politics [67]
Mohd Isa Abdul Samad Jempol 2013 Barisan Nasional Corruption investigations [68]
Teo Kok Seong Rasah 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Bahau state seat [69]
Kamarul Baharin Abbas Telok Kemang 2008 People's Justice Party Dropped by party [70]
Koh Nai Kwong Alor Gajah 2013 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Machap Jaya state seat [71]
Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah Tangga Batu 2013 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Paya Rumput state seat [72]
Sim Tong Him Kota Melaka 2008 Independent Transferred to Kota Laksamana state seat [73]
Anuar Abdul Manap Sekijang 2013 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Kemelah state seat [74]
Er Teck Hwa Bakri 2008 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [75]
Mohd Idris Jusi Batu Pahat 2013 People's Justice Party Dropped by party [76]
Noor Ehsanuddin Mohd Harun Kota Tinggi 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [77]
Khoo Soo Seang Tebrau 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [78]
Normala Abdul Samad Pasir Gudang 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [77]
Jumat Idris Sepanggar 2013 Barisan Nasional Party membership suspended [79]
Wong Sze Phin Kota Kinabalu 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Sri Tanjung state seat [80]
Sapawi Ahmad Sipitang 2008 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Sindumin state seat [81]
Joseph Pairin Kitingan Keningau 1986 Barisan Nasional Not seeking re-election [82]
Raime Unggi Tenom 2004 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [83]
Joseph Kurup Pensiangan 2008 Barisan Nasional Not seeking re-election [84]
Juslie Ajirol Libaran 1999 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Gum-Gum state seat [81]
Julian Tan Kok Ping Stampin 2013 Democratic Action Party Retired from politics [85]
James Dawos Mamit Mambong 1999 Barisan Nasional Health concerns [86]
William Nyallau Badak Lubok Antu 2008 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [87]
Douglas Uggah Embas Betong 1986 Barisan Nasional Unable to contest due to PBB's single-seat policy [88]
William Ikom Mawan Saratok 2013 Barisan Nasional Unable to contest due to PBB's single-seat policy [89]
Norah Abdul Rahman Tanjong Manis 2008 Barisan Nasional Health concerns [90]
Wahab Dolah Igan 2004 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [91]
Leo Michael Toyad Mukah 1982 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [91]
Joseph Entulu Belaun Selangau 2004 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [92]
Ahmad Lai Bujang Sibuti 2008 Barisan Nasional Health concerns [93]


Newspapers, organisations and individuals endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election.


There had been many controversies even before the general election began, mostly regarding gerrymandering and the electoral boundary re-delineation in favour of the Barisan Nasional coalition. The body regulating elections in Malaysia, the Election Commission of Malaysia (which is under the control of the Prime Minister's Department), was criticised by election watchdogs, including Bersih, the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia and various other organisations for electoral malpractices, arbitrary decisions and a lack of transparency.[94][95][96]


Opposition parties, non-governmental organisations and even politicians from the ruling party accused the government of gerrymandering, manipulating the composition of electoral seats in favour of Barisan Nasional.[97] The opposition claims that the manipulation primarily involves merging opposition-dominated areas into large, single seats and dividing BN-favouring areas among several, smaller seats so as to favour rural voters who are more inclined to support the ruling party.[98] An analyst with electoral reform group Tindak Malaysia estimates that this latest redelineation process would allow Barisan Nasional to regain control with just 33% of the vote.[99]

The Electoral Integrity Project (EIP), an independent academic project based at Harvard University and the University of Sydney that studies election integrity and assigns PEI scores (Global Perceptions of Electoral Integrity) to countries across the world, had in its most recent research paper published in November 2017, ranked Malaysia's election integrity at 142nd out of 158 countries, just above Zimbabwe (143th), Vietnam (147th) and Afghanistan (150th).[100]

Polling day on midweek

Many Malaysians protested the Election Commission's decision to set the Polling Day on midweek (Wednesday, 9 May) rather than to set it on a weekend (i.e. Saturday) as it had been in the previous General Elections. Some of them, including Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad,[101] PAS deputy president Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man[102] and Bersih chairperson Maria Chin,[103] viewed such a decision to be unfair, undemocratic, and an attempt to discourage people overseas or interstate from returning to their hometowns to vote.[104] In response, Najib Razak declared Wednesday a national holiday.

Overseas ballot issues

Since the 2013 elections, overseas voting has been open to the majority of Malaysian registered voters living abroad.[105] However, registered overseas Malaysian voters were reported to have received their ballots late, some even on election day, despite the election commission requiring their ballots to be returned before the close of polling stations to be counted as valid.[106] As a result, many of these overseas voters organised on social media to bring theirs and other ballots back through casual couriers.[107][108] The Election Commission of Malaysia currently denies trying to stop overseas Malaysians to vote.

Nomination Day controversies

Controversies erupted after six candidates for the opposition coalition, Pakatan Harapan, were disqualified from running under suspicious circumstances on Nomination Day (Saturday 28 April 2018).[109] The most prominent disqualification was that of PKR vice-president Chua Tian Chang, who the local returning officer prevented from defending his Batu parliamentary seat due to an earlier court conviction, despite a High Court judgement which made clear he was eligible to continue as an MP. A subsequent High Court appeal was thrown out, under the claim that they did not have jurisdiction over election-related matters.[110] Chua and his party are consequently endorsing independent candidate, 22-year-old P. Prabakaran, for the seat.[111]

Meanwhile, in Rantau, Negeri Sembilan, the state's Chief Minister Mohamad Hasan was re-elected unopposed after opposition candidate Dr. Streram Sinnasamy was prevented from entering the nomination centre, ostensibly as he did not have an entry pass, despite his claim that he was never issued one and despite the fact that there are no laws requiring candidates to have entry passes.[112] Four other opposition candidates were barred for being undischarged bankrupts, despite claims that earlier checks with the authorities had confirmed their ability to participate.[109]

Lawyers and other political analysts criticised these returning officers for a "gross abuse of power" that went beyond their primary role (to assist with filing nomination papers) and deprived several candidates of the chance to exercise their democratic right. They claim that incidents like this contribute to the perception that Malaysian elections are inherently unfair and weaken the rule of law.[113] Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad confirmed that he would appeal these decisions to the courts, alleging an "abuse of power" by "officers who are willing to do illegal things on orders".[114]

Alleged vote-buying

The ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional, faced criticism for alleged vote-buying. The Nikkei Asian Review noted that measures like cash bonuses being handed out to civil servants and pensioners, key components of its support base, occurred just before the dissolution of the lower house of Parliament,[115] with other measures announced during the campaign trail including "special aid" of RM500 (US$127) and reserved social housing units for employees of government-linked company DRB-HICOM[116] as well as minimum wage increases.[117]

Within constituencies, Barisan Nasional MPs came under significant criticism from electoral watchdog Bersih, with seven out of ten individuals named in their "Election Offenses Hall of Shame" being from Barisan Nasional component parties. Musa Aman, Noh Omar, Hamzah Zainudin and Shahanim Mohd Yusuf (BN-UMNO) as well as P. Kamalanathan and Jaspal Singh (BN-MIC) were publicly reprimanded for handing out free food, petrol, furniture, groceries and motorcycles in their respective constituencies, in what was widely seen as an attempt to sway the vote in favour of them.[118]

Controversy also erupted over Barisan Nasional's battle for the Sekinchan constituency, considered a marginal seat held by opposition party DAP, where an election event organised by Datuk Seri Jamal Yunos (the UMNO chief for Sungai Besar) in support of local candidate Lee Yee Yuan (BN-MCA) included an all-you-can-eat buffet, chances to win a motorcycle and a RM25,000 (US$6,345) cash prize, as well as a promise of a RM2,000 (US$508) payment for every voter if they are elected.[119] All payments, along with a claimed RM150,000 in donations and a Mercedes-Benz C200 to be offered at the next event, were claimed to have been donated by "successful businessmen" in the small fishing village (population: 20,000) who wanted to show their "gratitude" to BN.[120] While Yunos denies any wrongdoing, claiming that he is not a candidate but is "only conveying contributions from certain individuals," the Sekinchan DAP branch lodged a police report against him for alleged vote-buying.[121]

Yunos also faced controversy for being caught on video handing out RM50 (US$13) notes from a bag at a function in the Sungai Leman Bendang Utara village, which is also part of Sekinchan. He claimed that those being paid were "party workers" responsible for "putting up flags, buntings and other materials," a claim that media were unable to independently verify. Media outlet Malaysiakini noted that most of those being paid were not dressed in Barisan Nasional colours, and that significant numbers of senior citizens and children were present at the event.[122]

The main opposition alliance, Pakatan Harapan, was also not immune to allegations of vote-buying. Pakatan Harapan's manifesto, particularly, lists as a key promise the abolition of Malaysia's 6% GST and increasing minimum wages, which journalists and financial analysts claim amounts to pork-barrel populism that could negatively affect Malaysian government finances.[115][123] Bersih also included Afif Bahardin (PH-PKR) on their Election Offenses Hall of Shame for utilising Penang state government programmes to give handouts such as hampers to voters in his constituency of Seberang Jaya.[124]

Additionally, Ahmad Yakob, the Menteri Besar of Kelantan, was singled out for criticism after "repeatedly using Kelantan state government resources" to benefit the campaign of his party, PAS (competing as the main component of the Gagasan Sejahtera coalition), including by handing out cash to religious leaders in a state government hall covered in PAS flags.[118]

Release of results

On polling night, the announcement of results took longer than usual, as it was alleged that the Election Commission officers were delaying their signing of Form 14 for announcing the results. This was later revealed in an interview between Mahathir and The Mekong Review, where he revealed that there were attempts to get winning PH candidates to cross over to BN and PAS, fearing that PH "were not going to respect the position of Islam as much as the previous government had". He added that they had already won as early as 8.30 pm but did not receive the official announcement until 2 AM.[125]

Election observers

The Election Commission (EC) invited 14 countries to participate in the polls as foreign observers, comprising representatives of election management bodies from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Commonwealth of Nations, Asian and European countries as well as a study and support centre for the Malaysian Commonwealth Studies Centre based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Seven countries agreed to send representatives to observe the elections, namely Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Thailand and Timor-Leste.[126] The invitation was also extended to India, Pakistan and Uzbekistan of which nine countries observers arrived on 7 May.[127] The EC also appointed 1,236 election observers from 14 local non-governmental organisations.[128]


The nationwide counting of votes began at 17:00 on 9 May.[129] The decision to close the polling stations at 17:00 was met with protests by disgruntled would-be voters who contended that, given the longer-than-usual queues, the Election Commission (EC) could have extended the polling hours, as had been done in the previous elections.[130][131]

The first unofficial result came from the constituency of Baram in Sarawak, which was won by Barisan Nasional (BN).[132] Despite BN's early lead, by 20:30, Pakatan Harapan (PH) and BN were almost neck and neck.[133] The states of Sarawak and Sabah, long regarded as BN's "fixed deposits", witnessed a significant swing in favour of PH and the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) respectively.[134][135][136] In a further blow to BN's chances, several leaders of BN's component parties, such as Subramaniam Sathasivam (MIC), Liow Tiong Lai (MCA) and Mah Siew Keong (Gerakan), were defeated in their respective constituencies by PH candidates.[129][137] Mahathir Mohamad, PH's Prime Ministerial candidate, secured the constituency of Langkawi by 21:45.[129] As the night wore on, it was reported that PH also retained the states of Penang and Selangor with larger majorities.[138][139]

Stunned by the rapidly deteriorating turn of events, federal authorities attempted to stymie the release of unofficial election results. At 21:13, the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) ordered Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to block Malaysiakini and its sister websites, which were providing live updates of the poll counting, on the grounds that the updates "may affect national stability, public order and harmony, and economic stability".[140] Meanwhile, unmarked cars, allegedly carrying fake ballot boxes, were spotted entering some of the counting stations. Enraged onlookers tried to stop the cars, leading to sporadic rioting.[141] The most serious rioting occurred in the town of Ayer Hitam in Johor; the rioters in the town were eventually dispersed by the Royal Malaysia Police's Federal Reserve Unit (FRU).[142]

At about 23:20, Mahathir claimed during a press conference at the Sheraton Hotel in Petaling Jaya that PH had already exceeded the simple majority of 112 seats needed to form the federal government.[143][144] He added that PH had successfully wrested the states of Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor and Kedah from BN. However, Mahathir alleged that some EC officers were refusing to sign Form 14 in their respective constituencies, which is required for the results to be announced. He further warned that although "Malaysians are not violent people, they should not take this lying down".[144]

Following the press conference, the EC started releasing the official election results just after midnight.[145] However, the official results were continuously delayed and announced only gradually, as the counting of votes was said to be still ongoing in several places.[146] At about 02:30, right after unofficial results had confirmed PH's simple majority, Mahathir, flanked by several PH leaders, gave another press conference, announcing that the Istana Negara (National Palace) had summoned the leader of the People's Justice Party (PKR) - the party whose logo was used by PH in the polls - and that he would be sworn in as the nation's seventh Prime Minister later that day.[129][144]

Tellingly, BN's victory celebrations at Kuala Lumpur's Putra World Trade Centre, which had been customary in the event of a BN electoral victory, did not materialise.[147] Instead, BN's top echelons held a closed door meeting at the private residence of the outgoing Prime Minister and BN chief, Najib Razak.[147][148] This sparked fears that the defeated incumbent government would resort to martial law to cling to federal power.[149] When informed of the coalition's impending defeat, a distraught Najib asked "do people really hate me that much?", while another BN politician told the press after the meeting that "whatever it is, we need to respect the will of the people".[147][150] In any event, martial law was never touched upon in the meeting.[148]

The EC announced the full official election results shortly before 05:00, where it was revealed that the states of Sabah and Perak were left with hung legislative assemblies.[146][151] Meanwhile, the Gagasan Sejahtera (GS) coalition, led by the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), was not only able to retain Kelantan, it also captured the state of Terengganu from BN. Najib finally conceded defeat during a press conference at 11:00.[152]

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Pakatan HarapanPeople's Justice Party2,046,39416.9447+17
Democratic Action Party2,098,06817.3642+4
Malaysian United Indigenous Party718,6485.9513New
National Trust Party655,5285.4311New
Sabah Heritage Party (Pakatan Harapan ally)280,5202.328+8
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation2,525,71320.9054–34
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu220,4791.8213–1
Parti Rakyat Sarawak59,2180.493–3
Malaysian Indian Congress167,0611.382–2
Progressive Democratic Party59,8530.502–2
Malaysian Chinese Association653,3465.411–6
Sarawak United Peoples' Party122,5401.0110
United Sabah Party58,3510.481–3
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah11,7830.1010
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia128,9731.070–1
Liberal Democratic Party8,9960.0700
People's Progressive Party7,4220.0600
Gagasan SejahteraPan-Malaysian Islamic Party2,032,08016.8218–3
Malaysia National Alliance Party9,0250.070New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front810.0000
Love Malaysia Party (Gagasan Sejahtera ally)5020.0000
United Sabah AllianceSabah People's Hope Party37,7080.310New
Homeland Solidarity Party21,3610.181New
Sabah Progressive Party6,0900.0500
Sabah People's Unity Party2,0160.020New
Love Sabah Party8,6030.070New
Socialist Party of Malaysia3,7820.030New
Parti Rakyat Malaysia2,3720.020New
Malaysian United Party2,1020.020New
State Reform Party1,2990.0100
Sabah Native Co-operation Party1,1730.010New
Parti Rakyat Gabungan Jaksa Pendamai1,0050.010New
Penang Front Party8920.010New
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak Baru5380.000New
Parti Bumi Kenyalang3920.000New
People's Alternative Party3020.000New
Valid votes12,082,43198.24
Invalid/blank votes217,0831.76
Total votes12,299,514100.00
Registered voters/turnout14,940,62482.32
Source: Election Commission of Malaysia

By state

State /
federal territory
Barisan Nasional Pakatan Harapan + Warisan Gagasan Sejahtera Other / Independent
Votes%Seats%±Votes%Seats%±Votes%Seats%± Votes%Seats % ±
Johor 581,662 38.6 8 31 13 819,518 54.4 18 69 13 105,375 6.99 0 0 818 0.05 0 0
Kedah 282,273 30.0 2 13 8 362,256 38.5 10 67 6 295,413 31.4 3 20 2 360 0.04 0 0
Kelantan 320,384 39.1 5 36 101,136 12.3 0 0 393,450 48.0 9 64 5373 0.65 0 0
Malacca 157,339 38.1 2 33 2 218,415 52.9 4 67 2 35,733 8.65 0 0 1415 0.34 0 0
Negeri Sembilan 179,518 36.1 3 38 2 267,951 53.9 5 63 2 49,478 9.95 0 0 302 0.06 0 0
Pahang 285,912 43.2 9 64 1 204,965 30.9 5 36 2 170,605 25.8 0 0 1 976 0.15 0 0
Penang 177,631 22.5 2 15 1 543,298 68.8 11 85 1 65,005 8.24 0 0 3191 0.40 0 0
Perak 395,355 33.2 11 46 1 597,901 50.3 13 54 5 193,551 16.3 0 0 2 2460 0.21 0 0
Perlis 46,885 38.8 2 67 1 46,194 38.2 1 33 1 27,701 22.9 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sabah 335,587 39.8 10 40 12 416,455 51.2 14 56 11 13,295 1.58 0 0 75,611 0.09 1 3.34 1
Selangor 427,443 20.8 2 9 3 1,312,053 63.8 20 91 7 312,898 15.2 0 0 4 3527 0.17 0 0
Terengganu 252,461 40.7 2 25 2 59,834 9.64 0 0 1 308,252 49.7 6 75 3 0 0 0 0
Sarawak 462,090 52.5 19 61 6 381,863 43.4 10 32 4 10,591 1.20 0 0 3234 0.37 2 0 2
WP Kuala Lumpur 153,945 22.1 0 0 2 486,974 69.9 10 100 2 54,569 7.83 0 0 1019 0.15 0 0
WP Labuan 10,164 47.6 1 100 8,714 40.8 0 0 1,555 7.28 0 0 925 4.33 0 0
WP Putrajaya 12,148 49.5 1 100 8,776 35.7 0 0 3,634 14.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4,080,797 35.6 79 32.9 54 5,615,822 45.56 122 54.9 55 2,051,188 16.99 18 8.11 4 99,211 0.82 3 1.35 3


  Pakatan Harapan (55.86%)
  Barisan Nasional (35.59%)
  Gagasan Sejahtera (8.10%)
  Other / Independent (0.44%)

Seats that changed allegiance

No. Seat Previous Party (2013) Current Party (2018)
P002 Kangar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P004 Langkawi Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P005 Jerlun Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P006 Kubang Pasu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P008 Pokok Sena Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P011 Pendang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P012 Jerai Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P013 Sik Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P014 Merbok Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P018 Kulim-Bandar Baharu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P034 Setiu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P040 Kemaman Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P053 Balik Pulau Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P057 Parit Buntar Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P059 Bukit Gantang Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Barisan Nasional (UMNO)
P062 Sungai Siput Socialist Party of Malaysia Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P063 Tambun Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P077 Tanjong Malim Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P088 Temerloh Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P089 Bentong Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P093 Sungai Besar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P094 Hulu Selangor Barisan Nasional (MIC) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P096 Kuala Selangor Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P101 Hulu Langat Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P108 Shah Alam Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P111 Kota Raja Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P113 Sepang Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P115 Batu Pakatan Harapan (PKR) Independent
P118 Setiawangsa Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P119 Titiwangsa Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P129 Kuala Pilah Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P133 Tampin Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P135 Alor Gajah Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P136 Tangga Batu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P140 Segamat Barisan Nasional (MIC) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P141 Sekijang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P142 Labis Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P143 Pagoh Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P144 Ledang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P146 Muar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P149 Sri Gading Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P151 Simpang Renggam Barisan Nasional (GERAKAN) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P158 Tebrau Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P159 Pasir Gudang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P160 Johor Bahru Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P161 Pulai Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P165 Tanjung Piai Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P169 Kota Belud Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P171 Sepanggar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P173 Putatan Barisan Nasional (UPKO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P174 Penampang Pakatan Harapan (PKR) WARISAN
P175 Papar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P179 Ranau Barisan Nasional (UPKO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P180 Keningau Barisan Nasional (PBS) United Sabah Alliance (STAR)
P181 Tenom Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P185 Batu Sapi Barisan Nasional (PBS) WARISAN
P188 Silam Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P189 Semporna Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P190 Tawau Barisan Nasional (PBS) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P191 Kalabakan Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P192 Mas Gading Barisan Nasional (PDP) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P198 Puncak Borneo Barisan Nasional (PBB) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P203 Lubok Antu Barisan Nasional (PRS) Independent
P205 Saratok Barisan Nasional (PDP) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P209 Julau Barisan Nasional (PRS) Independent
P214 Selangau Barisan Nasional (PRS) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)


Pakatan's victory triggered nationwide celebrations, marking the end of a 61-year rule by Barisan Nasional (and preceding Alliance Party).[153] Mahathir Mohamad was sworn in as the Prime Minister on the night of 10 May at the Istana Negara by Yang di Pertuan Agong Muhammad V, triggering more nationwide celebrations.[154]

Defections and state government formations

The general election resulted in a hung parliament in the 60-seat Sabah State Legislative Assembly, after Barisan Nasional and the Warisan-Pakatan pact both won 29 seats in the election. This made the Homeland Solidarity Party (STAR) as the 'kingmakers', as the party won two state seats, giving them the power to give either bloc the mandate to form the state government. Considering that STAR is an opposition party, it was wildly expected for them to support a Warisan-led government. However, the party's leadership chose to support a Barisan government instead, sparking mass protests across the state by opposition supporters.[155] As such, Barisan Nasional, with the support of STAR, formed the next Sabah state government, with Musa Aman chosen as Chief Minister.[156] However, the formation of government didn't last long after one of Barisan's component parties, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (now United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation; UPKO), which won five state seats, withdrew from the coalition and announced support for a Warisan-led government in Sabah.[157] Warisan president, Shafie Apdal, was later sworn in as the new Sabah Chief Minister the day after.[158] On the same day, another Sabah-based Barisan Nasional component party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), also announced their withdrawal from the coalition, citing their poor performance in the election, losing in every constituency they contested in.[159]

The day afterwards, another two Sabah-based Barisan Nasional component party, the United Sabah People's Party (PBRS) and the United Sabah Party (PBS), also announced that they had left Barisan. PBRS stated that they would seek an alliance with Pakatan Harapan and would apply for membership in the ruling party coalition,[160] while PBS stated that they are seeking to form a new Sabah-based coalition, compromising of all Sabah Opposition parties.[161] In 2020, after vowing for new coalitions, made for all Sabah-based parties, the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) finally created to take over Shafie's WARISAN+ government, having secure simple majority under Hajiji Noor, former Sabah UMNO member.

Meanwhile, the general election also resulted in a hung parliament in the 59-seat Perak State Legislative Assembly, in which Pakatan won 29 seats, two short of a majority, while Barisan and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) each won 27 and 3 seats. This would mean neither of the three parties would have enough seats to form the Perak state government.[151] PAS proposed the formation of a unity government compromising of all sides in the State Legislative Assembly, but was rejected by Pakatan.[162] However, Pakatan succeeded in forming the state government after two Barisan assemblymen announced their support for Pakatan to form the state government,[163] thus ending the hung parliament status-quo. Their action resulted in the two assemblymen having their UMNO membership dropped,[164] meaning they would have to stand as an Independent in the Perak State Legislative Assembly. Perak Pakatan chairman, Ahmad Faizal Azumu, was later sworn in as the new Menteri Besar of Perak on 12 May.[165]

On the same day, three Johor BN assemblymen announced that they had left the coalition to join PPBM. Their defection gives Pakatan a total of 39 seats, giving them a two-thirds majority in the 56-seat State Legislative Assembly.[166] Subsequently, two Independent MPs, Lubok Antu MP, Jugah Muyang, and Julau MP, Larry Sng Wei Shien, announced that they had joined PKR.[167] Jugah Muyang won in a three-cornered fight against both Barisan and PKR, while the latter was endorsed by Pakatan against Barisan Nasional.[168] A third Independent MP, Prabakaran Parameswaran, who won in the constituency of Batu, announced that he had joined PKR in the day afterwards, thus increasing Pakatan's total tally in the Dewan Rakyat to 125.[169] He was endorsed by Pakatan Harapan during the general election after the coalition's original candidate, Tian Chua, was disqualified from contesting due to a RM2,000 fine.[170] On the following day, an Independent Perak assemblyman, Zainol Fadzi Paharudin, who was one of the two Barisan assemblymen who had their UMNO membership dropped for supporting a Pakatan government, announced that he had joined PPBM,[171] His defection from Barisan to Pakatan increases the coalition's tally in the Perak State Legislative Assembly to 30 seats, enough to form a simple majority.

On 19 May the disputed president of the People's Progressive Party (myPPP), M. Kayveas, declared that the party had left Barisan Nasional.[172] However, Kayveas' statement was denied by the party's deputy secretary-general, Simon Sabapathy, who insisted that the party was still part of the coalition and that Kayveas' announcement was invalid as he was no longer the president of the party,[173] after he was supposedly sacked by the party on April.[174] This resulted in a party leadership crisis, as the party's leadership was split between the party's former president, M. Kayveas, who's pursuing to make the party leave Barisan, and the party's current president, Maglin Dennis D'Cruz, who wants the party to remain in Barisan. Eventually, Kayveas won the struggle, and announced that myPPP had left Barisan.[172] The party would eventually be de-registered by the Registrar of Societies in January 2019, amid the leadership dispute.[175]

Nearly a month after the General Election, on 12 June, another four BN component parties, the United Bumiputera Heritage Party (PBB), the Sarawak People's Party (PRS), the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP) and the Progressive Democratic Party (PDP) announced their withdrawal from Barisan Nasional and the formation of a new Sarawak-based coalition, the Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS).[10] The four parties altogether had 19 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 72 seats in the 82-seat Sarawak State Legislative Assembly, thus decreasing Barisan's seat tally even further. Two weeks later, on 24 June, the Malaysian People's Movement Party (Gerakan) became the latest party to leave Barisan Nasional.[176]

The election resulted in a mass defection of UMNO MPs from the party, mostly becoming independents, some eventually changing their alliance and joining PH. On 24 June, the MP of Bagan Serai, Noor Azmi Ghazali, announced his withdrawal from the coalition to become an Independent Member of Parliament, and expressed interest to join the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (PPBM), a component party of Pakatan Harapan.[177] Three days later, UMNO's Bukit Gantang MP, Syed Abu Hussin Hafiz Syed Abdul Fasal, announced his departure from the party to also become an Independent Member of Parliament.[178] Further on 1 July, UMNO's Masjid Tanah MP, Mas Ermieyati Samsudin left the party to become an Independent Parliamentarian after disappointment with the party's election result.[179] Two more defections occurred in the month of September. UMNO's Jeli MP, Mustapa Mohamed, left the party on 18 September,[180] proceeded by UMNO's Kimanis MP, Anifah Aman,[181] the day after. On 11 October, UMNO's Labuan MP, Rozman Isli, left the party and joined Warisan, citing for the benefit of Labuan.[182] Another series of defections occurred in December. On 12 December, five Sabah UMNO MPs and nine of the state assemblypersons left the party to become independents, pledging support for Pakatan.[183] On 14 December, six UMNO MPs, Hamzah Zainudin (Larut), Ikmal Hisham Abdul Aziz (Tanah Merah), Abdul Latiff Ahmad (Mersing), Rosol Wahid (Hulu Terengganu), Mohd Fasiah Mohd Fakeh (Sabak Bernam) and Shabudin Yahaya (Tasik Gelugor) altogether left the party due to disappointment with UMNO's current leadership.[184] The series of defections and parties withdrawing from Barisan Nasional leaves the coalition with only three component parties, UMNO, MCA and MIC (the original three parties that formed the Alliance Party), a decrease of ten parties from the 13 they had prior to the election, and 40 seats, a substantial decrease from the 79 seats they won in the election, with the formations of Sarawak-based GPS in 2018 and Sabah-based GRS in 2020, separately governing both states.

Party leadership changes

After facing a defeat in the election, losing nearly a third of its seats in the Dewan Rakyat, former Prime Minister Najib Razak announced his resignation as president of UMNO and chairman of Barisan Nasional on 12 May.[185] Party deputy president Ahmad Zahid Hamidi took over the role as acting president of UMNO and chairman of Barisan Nasional, while vice-president Hishammuddin Hussein took over the duties of acting deputy president and deputy chairman of Barisan.[186] Najib's resignation resulted in a party leadership election, in which seven candidates eyed to become the party's new president. The result was that Zahid won the party leadership elections. He and former Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Mohamad Hasan are now president and vice president of UMNO respectively.[187]

2020 political crisis

PH government, however, served just 22 months before the take over of administration by PN, led by Muhyiddin Yassin, who was sworned in as the 8th Prime Minister on 1 March 2020. This came after PH lost its majority in the Dewan Rakyat following the withdrawal of Muhyiddin's party PPBM from PH, as well as defection of MPs led by Azmin Ali from PKR.[188][189] Change in government of states of Johor, Malacca and Perak, followed suit. Kedah, on the other hand, is still governed by PH in spite of PPBM's withdrawal from PH until 17 May 2020 when PN took over of state government.[190][191][192][193]

  • Rise: Ini Kalilah was a 2018 Malaysian political drama film based on the actual events on 9 May 2018 in the aftermath of the 14th General Election.[194][195]
  • The election is also the subject of the 2019 documentary film M for Malaysia.


    See also

    Further reading


    1. People's Justice Party and Democratic Action Party
    2. Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front
    3. Pakatan Harapan contested under the PKR logo as their logo was not approved by the Registrar of Societies


    1. Hafiz Marzukhi (10 April 2018). "PRU 14: SPR tetapkan Rabu 9 Mei hari mengundi" [GE 14: EC sets Wednesday May 9 polling day] (in Malay). Astro Awani. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
    2. "Federal Government Gazette [Proclamation]" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers of Malaysia. 28 May 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
    3. Promchertchoo, Pichayada (10 May 2018). "'I accept people's verdict': Najib on Malaysian election results". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
    4. "Pakatan wins the impossible dream". Free Malaysia Today. 10 May 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    5. "Malaysia's opposition pulls off shocking election win". Al Jazeera. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
    6. "Malaysia's Mahathir Mohamad sworn in after shock comeback victory". BBC News. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    7. "PRU 14 Dashboard". Election Commission of Malaysia. 10 May 2018. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
    8. Zurairi Ar (10 May 2018). "Pakatan takes Putrajaya, buoyed by 'Malay tsunami'". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
    9. "Malaysia's Mahathir Mohamad to Become World's Oldest Leader". Time. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
    10. Sharon Ling; Geryl Ogilvy (12 June 2018). "Sarawak BN parties pull out of coalition to form independent state-based pact". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    11. "Anwar walks free after royal pardon, meets Dr Mahathir". The Edge. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
    12. Razak Ahmad; Hanis Zainal; Clarissa Chung (12 May 2018). "Najib steps down as chief of Umno and BN". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    13. "Dr M said to appoint adviser to recover 1MDB funds". The Star. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
    14. "From highest office to high court: Malaysia gripped by Najib's downfall". The Edge. 4 July 2018. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
    15. Yantoultra Ngui, Tom Wright (4 July 2018). "Najib Razak, Malaysia's Fallen Leader, Is Arrested and Charged in 1MDB Scandal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
    16. "Mahathir's Bersatu party quits ruling Pakatan Harapan coalition; 11 MPS quit PKR".
    17. "Malaysia gets a new prime minister — the country's third in 3 years". CNBC. 20 August 2021.
    18. Nandini Balakrishnan (28 September 2016). "Here's The Fastest Way To Register As A Voter Before The Next Elections". Says.com. Retrieved 9 May 2018. Qualifications needed to register as a voter in Malaysia:
      a) A Malaysian citizen above the age of 21.
      b) A resident of an election constituency.
      c) Is not disqualified by any laws.
    19. "A Young Malaysian's Guide to the Election". Juice. 30 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018. You are not eligible to register if you are:
      a) on the qualifying date, you are serving jail term or detained as a person of unsound mind.
      b) before the qualifying date, you have been convicted or sentenced to death or serving a jail term of more than 12 months and you're still liable on the qualifying date.
      c) found guilty under the Election Offences Act, 1954.
      d) have a foreign citizenship (Malaysian citizenship law does not permit a Malaysian to carry dual citizenship).
    20. "Age of Majority Act 1971". The Commissioner of Law Revision, Malaysia. 22 April 1971. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
    21. "Redelineation report gazetted with king's consent". Free Malaysia Today. 29 March 2018. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
    22. "Official Portal of the Parliament of Malaysia - General Information".
    23. Rashvinjeet S. Bedi (28 March 2018). "PM tables redelineation report, significant changes in some states". The Star. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
    24. "Parlimen bubar esok: PM" (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    25. "GE14: It's on, Parliament will dissolve on Saturday". The Star. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
    26. "Nomination for GE14 to begin soon". Bernama. New Straits Times. 28 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    27. Reme Ahmad (28 April 2018). "Malaysia election: Nominations close, campaign for May 9 polls begins". The Straits Times. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    28. "11 days set for campaigning". The Star. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    29. "Early voting starts on May 5 for 300,000 voters". The Star. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    30. "Malaysia's Mahathir Mohamad sworn in after shock comeback victory". BBC News. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
    31. "Ahead of GE14, EC orders 100,000 bottles of indelible ink from India". The Malay Mail. 23 February 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
    32. Malaysia (2016). Akta Kesalahan Pilihan Raya 1954 Archived 10 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine (in Malay). s. 19(1).
    33. "8 state assemblies dissolved so far". Bernama. Free Malaysia Today. 7 April 2018. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    34. Hanneeyzah Bariah Baharin (9 April 2018). "DUN Terengganu dibubar" [Terengganu State Assembly is dissolved] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    35. "Yang Dipertuan Besar consents to dissolution of Negri Sembilan state assembly". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    36. "Sultan Ibrahim consents to dissolution of Johor state assembly". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    37. Norrasyidah Arshad (9 April 2018). "Sultan Selangor perkenan bubar DUN Selangor" [Selangor Sultan grants the dissolution of Selangor State Assembly] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    38. "Perlis state assembly to dissolve tomorrow, says Azlan". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    39. Audrey Dermawan (9 April 2018). "DUN Pulau Pinang bubar esok [METROTV]" [Penang State Assembly dissolved tomorrow [METROTV]] (in Malay). Harian Metro. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
    40. Daud Ridauddin (9 April 2018). "Sultan Nazrin berkenan bubar Dun Perak" [Sultan Nazrin grants the dissolution of Perak State Assembly] (in Malay). Sinar Harian. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
    41. "Melaka to dissolve state assembly tomorrow". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    42. Julia Chan (6 April 2018). "CM: Sabah assembly's dissolution tomorrow". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
    43. "Parti yang berdaftar dengan SPR" [Parties registered with the EC] (in Malay). Election Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
    44. Adie Suri Zulkefli; Suzalina Halid; Muhammad Mustakim Ramli; Dziyaul Afnan Abdul Rahman (26 April 2018). "BN Perlis kemuka 10 calon baharu" [Perlis BN reveals 10 new candidates] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
    45. Susan Loone (5 May 2018). "Gooi in Bukit Tengah - will the giant slayer slay on, or be slayed?". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    46. Omar Osman (24 April 2018). "Ismail Daut terima keputusan gugur" [Ismail Daut accepts the drop result] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    47. Rashvinjeet S. Bedi; Victoria Brown (24 April 2018). "Padang Serai rep N. Surendran dropped from PKR line-up". The Star. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    48. Zaain Zin; Asma Hanim Mahmood (25 April 2018). "Pas Kelantan rombak kerusi, gugurkan pemimpin 'harumanis'" [Kelantan Pas shuffle seat, drops 'sweet fragrant' leaders]. Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    49. Radhuan Hussain; Rosalinda Md Said; Mohd Lazim Endut (22 April 2018). "Dua penyandang digugurkan dalam senarai BN Terengganu" [Two incumbents were dropped on the BN Terengganu list]. Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    50. Mohamad Fakhri Mohd Ali (19 April 2018). "Zairil pindah ke Dun Tanjong Bunga" [Zairil moved to Tanjong Bunga state constituency] (in Malay). Sinar Harian. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    51. "8 muka baru, 9 digugurkan dalam senarai calon DAP Pulau Pinang" [8 new faces, 9 were dropped on the list of Penang DAP candidates] (in Malay). Malaysiakini. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    52. "BN Perak gugur lapan penyandang" [Perak BN drops eight incumbents] (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    53. Saifullah Ahmad; Normawati Adnan; Noor'ainon Mohamed Yusof (20 April 2018). "DAP tampil enam muka baharu" [DAP features six new faces] (in Malay). Sinar Harian. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    54. Zulaikha Zulkifli; Yap Jia Hee (9 January 2018). "PKR's Lumut MP saddened, but will surrender seat to Amanah". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    55. Augustin, Sean (26 April 2018). "MCA sec-gen to calm his disappointed 'brothers and sisters'". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
    56. Sathesh Raj (18 June 2015). "'Palanivel not sacked, but his membership is automatically null and void' - Saravanan". Astro Awani. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    57. "DAP to send political heavyweights to defend Raub". Free Malaysia Today. 13 January 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    58. Abdul Razak Raaff; T N Alagesh; Amin Ridzuan Ishak; Raja Norain Hidayah Abd Aziz; Mohd Azim Fitri Abd Aziz; Asrol Awang (26 April 2018). "17 muka baharu di Pahang" [17 new faces in Pahang] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    59. Nik Sukry Ramli (14 April 2018). "Saifuddin 'ikut' Nasruddin ke Indera Mahkota" [Saifuddin 'joined' Nasruddin to Indera Mahkota] (in Malay). Harian Metro. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    60. "Paya Besar MP dies after falling in bathroom". Bernama. Malaysiakini. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
    61. "Rafizi says will not contest in GE14". New Straits Times. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    62. Ashley Tang (23 April 2018). "PKR's Azmin to defend seats in GE14, Maria Chin to contest in PJ". The Star. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    63. "PKR Perak 'import' bekas MP Kapar" [Perak PKR 'import' former Kapar MP]. Sinar Harian (in Malay). Astro Awani. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    64. Wong Kai Hui (9 April 2018). "DAP drops Seng Giaw after 36 years as Kepong MP". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    65. Khairah N. Karim (4 May 2018). "(Update) No Batu for Tian Chua". New Straits Times. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    66. Bavani M; Shalini Ravindran (22 April 2018). "GE14: Incumbent MP dropped, six new faces in FT BN line-up". The Star. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    67. Nazura Ngah (7 February 2018). "I will not be contesting in GE14: Khalid Ibrahim". New Straits Times. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    68. Sarban Singh; Yimmie Yong (24 April 2018). "Veteran Isa dropped". The Star. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    69. K Pragalath (2 April 2018). "Teo Kok Seong won't be defending Rasah in GE14". Berita Daily. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    70. "PKR's 2-term Teluk Kemang MP dropped for GE14". Free Malaysia Today. 24 April 2018. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    71. "Malacca BN list: Najib's aide takes Alor Gajah despite revolt, Ali Rustam recontests". Malaysiakini. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    72. Fairuz Zaidan; Amir Mamat; Norizzah Baharudin; Noor Azurin Mohd Sharif (23 April 2018). "Melaka BN's '24451' formula for victory". New Straits Times. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    73. Kong See Hoh (19 April 2018). "Former DAP Malacca leaders form Justice league". The Sun. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    74. "45 per cent of Johor candidates are new faces". New Straits Times. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    75. Tarrence Tan (22 March 2018). "DAP's Er Teck Hwa not defending Bakri seat in GE14". The Star. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    76. "PKR swaps Idris with Rashid in Batu Pahat". The Star. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    77. Nelson Benjamin; Mohd Farhaan Shah; Steven Daniel; Zunaira Saieed (24 April 2018). "Khaled leads charge in Johor". The Star. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    78. Soo Wern Jun (10 March 2018). "MCA seeks to retain Tebrau, PH banks on 'small swing' of Malays". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    79. "Suspended, but Jumat stays loyal". The Star. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    80. Shalina R (15 April 2018). "DAP's Jimmy and Chan swap seats". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    81. Stephanie Lee; Natasha Joibi; Fatimah Zainal (26 April 2018). "Sabah BN unveils line-up for GE14, most incumbents retained". The Star. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    82. Stephanie Lee; Fatimah Zainal (1 May 2018). "Pairin to serve one last time". The Star. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
    83. "Raime Sokong Penuh Semua Calon BN Di Tenom" [Raime Highly Supports All BN Candidates In Tenom]. Bernama (in Malay). Malaysian Digest. 3 May 2018. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
    84. "Joseph Kurup will not contest in GE14, hands over political baton to his son". The Star. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    85. "Julian not defending Stampin in parliamentary polls — Chong". The Borneo Post. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    86. Jacob Achoi (25 February 2017). "I won't be contesting in 14th GE, says James Dawos". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    87. Sulok Tawie (30 March 2018). "Minister among those dropped from PRS' list of candidates in Sarawak". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    88. Lian Cheng (25 May 2017). "Uggah confirms not contesting in GE14". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    89. "Party-hopper Mawan can kiss renomination chances goodbye". Free Malaysia Today. 2 April 2018. Archived from the original on 4 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    90. Samuel Aubrey (20 April 2018). "Norah decides not to defend Tanjong Manis seat in GE14". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    91. Muhd Amirul Faiz Ahmad; Ekhwan Haque Fazlul Haque (24 April 2018). "BN Sarawak pertaruh 15 muka baru" [Sarawak BN features 15 new faces] (in Malay). Harian Metro. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    92. Peter Boon (27 April 2018). "Entulu not contesting as independent". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    93. Kandau Sidi (27 April 2018). "Incumbent Sibuti MP will not defend seat". New Straits Times. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    94. "EC chief earns five stars in Bersih's GE Hall of Shame". Malaysiakini. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    95. Chester Tay (6 May 2018). "EC responsible for 10 electoral crimes in GE14, Bersih prelim report finds". Edge Markets. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    96. "Ahead of GE14, Suhakam spotlights EC's 'declining public confidence'". Malaysiakini. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    97. Michael Murty (3 January 2018). "Gerakan man flays EC for 'gerrymandering of the highest order'". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
    98. Adam Harvey (4 May 2018). "Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak can bank on regional support despite corruption scandal". ABC News. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    99. Trinna Leong; Nadirah H. Rodzi (28 March 2018). "Electoral maps for upcoming Malaysia election passed in Parliament". The Straits Times. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
    100. Looi Sue-Chern (1 December 2017). "Study finds Malaysia near bottom in electoral integrity". The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
    101. Koh Jun Lin (10 April 2018). "Wednesday polling day 'undemocratic', says Dr M". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
    102. Nina Farzuin Md Sharom (10 April 2018). "Merompak hak rakyat untuk mengundi" [Robbing the people's right to vote] (in Malay). Sinar Harian. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
    103. Adrian Phung; Rajvinder Singh (10 April 2018). "Bersih 2.0 slams EC's midweek polling date". The Sun. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
    104. "Malaysia election: Weekday polls not new to Malaysia, took place when Mahathir was PM, says BN". The Straits Times. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    105. "How does postal voting work for Malaysians overseas?". AskLegal. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
    106. Tashny Sukumaran (8 May 2018). "Still no overseas ballots? Expat Malaysians voters upset by delays and an impossible deadline". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    107. Tashny Sukumaran (9 May 2018). "The amazing race to send postal ballots back home". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    108. Ervin Tan (8 May 2018). "Last-minute rush for Malaysians trying to cast their vote from overseas". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    109. Shannon Teoh (29 April 2018). "Out: Six PH nominees, including PKR's V-P". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    110. "Disqualified PKR leader Tian Chua fails in bid to reverse Election Commission's decision". The Straits Times. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    111. May Robertson (4 May 2018). "In Batu, Tian Chua throws support behind indie Prabakaran". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    112. Shannon Teoh (28 April 2018). "A Malaysia general election of many firsts from the start". The Straits Times. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
    113. V Anbalagan (29 April 2018). "Don't be judge and jury, election officials told". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
    114. Melissa Darlyne Chow (29 April 2018). "Dr M: Some officers will do illegal things on orders". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
    115. "Pork-barrel election pledges are a step back for Malaysian democracy". Nikkei Asian Review. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    116. Joash Ee De Silva (27 April 2018). "Najib announces RM500 special aid each for DRB-Hicom employees". The Star. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    117. "Najib promises paternity leave, higher minimum wages". Bernama. Free Malaysia Today. 1 May 2018. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    118. "MEDIA STATEMENT (29 APRIL 2018): BERSIH 2.0 Unveils New Line-up in the Hall of Shame 10 days to Polling Day". Bersih. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    119. Annabelle Lee; Wong Kai Hui (1 May 2018). "BN fetes Sekinchan Chinese folk to feast, music and cash prizes". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    120. "Despite police report, Jamal Yunos promises Mercedes-Benz giveaway at next 'concert'". The Malay Mail. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    121. "Sekinchan DAP lodges report against Jamal Yunos". The Star. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    122. Wong Kai Hui (2 May 2018). "Jamal rallies troops, hands RM50 to 'workers'". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    123. William Pesek (10 April 2018). "An election campaign Malaysia cannot afford". Nikkei Asian Review. The Edge Markets. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    124. "EC chief, PKR Youth leader inducted into Bersih's 'Hall of Shame'". Malaysiakini. 29 April 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    125. "Dr Mahathir exposes May 9 political maneuvering". New Straits Times. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
    126. "Malaysia election: Seven countries confirm participation as foreign observers for May 9 vote". The Straits Times. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
    127. "Pemerhati antarabangsa pantau PRU14 tiba di Malaysia" [International observers for PRU14 arrived in Malaysia]. Bernama (in Malay). Astro Awani. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
    128. "International observers arriving in Malaysia for GE14". Bernama. The Sun. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
    129. "【 GE14 】Malaysiakini Live Reports and Results". Live Malaysiakini. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    130. "Standoff at Taman Dato' Harun polling centre after 5pm deadline". Malaysiakini. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    131. "EC told to extend voting period due to long queues". Malaysiakini. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    132. "Unofficial: BN wins P220 Baram". Bernama. The Edge Markets. 9 May 2018. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    133. "Unofficial: BN has won 15 seats, PKR 12, Warisan 1 and Independent 1". Bernama. The Edge Markets. 9 May 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    134. Geryl Ogilvy (10 May 2018). "Sarawak BN tight-lipped over next move till new Federal Government formed". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    135. "Unofficial — Warisan wins P189 Semporna". Bernama. The Edge Markets. 9 May 2018. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    136. "Sabah ends its days as being BN's 'fixed deposit' state". Today Online. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    137. Nadirah H. Rodzi (10 May 2018). "BN's big names toppled, one after another". The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    138. "Unofficial tallies show Pakatan retaining Penang with bigger majority". The Star. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    139. "Pakatan strengthens grip on Selangor". The Star. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    140. "MCMC ordered at least 11 ISPs to block M'kini GE14 sites". Malaysiakini. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    141. Aurora Bosotti (9 May 2018). "Malaysia election 2018 results: WATCH locals RIOT after claiming to find FAKE ballot boxes". Daily Express (UK). Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    142. Justin Ong (9 May 2018). "Riot police called in at Ayer Hitam results centre". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    143. "Mahathir claims Pakatan has won Putrajaya (updated)". The Star. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    144. LIVE: Keputusan KUPAS PRU14 [LIVE: PEEL OFF Results PRU14]. KiniTV (9:32:24) (in Malay). YouTube. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    145. "Night of drama, confusion at 14th Malaysian General Elections". Today Online. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    146. Jordan Barnes (11 May 2018). "Key moments that defined a dramatic day post GE14". The Malay Mail. Yahoo! News Singapore. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    147. Jahabar Sadiq (28 May 2018). "BN's night of despair and delusion". The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    148. Tom Westbrook; A. Ananthalakshmi; Liz Lee; John Chalmers; John Chalmers; Philip McClellan (15 May 2018). "The week that Malaysian leader Najib's world fell apart". Reuters. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    149. Praveen Menon; Rozanna Latiff; Raju Gopalakrishnan; John Chalmers (10 May 2018). "Malaysia's Najib goes quietly, sunk by scandal". Reuters. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
    150. Lydia Lam (10 May 2018). "Barisan Nasional leaders gather at PM Najib's home for 'high-level meeting': Reports". The Straits Times. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    151. "Hung state assembly in Perak". Bernama. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    152. Victoria Brown; Farik Zolkepli; Rahimy Rahim (10 May 2018). "Najib: BN did not cheat in GE14, we accept the verdict of the people". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    153. Tara Francis Chan (10 May 2018). "In a historic election, Malaysia's allegedly corrupt prime minister lost to his 92-year-old former mentor who ran on behalf of a man he put in jail". Business Insider Malaysia. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
    154. Kishen Alex Raj (11 May 2018). "Malaysians throng vicinity of Palace to celebrate swearing in of Tun M". The Sun. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
    155. "Ratusan penyokong Warisan-DAP-PKR berhimpun" [Hundreds of Warisan-DAP-PKR supporters gathered] (in Malay). Astro Awani. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
    156. "Sabah Chief Minister Musa Aman announces new state Cabinet". The Straits Times. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
    157. "UPKO bentuk pakatan dengan Warisan" [UPKO form a pact with Warisan] (in Malay). Berita Harian. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
    158. Alyaa Azhar (12 May 2018). "Shafie to be sworn in as Sabah CM tonight, says Warisan deputy". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    159. "Second Sabah BN component party quits the coalition". Malaysiakini. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    160. "PBRS leaves Sabah BN, third party to cross over". The Star. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    161. Stephanie Lee; Fatimah Zainal (12 May 2018). "PBS leaves BN, Musa Aman to leave Umno and join PBS". The Star. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    162. "PAS proposes unity government for Perak". Bernama. The Edge Markets. 11 May 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    163. "Pakatan forms Perak government with 2 from BN". Free Malaysia Today. 12 May 2018. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    164. Zulaikha Zulkifli (14 May 2018). "2 ADUN Umno sokong HARAPAN di Perak gugur ahli" [2 Umno State Assemblymen support HARAPAN in Perak dropping member] (in Malay). Malaysiakini. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
    165. Shamsul Kamal Amarudin; Muhammad Apendy Issahak; Mohd Hafizee Mohd Arop; Teh Athirah Yusof; Farah Suhaidah Othman (12 May 2018). "Faizal Azumu Menteri Besar Perak ke-12" [Faizal Azumu the 12th Menteri Besar of Perak] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    166. "Three Umno reps defect to Bersatu, giving Harapan two-thirds in Johor". Malaysiakini. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    167. "2 Ahli Parlimen Bebas Sarawak sertai PKR" [2 Sarawak Independent Member of Parliament joined PKR] (in Malay). Berita Harian. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    168. "Calon Bebas menang kerusi Parlimen Julau" [Independent candidate win the Julau Parliamentary seat] (in Malay). Berita Harian. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
    169. "Batu MP Prabakaran joins PKR". Malaysiakini. 13 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
    170. Shannon Teoh (28 April 2018). "Malaysia election: PKR vice-president Tian Chua disqualified from contesting". The Straits Times. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
    171. Loghun Kumaran (14 May 2018). "Sungai Manik rep applies to join PPBM". The Malay Mail. Yahoo! News Singapore. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
    172. "MyPPP leaves BN with immediate effect". New Straits Times. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    173. "MyPPP says it's staying in BN, after Kayveas says it's leaving". Malaysiakini. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    174. Hanis Zainal (30 April 2018). "MyPPP reiterates that Kayveas was expelled". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    175. Mazwin Nik Anis (14 January 2019). "RoS deregisters MyPPP, party has 30 days to appeal". The Star. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
    176. "Gerakan leaves Barisan Nasional". New Straits Times. 23 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
    177. Ivan Loh (24 June 2018). "Bagan Serai MP quits Umno, pledges support for Pakatan Harapan". The Star. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
    178. "Bukit Gantang MP quits Umno". Free Malaysia Today. 27 June 2018. Archived from the original on 1 November 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
    179. "Former Puteri Umno chief quits party, upset with results of polls". The Star. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
    180. "Tok Pa quits Umno, disagrees with party's direction (updated)". The Star. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    181. Natasha Joibi (19 September 2018). "After Tok Pa's exit, Anifah Aman too quits Umno". The Star. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    182. Stephanie Lee (12 October 2018). "Labuan MP Rozman quits Umno, joins Warisan". The Star. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
    183. Muguntan Vanar; Stephanie Lee; Natasha Joibi (12 December 2018). "Sabah Umno exodus sees nine of 10 Aduns, five of six MPs leave". The Star. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
    184. Mazwin Nik Anis; Muguntan Vanar; Zakiah Koya (15 December 2018). "Six more MPs leave Umno". The Star. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
    185. Zulaikha Zulkifli (12 May 2018). "Najib resigns as Umno, BN chief". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
    186. Michael Murty (12 May 2018). "Najib resigns party posts, Zahid to take over". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
    187. Hemananthani Sivanandam; Tarrence Tan (1 July 2018). "Zahid Hamidi officially wins Umno presidency". The Star. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
    188. "Pakatan Harapan govt collapses".
    189. "Muhyiddin sworn in as PM".
    190. "Barisan Nasional in Johor says it's ready to form new state govt as PH collapses". 25 February 2020.
    191. "Melaka govt collapses, new CM to be chosen | Free Malaysia Today". Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
    192. "Mukhriz: Kedah status quo until next GE | New Straits Times".
    193. "Two PKR assemblymen quit party, Kedah govt loses majority support of state assembly".
    194. Angelin Yeoh (3 Ogos 2018). ‘Rise: Ini Kalilah’ a film for Malaysians who made a difference in GE14 The Star Online. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
    195. 'Rise: Ini Kalilah' hargai keberanian rakyat Malaysia Astro Awani (6 September 2018). Retrieved 27 September 2018.

    Official websites

    Other websites


    This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.