Pakatan Rakyat

The People's Alliance (Malay: Pakatan Rakyat; abbrev: PR) was an informal Malaysian political coalition and successor to Barisan Alternatif (BA).[1] The political coalition was formed by the People's Justice Party (PKR), Democratic Action Party (DAP), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) on 1 April 2008, after the 12th Malaysian general election, having previously formed the Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) in the 10th general election. On 20 April 2010, the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) officially joined as a member of the Pakatan Rakyat after being expelled from Barisan Nasional, but quit the coalition on 6 May 2011.[2][3] The DAP declared the coalition "dead" on 16 June 2015, citing the inability of the rest of the alliance to work with PAS, after PAS's congress passed the motion to sever ties with DAP without debate. It was succeeded by Pakatan Harapan and Gagasan Sejahtera.[4]

People's Alliance
Malay namePakatan Rakyat
ڤاكتن رعيت
Chinese name人民聯盟
Rénmín Liánméng
Tamil nameபக்காத்தான் ராக்யாட்
Pakkāttāṉ Rākyāṭ
LeaderAnwar Ibrahim
Founded1 April 2008
Dissolved16 June 2015
Preceded byBarisan Alternatif
Succeeded byPakatan Harapan and Gagasan Sejahtera
HeadquartersPetaling Jaya, Malaysia (PKR)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (DAP & PAS)
Kuching, Malaysia (SNAP)
NewspaperSuara Keadilan
The Rocket
MembershipPeople's Justice Party (PKR)
Democratic Action Party (DAP)
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)
Sarawak National Party (SNAP) April 2010 – May 2011
IdeologySocial liberalism
Social democracy
Social justice
Political positionCentre to centre-left
ColoursOrange and white
SloganBerpadu, Berubah, Berkat
Election symbol


The Pakatan Rakyat was touted to be a maturing development of the concept of Barisan Alternatif (English: Alternative Front) that was created during the election campaign of the 10th Malaysian General Election in 1999. Barisan Alternative was the banner and policy position document which a group of Malaysian opposition political parties (DAP, KeADILan, PAS and PRM) endorsed and coalesced around for that election.

In the 2008 general election (12th Malaysian General Election), PKR, DAP, and PAS had also won 41, 73, and 86 seats, respectively, in various state assemblies.

Pakatan Rakyat was never registered with the Malaysian Registrar of Societies (ROS). They claim that Malaysian law only allows the registration of a coalition comprising seven parties or more.

In October 2009, the ROS stated that Pakatan Rakyat could formally register as a coalition, as "The condition does not apply to political parties as they enjoy a national status. Only [a] state-level organisation aspiring to become a national entity needs to have seven members from the states".[5] On 9 October 2009, Lim Kit Siang announced that Pakatan would seek to register itself as a formal coalition in light of this clarification.[6] On 4 November 2009, Pakatan Rakyat officials told the press that they had submitted a formal application to the ROS, naming Zaid Ibrahim as the chairman of the alliance.[7] PKR MP and Information Chief Tian Chua publicly denied this, saying the coalition had not yet decided on a constitution, logo, or leadership structure. In February 2010, Pakatan Rakyat claimed it had made a fresh application to ROS as "Pakatan Rakyat Malaysia" because the name "Pakatan Rakyat" is still being registered and processed under Zaid Ibrahim's name as the pro-tem chairman.[8]

By law, the ROS cannot consider any other application that has the same phrase in it, and has asked Pakatan Rakyat to file a fresh application. In November 2011, Pakatan Rakyat appointed PAS central committee member Kamarudin Jaffar to make a fresh application, but RoS director-general Abdul Rahman Othman claimed Kamaruddin had never approached his department. Abdul Rahman said that the ROS has no problem in approving Pakatan's registration and that he could not refuse a request made by any MP.[9]

Zaid had issued a statement on Pakatan Rakyat's ideology, stating that in government, it would introduce anti-discrimination laws, set up a social safety net, establish a new education policy aimed at producing competitive graduates, especially among the Malays and Bumiputra, repeal the Internal Security Act and Printing Presses and Publications Act, amend the Official Secrets Act and Sedition Act to limit the government's power, and reform law enforcement institutions like the courts, the Royal Malaysian Police, and the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission. Zaid also said that the proposed anti-discrimination law would not require the repeal or amendment of Article 153 of the Constitution.[10] Zaid has also request PAS's Spiritual Leader Dato' Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat to become the chairman of Pakatan Rakyat instead of Anwar Ibrahim (PKR) or Hadi Awang (PAS). In November 2010, after a six-month leave from PKR over undisclosed reasons, Zaid Ibrahim quit PKR, causing the Pakatan Rakyat to remain as an informal coalition.

In the 2013 general election (13th Malaysian General Election), the still unregistered Pakatan Rakyat won a popular majority nationwide, but due to large variations in the number of electors in different parliamentary seats, lost to the Barisan Nasional, which won 133 of the 222 federal seats and 275 of the 505 state seats.[11][12]

On 16 June 2015 DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng in a statement to the media announced that Pakatan Rakyat ceased to exist. DAP adviser Lim Kit Siang said the party's action was to recognise the current political reality. He added there was a need for a new political coalition based on principles, and not sheer power.[13]


Pakatan Rakyat basic framework policies are:

  • Transparent and genuine democracy
  1. Constitutional nation and rule of law
  2. Separation of power
  3. Free, clean, and fair election system
  • Driving a high performance, sustainable, and equitable economy
  1. High-skill economy
  2. Decentralisation and empowerment of the states' economic management
  3. Affirmative policy based on requirements
  4. Labour
  5. Social protection network
  6. Housing
  7. Infrastructure and public facilities
  8. Environment
  • Social justice and human development
  1. Solidarity and social justice
  2. Religion
  3. Education
  4. Women and family institutions
  5. Youth
  6. Security
  7. Health
  8. Culture
  • Federal–State relationship and foreign policy
  1. Federal system
  2. Sabah and Sarawak
  3. Foreign policy

Pakatan Rakyat further their policy through the introduction of "Orange Book", also known as Buku Jingga, which outlining the policies together with Pakatan.

Alternative budgets

By year (Malay version)

2012 · 2013 · 2014 · 2015

By year (English version)

2012 · 2013 · 2014 · 2015

Component parties

Elected representatives

List of Pakatan Rakyat leaders


Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) 2015

Prevention of Terrorism Act 2015 (POTA) is a law to prevent the spreading of terrorist ideologies to Malaysia.However, it has been criticised by groups such as the Malaysian Bar as a repressive legislation, likened to the repealed Internal Security Act (ISA).DAP parliamentary leader Lim Kit Siang have been noted to have told off Home Minister Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi for failing to consult Pakatan Rakyat (PR) and civil society regarding POTA.[14]

On 7 April 2015, after 12 hours of debating, POTA were passed by the Parliament without any amendment.[15] The law were passed with 79 votes in favour and 60 against at 2.25 am.[16] However, the absent of 26 Pakatan Rakyat lawmakers were heavily condemned by PR supporters, civil society activists and demonstrators.[17] Many PR supporters who felt let down by their MPs vented their anger through the social media and news portals questioning their commitment in standing walking the talk against what they claimed to be an oppressive law.[18] Leading the critics were a victim of 2014 Malaysian sedition dragnet, Dr. Azmi Sharom. He, sarcastically "thanked" those who absent for making POTA bill a reality.[19][20] P Ramakrishnan, an Aliran executive committee member comment that them have acted irresponsibly and have betrayed the expectations of Malaysians.[21][22] Mohamed Fudzail for The Malaysian Insider demand them to stop making dramas and this only prove the perceptions that lawmakers from either side will always take their position for granted.[23] Ishmael Lim for Free Malaysia Today wrote that those lawmakers have failed to be an example for Malaysian will of change.[24] Fa Abdul urged the PR leaders to publish those who absent.[25] Amiran Ruslan, a journalist for The Rakyat Post called those who absent as ignorant.[26] Khairie Hisyam Aliman, a columnist for The Malay Mail Online said that them were elected to be in the Parliament but not the other way around.[27] Amirul Ruslan, a journalist criticise even though with vigorous and repeated criticism of the bill, it was Pakatan lawmakers who failed to muster the numbers.[28][29] Solidariti Anak Muda Malaysia, a pro-Opposition NGO, slammed PR lawmakers who play truant while passing important bills.[30] The absence of a third of PR lawmakers was also being noted when the Kampung Baru Development Bill and Prevention of Crime Act were proved in the last term.[31][32]

Director of Merdeka Centre Ibrahim Suffian say that could disenchant Pakatan backers and "shameful".[33] Among those who were absent include PKR parliamentary whip, Datuk Johari Abdul, PAS parliamentary whip, Datuk Seri Mahfuz Omar and PKR's Secretary General, Rafizi Ramli. DAP parliamentary whip Anthony Loke demand clarifies that only two of their members were absent, which include DAP secretary general, Lim Guan Eng.[34] Other than two DAP lawmakers, each PAS and PKR had eleven lawmakers absent. They however, claimed that they had their own valid reasons for skipping POTA's bill, such as the long-drawn debate.[35][36]

General election results

Election Total seats won Seats contested Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
82 / 222
222 3,796,464 46.75% 82 seats; Opposition coalition Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Anwar Ibrahim (de facto)
89 / 222
222 5,623,984 50.87% 7 seats; Opposition coalition Anwar Ibrahim

State election results


  1. Farouq Johari (18 June 2015). "Kisah 7 Tahun 2 Bulan Pakatan Rakyat Yang Kini Hanya Tinggal Kenangan" (in Malay). Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  2. Jack Wong (6 May 2011). "SNAP quits Pakatan". The Star. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  3. Peter Sibon (7 May 2011). "SNAP quits Pakatan". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  4. "Pakatan Rakyat no longer exists, says DAPs Lim Guan Eng". Astro Awani. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  5. "ROS: Pakatan can register as a single party". Malaysiakini. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  6. "Pakatan Rakyat to register as a coalition". The Malaysian Insider. 9 October 2009. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  7. "Zaid to helm Pakatan Rakyat". Malaysiakini. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  8. "No decision on 'Zaid to lead Pakatan', yet". Malaysiakini. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  9. Susan Loo (10 November 2011). "RoS denies Pakatan filed new bid to register". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  10. Leslie Lau (10 August 2009). "Zaid outlines blueprint for Pakatan government". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
  11. "What's Malay for gerrymandering?". The Economist. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  12. "Home [PRU13]". Election Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  13. "Malaysia's opposition Pakatan Rakyat alliance ceases to exist: DAP". Channel News Asia. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  14. "Zahid slammed for not consulting Pakatan on anti-terror bill". The Malaysian Insider. 5 April 2015. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  15. Karen Arukesamy (7 April 2015). "Pota passed after heated debate". The Sun. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  16. "Dewan Rakyat lulus POTA selepas lebih 12 jam dibahas" (in Malay). Astro Awani. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  17. "79-60: Did lazy, absentee Pakatan MPs let the 'rakyat' down over Pota". Malaysia Chronicle. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  18. Peter Sibon; Lian Cheng (8 April 2015). "PR pilloried over Pota". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  19. Elizabeth Zachariah (8 April 2015). "Thanks for passing anti-terror bill, academic tells Pakatan MPs". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  20. Elizabeth Zachariah (8 April 2015). "'Awak kat mana', soalan kepada ahli Parlimen Pakatan ketika Pota diluluskan" (in Malay). The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  21. "Pakatan Rakyat goofed in regard to POTA". Free Malaysia Today. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  22. P Ramakrishnan (8 April 2015). "Pakatan betrayed Malaysians by allowing passage of Pota". Aliran. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  23. "Awak semua kat mana? – Mohamed Fudzail" (in Malay). The Malaysian Insider. 8 April 2015. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  24. Ishmael Lim (8 April 2015). "Live with your guilt, you truant MPs". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  25. Fa Abdul (8 April 2015). "Wanted: Missing Pakatan Rakyat MPs". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  26. Amirul Ruslan (7 April 2015). "Ignore the bluster: Pakatan let the rakyat down over Pota". The Rakyat Post. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  27. Khairie Hisyam Aliman (8 April 2015). "Pakatan should have been there in full against Pota". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  28. "Ignore the bluster and big talk: Pakatan Rakyat let the rakyat down over Pota — Amirul Ruslan". The Malay Mail. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  29. "Pakatan Rakyat let the rakyat down over POTA". Free Malaysia Today. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  30. Rajina Dhillon (8 April 2015). "SAMM slams PR lawmakers who play truant while passing important bills". The Rakyat Post. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  31. Adrian Lai (8 April 2015). "Pakatan MPs' absenteeism a betrayal of the people's trust". New Straits Times. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  32. "Pakatan MPs slammed for absence during PCA vote". Malaysiakini. Yahoo! News. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  33. Syed Jaymal Zahiid (7 April 2015). "MPs missing from Pota fight could disenchant Pakatan backers, analysts say". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  34. "Amid absenteeism criticism, DAP stresses only two MPs missed Pota debate". The Malay Mail. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  35. Anisah Shukry (8 April 2015). "Pakatan MPs say had valid reasons for skipping anti-terror bill vote". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  36. "Pakatan on why its MPs were absent during Pota Bill vote". The Star. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
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