Putrajaya (Malaysian pronunciation: [putraˈdʒaja, putrəˈdʒajə]), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia.[4] The seat of the federal government of Malaysia was moved in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya because of overcrowding and congestion in the former,[5] whilst the seat of the judiciary of Malaysia was later moved to Putrajaya in 2003.[6] Kuala Lumpur remains as Malaysia's national capital city per the constitution and is still the seat of the head of state (Yang di-Pertuan Agong) and the national legislature (Parliament of Malaysia), as well as being the country's commercial and financial centre.

Prang Besar
Federal Territory of Putrajaya
Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya
Other transcription(s)
Putrājāyā (Transliteration)
From top, left to right:
Perdana Putra housed the office of the Malaysia's Prime Minister, the Putra Mosque, the Putrajaya Corporation Complex, the Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Mosque, the PICC, Seri Wawasan Bridge, High-rise ministry complexes, and Aerial view of Putrajaya
"Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari"
("Garden City, Intelligent City")
   Putrajaya in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 02°55′48″N 101°41′24″E
First settledc.1921
Planned city established19 October 1995
Transferred from Selangor to federal jurisdiction1 February 2001
  TypeDirect federal administration
  Administered byPutrajaya Corporation
  ChairmanMuhammad Azmi Mohd Zain
  Total49 km2 (19 sq mi)
  Density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
Human Development Index
  HDI (2019)[3]0.856 (very high) (3rd)
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
Calling code+603-88
ISO 3166 codeMY-16
Mean solar timeUTC+06:46:40
Vehicle registrationF and Putrajaya
Rapid Transit

The establishment of Putrajaya was the idea of the then-Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. The development of Putrajaya began in August 1995 and it was completed at an estimated cost of US$8.1 billion.[7] On February 1, 2001, Putrajaya became Malaysia's third federal territory, after Kuala Lumpur in 1974 and Labuan in 1984.[7] Putrajaya is also a part of MSC Malaysia, a special economic zone that covers Klang Valley.


Putrajaya was named after the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj; the territory is entirely enclaved within the Sepang District of the state of Selangor. The etymology of the city is derived from the Sanskrit language, which was then adopted into Malay; "putra" (पुत्र) means son and "jaya" (जया) means "success" or "victory"; hence Putrajaya means victorious men or people.[8]

History and design

Putrajaya precincts

Prang Besar (Jawi: ڤراڠ بسر, alternately Perang Besar (Malay for "Great War"), was founded in 1921 on land that was jungle, as a rubber plantation by British veterans of World War I, hence the name.[9] Its land area of 800 acres (3.2 km2) expanded to 8,000 acres (32 km2), and it was merged with surrounding estates, including Estet Raja Alang, Estet Galloway and Estet Bukit Prang.

Until 1975, what is today Putrajaya, along with adjacent Cyberjaya, was under the administration of Hulu Langat (Kajang) district.

The vision of a new Federal Government Administrative Centre to replace Kuala Lumpur as the administrative capital emerged in the late 1980s, during the tenure of Malaysia's fourth prime minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad. A new city adjacent to Kuala Lumpur was envisioned, where the government would systematically locate its government offices within an efficient administrative hub; as opposed to the past where government offices were previously scattered across the congested Kuala Lumpur.[7] The new city was proposed to be located between Kuala Lumpur and the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). Two areas were proposed: Prang Besar and Janda Baik of Pahang.[10] The new name Putrajaya was chosen for the site.

The federal government negotiated with the state of Selangor on the prospect of another federal territory. In the mid-1990s, the federal government paid a substantial amount of money to Selangor for approximately 11,320 acres (45.8 km2) of land in Prang Besar, Selangor. As a result of this land purchase, Selangor now surrounds two federal territories within its borders: Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.

Planned as a garden city and intelligent city, 38% of the area is green spaces in which the natural landscape is enhanced. The plan incorporated a network of open spaces and wide boulevards. Construction began in August 1995; it was Malaysia's biggest project and one of Southeast Asia's largest, with an estimated final cost of US$8.1 billion. The entire project was designed and constructed by Malaysian companies, with only 10% imported materials.

The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997/1998 somewhat slowed the development of Putrajaya. 300 members of the Prime Minister's office staff moved there in 1999, and the remaining government servants moved in 2005. On 1 February 2001, the city was formally transferred to the federal government and declared Malaysia's third federal territory.[11]

In 2002, a rail line called KLIA Transit was opened, linking Putrajaya to KLIA in Sepang. The construction of the Putrajaya Monorail, which was intended to be the city's metro system, was suspended owing to high costs. One of the monorail suspension bridges in Putrajaya remains unused.

In April 2013, the Putrajaya government signed a letter of intent (LOI) with the government of Sejong City in South Korea to mark co-operation between the two cities.[12][13]

Government and politics

As of 2012, all of Malaysia's governmental ministries had relocated to Putrajaya. Government ministries and bodies remaining in Kuala Lumpur include the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) and Ministry of Works (KKR), as well as Bank Negara Malaysia and Royal Malaysian Police. The Parliament of Malaysia also remained in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia. Foreign embassies and missions except Brunei still remain in Kuala Lumpur.

The local government in Putrajaya is the responsibility of the Putrajaya Corporation (Perbadanan Putrajaya), a unique local authority. Previously it was administered by the Sepang District Council.

Putrajaya is represented in the Parliament of Malaysia by one elected MP in the Dewan Rakyat, under the seat of Putrajaya, as well as one appointed senator in the Dewan Negara.

As with the other federal territories of Malaysia, Putrajaya does not have a territorial legislature.

Parliament Seat Name Member of Parliament Party
P125 Putrajaya Mohd Radzi Md Jidin PN (BERSATU)



Historical population
2010 68,361    
2015 88,300+29.2%
2020 109,202+23.7%
Source: [14]
Ethnic groups in Putrajaya - 2020 Census[14]
ethnic groups percent

In 2007 the population of Putrajaya was estimated to be over 30,000, which comprised mainly government servants. Government public servants have been encouraged to relocate to the city through various government subsidy and loan programs. The population had increased to 88,300 by 2015.[15]

Religious demography

Religion in Putrajaya - 2020 Census[14]
religion percent
Unknown / None

As of 2020, the population of Putrajaya is 97.2% Muslim, 1.1% Hindu, 0.8% Christian, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.4% unknown and 0.1% other religions. The Malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a "Malay" as an individual who professes Islam, speak Malay regularly, practises Malay customs, and has lived in or has ancestors from Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, and Singapore.


Most of the infrastructures in Putrajaya adopt Middle-Eastern architectural designs, which symbolises Malaysian Islamic Identity.[16]

Government complexes

Perdana Putra, the Prime Minister's office
Istana Melawati

Infrastructure and places of worship

  • Alamanda Putrajaya Shopping Centre - the only shopping mall within Putrajaya
  • Heritage Square
  • Putrajaya Corporation Square
  • Selera Putra
  • Souq Putrajaya
  • Pusat Kejiranan Presint 9
  • Pusat Kejiranan Presint 16
  • Putra Mosque
  • Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Mosque
  • PUSPANITAPURI (Persatuan Kesejahteraan Rakyat Malaysia)


  • Putrajaya Landmark
  • Millennium Monument
  • National Heroes Square

Open spaces

  • Putrajaya Lake
  • Putra Square
  • Putrajaya Wetlands Park
  • Taman Selatan
  • Putrajaya Botanical Gardens – The biggest botanical garden in Malaysia, covering an area over 92 hectares[17]

Educational institutions

Kindergarten and Pre-School

Primary & Secondary Education in Putrajaya is provided by a few schools such as:

  • SK Putrajaya Presint 5 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 8 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 8 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 9 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 9 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 11 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 11 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 11 (3)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 14 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 16 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 16 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 17 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 18 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 18 (2)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 5 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 8 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 9
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 9 (2)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 11 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 11 (2)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 14 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 16 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 18 (1)

There are also two elite fully residential schools in Putrajaya:

  • Sekolah Sultan Alam Shah
  • Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Putrajaya (SMAPUTRA)

Other universities:

International Schools

  • Nexus International School, Presint 15.
  • The International Modern Arabic School, Presint 14.


Putrajaya is home to the world's largest roundabout, the Persiaran Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah with a perimeter of 3.5 km. (2.7 miles)

Major highways

Putrajaya is surrounded by federal highways 29 on the western side and 30 on the eastern side. The South Klang Valley Expressway E26, connecting Pulau Indah to Kajang, runs through the northern end of Putrajaya. ELITE E6 exit 607 serves Putrajaya and also nearby Cyberjaya. Highway 29 interchanges with Damansara–Puchong Expressway (LDP) E11 in the northwestern corner of Putrajaya, linking the city with Puchong, Subang Jaya, Kelana Jaya and to Kepong.

Within Putrajaya, the following roads serve as the main thoroughfares of the city.

  • Persiaran Persekutuan
  • Persiaran Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (The world's largest roundabout with a diameter of 3.5 km (2.2 miles))
  • Persiaran Utara
  • Lebuh Sentosa
  • Persiaran Barat
  • Persiaran Selatan
  • Persiaran Timur
  • Persiaran Perdana (Boulevard)

List of road bridges

Seri Wawasan Bridge
  • Seri Perdana Bridge
  • Putra Bridge
  • Seri Wawasan Bridge
  • Seri Bakti Bridge
  • Seri Saujana Bridge
  • Seri Bestari Bridge
  • Seri Setia Bridge
  • Seri Gemilang Bridge


The only direct rail connection to Putrajaya is the 7 KLIA Transit line through the  KT3  Putrajaya & Cyberjaya station within the Putrajaya Sentral transportation hub, which connects to KL Sentral, Bandar Tasik Selatan, Salak Tinggi, KLIA and klia2.[19] The 12 MRT Putrajaya Line scheduled for completion in 2022/2023, will terminate at Putrajaya Sentral.[20]

The proposed  HSR  Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail will also connect to Putrajaya along the route from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore but will be located near the borders of Putrajaya, in nearby Presint 14.

Around 2003, plans for a monorail in Putrajaya were under construction but were halted due to low population. However, plans to revive the construction of the 14 Putrajaya Monorail, with proposed connections to Kajang, Bandar Baru Bangi and Cyberjaya, are currently underway.


Putrajaya Corporation provides its own stage bus services through its subsidiary Nadi Putra using natural gas-powered buses and a few electric buses. The bus service serves the entirety of Putrajaya as well as Cyberjaya and provides express bus routes to Kuala Lumpur through Puduraya and a few other nearby cities from its hubs at Putrajaya Sentral, and P&R Presint 14.[21] Bus stops in Putrajaya are very common too and serves Nadi Putra. Rapid KL, Causeway Link and Cityliner also provides bus services to other areas from Putrajaya Sentral such as Banting, Puchong, Bandar Utama and Petaling Jaya.

Intercity buses also serve bus routes from Putrajaya Sentral to the northern states.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Putrajaya is twinned with these cities:


Putrajaya has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round and high temperatures throughout the year. Typical cities, towns, and other geographical regions with this climate, Putrajaya does not have a true dry season. The average temperature in Putrajaya is 27.1 °C, which is measured at approximately 80.8 °F. Over the course of a yearly period, the rainfall averages 2307 mm in Putrajaya, which is approximately 90.8 inches.[24]

Climate data for Putrajaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.5
Average low °C (°F) 22.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 168
Source: Climate-Data.org[25]
Panoramic image of Putrajaya, (from left to right) the Putra Bridge, the Ministry of Finance on the left, the Seri Wawasan Bridge, the Istana Darul Ehsan next to it
Panorama of Putrajaya from Cyberjaya Lake Gardens in February 2011.

See also


  1. "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  2. "Malaysia's population stood at 32.6 million in Q4 2018". The Borneo Post. 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  3. "Subnational Human Development Index (2.1) [Sabah – Malaysia]". Global Data Lab of Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  4. Moser, Sarah (1 August 2010). "Putrajaya: Malaysia's new federal administrative capital". Cities. 27 (4): 285–297. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2009.11.002. ISSN 0264-2751.
  5. "The journey of Putrajaya — Malaysia's jewel capital city". The Malaysian Reserve. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  6. "History of Building – CACJ". Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  7. Landau, Esther (25 September 2020). "NST175: From Prang Besar to Putrajaya | New Straits Times". NST Online. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  8. "Fanciful origins of Malaysian town names". The Star. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  9. "The Story of Prang Besar". Arabis.org. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  10. (in Malay)Abdullah, Hasfiza (February 2012). DARI PRANG BESAR KE PUTRAJAYA. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  11. "PM isytihar Putrajaya sebagai Wilayah Persekutuan". Utusan Malaysia. 2 February 2001. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  12. "Closer ties between Putrajaya and Sejong, Korea". (Archived from the original) The Star (Malaysia). Saturday 6 April 2013. Updated on Friday 26 April 2013. Retrieved on 1 January 2014.
  13. "Malaysian envoy acclaims Sejong City." (Archive) The Korea Times. 23 September 2012.
  14. "Key Findings Population and Housing Census of Malaysia, 2020" (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia.
  15. "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  16. Post‐colonial projects of a national culture
  17. "Putrajaya Botanical Garden (Taman Botani)". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  18. "Heriot-Watt University Malaysia". Hw.ac.uk.
  19. "KLIAtransit Schedule - KLIA Ekspres". Kliaekspres.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  20. "MYMRT | MRT Corp - Official webpage for the Klang Valley My Rapid Transit". Mymrt.com.my. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  21. "PENGANGKUTAN AWAM PUTRAJAYA SDN BHD". Papsb.com.my. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  22. "Международный авторитет Астаны повышают города-побратимы". inform.kz (in Russian). KazInform. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  23. Yeen, Oh Ing. "Closer ties between Putrajaya and Sejong, Korea - Community | The Star Online". Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  24. "Putrajaya climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Putrajaya weather averagesg". En.climate-data.org. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  25. "Climate: Putrajaya". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 30 July 2020.

Further reading

  • King, Ross: Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya: Negotiating Urban Space in Malaysia, Nias Press, 2008
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