Pan Pan (kingdom)

Pan Pan or Panpan is a lost small Hindu Kingdom believed to have existed around the 3rd to 7th century CE. It is believed to have been located on the east coast of the Malay peninsula, with opinion varying from somewhere in Kelantan or Terengganu, in modern-day Malaysia[1] to the vicinity of Amphoe Phunphin, Surat Thani Province, in modern Thailand.[2] It is speculated to be related to Pan tan i (Pattani Kingdom), which occupied the same area many centuries later, and has some differences in culture and language to other Malay regions nearby.

Pan Pan
300 AD–700 AD
Approximate location of Pan Pan.
Common languagesUnknown
300 AD
700 AD
Succeeded by
Today part ofMalaysia


Little is known about this kingdom. The kingdom was later conquered by Srivijaya under the leadership of Dharmasetu before 775 CE.[3]

From the period of 424 to 453, Pan Pan sent its first missions to the Chinese Liu Song dynasty.[4]:52 From here, Kaundinya II is said to have tried to re-introduce Hinduism to the Kingdom of Funan on the other side of the Gulf of Siam.[5]

In the years 529, 533, 534, 535 and 571, Pan Pan sent tribute to the Liang dynasty and the Chen dynasty of China.[6] In the years 616 and 637, Pan Pan sent tribute to the Chinese Tang dynasty.[7]

Though rare, archeological discoveries show proof of a lively economic flowering in the region through international maritime trade.[8]

See also


  1. Dougald J. W. O'Reilly (2007). Early Civilizations of Southeast Asia. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0-7591-0279-8.
  2. Joachim Schliesinger (2016). Origin of Man in Southeast Asia 3 Volume 3: Indianization and the Temples of the Mainland; Part 3 Pre-Modern Thailand, Laos and Burma. Booksmango. ISBN 978-1633237278.
  3. Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. pp. 130–131. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
  4. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  5. Hall, D.G.E. (1981). A History of South-East Asia, Fourth Edition. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-333-24163-0.
  6. Annals of Liang dynasty. Annals of Chen dynasty
  7. Annal of Tang dynasty. Foreign countries at the South.
  8. Jacq-Hergoualc'h, Micheal (2002). The Malay Peninsula: Crossroads of the Maritime Silk-Road (100 Bc-1300 Ad). BRILL. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-90-04-11973-4.
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