Assassination of Kim Jong-nam

On 13 February 2017, the eldest son of Kim Jong-il and half-brother of Kim Jong-un, Kim Jong-nam, was attacked with the nerve agent VX at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia. He had been exiled from North Korea in 2003 and had been living abroad.

Assassination of Kim Jong-nam
KLIA2 main lobby; pictured in September 2016, the site of Nam's assassination
LocationKuala Lumpur International Airport 2, Malaysia
Coordinates2°44′35″N 101°41′10″E
Date13 February 2017 (2017-02-13)
TargetKim Jong-nam
WeaponsVX nerve agent
ConvictionsOne convicted of "voluntarily causing injuries by dangerous weapons or means"

Following his visit to the resort island Langkawi, Kim Jong-nam had arrived at terminal 2 sometime before 9:00 a.m. to take a 10:50 a.m. AirAsia flight to Macau. At approximately 9:00 a.m., two women attacked Kim Jong-nam with the VX nerve agent. He died about 15 to 20 minutes later.

The women were identified as Siti Aisyah, an Indonesian and Đoàn Thị Hương, a Vietnamese. Both were charged with the murder of Kim Jong-nam. The charges were dropped, although Hương pled guilty to "voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means" and received a sentence of three years and four months. Four North Korean suspects left the airport shortly after the assassination and reached Pyongyang without being arrested. Other North Koreans were arrested but were released without charge.

It is widely believed that Kim Jong-nam was murdered on the orders of Kim Jong-un.[1][2][3]


Kim Jong-nam arrived in Malaysia on 6 February 2017, traveling to the resort island of Langkawi on 8 February.[4][5] On 13 February 2017, at about 9 am,[6] he was attacked by two women, one of whom was Vietnamese while the other was Indonesian,[7] with VX nerve agent near an airport self check-in kiosk at level 3, departure hall in KLIA 2, the low-cost carrier terminal at Kuala Lumpur International Airport[8] while waiting for a 10:50 a.m. AirAsia flight to Macau.[9] VX is a chemical weapon banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. North Korea, which has not ratified the convention, is suspected of holding a stockpile.[10][11][12][13]

Malaysian police said that Kim had alerted an airport receptionist, saying that "someone had grabbed him from behind and splashed a liquid on his face" and a woman "covered his face with a cloth laced with a liquid".[14][6]

A resuscitation device was strapped to Kim's face, and he was then transported by stretcher through the airport to reach an ambulance.[15]

Kim was treated at the airport in the Menara Medical Clinic by nurse Rabiatul Adawiyah Mohd Sofi and Dr. Nik Mohd Adzrul Ariff Raja Azlan, who later testified that he was sweating, in pain and unresponsive.[14][16] At the clinic, Kim was given 1 mg of atropine, and also adrenaline.[17] Kim required tracheal intubation, and the saliva, vomit and blood in his mouth needed to be suctioned out.[17]

He died about 15 to 20 minutes after the attack while being transferred from the airport to the Putrajaya Hospital.[18][7][19][20]

As he was traveling under the pseudonym "Kim Chol", Malaysian officials did not immediately formally confirm that Kim Jong-nam was the man killed.[13][21] Kim's extensive Facebook usage under this pseudonym since at least 2010, and usage of commercial email services for communications, may have made it easier for North Korean agents to seek his whereabouts and track his movements.[22] At the time of his death, Kim's backpack contained approximately $100,000 in cash and he was carrying four North Korean passports, all bearing the name Kim Chol.[23][24]

On 15 February, Malaysian police arrested 28-year-old Vietnamese woman Đoàn Thị Hương at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in connection with the attack.[25][21] Hương was identified through CCTV footage.[26] On 16 February, a 25-year-old Indonesian woman named Siti Aisyah was arrested and identified as the second female suspect.[27] Aisyah's boyfriend, a 26-year-old Malaysian named Muhammad Farid bin Jalaluddin,[nb 1] was also arrested on 16 February to assist in the investigation.[23][28]

Hương told the police that she was instructed by four men who were traveling with them to spray Kim with an unidentified liquid while Aisyah held and covered his face with a handkerchief as part of a prank.[29] CCTV footage showed that Hương and Aisyah rushed to separate restrooms after carrying out the attack, and that they headed to the airport taxi stand after leaving the restrooms.[30] Hương was seen leaving the airport by taxi at around 9:30 a.m.[9] Hương claimed that after she returned to look for the others, they had disappeared and thus she decided to head back to the airport.[29]

On 17 February, police arrested a 46-year-old North Korean man named Ri Jong-chol.[31][32] He was described as an IT worker for Tombo Enterprise, living in Malaysia.[33]

International reactions

South Korea

Kim Myung-yeon, a spokesperson for South Korea's ruling party, described the killing as a "naked example of Kim Jong-un's reign of terror."[34] The South Korean government drew a parallel with the execution of Kim Jong-un's own uncle and others.[35][36] The acting President of South Korea, Hwang Kyo-ahn, said that if the murder was confirmed to be masterminded by North Korea, that would clearly depict the brutality and inhumanity of the regime.[37]

United States

North Korea was relisted as a state sponsor of terrorism by the United States on 20 November 2017, with the assassination cited as one of the reasons.[38]

In March 2018, the United States Department of State imposed additional sanctions on North Korea, having asserted that North Korea used VX nerve agent to assassinate Kim Jong-nam.[39][40]

On 10 June 2019, after the trial, The Wall Street Journal reported that former US officials stated Kim had been a CIA source. A book by Anna Fifield, The Washington Post bureau chief in Beijing, had earlier reported this, stating he had been previously filmed abroad with a US intelligence agent, and had carried a backpack that contained $120,000 in cash.[41][42][43]

Apology from North Korean officials to Vietnam

On 12 December 2018, it was reported that North Korean officials had informally apologized to Vietnam for involving a Vietnamese woman in the assassination following Vietnam's demands for an official apology and threats to sever diplomatic ties.[44]

Other reactions

The Executive Council of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) expressed "grave concern" over the incident and called for those responsible for the use of chemical weapons to be held accountable.[45]


An autopsy was conducted despite North Korean diplomats objecting to any such procedure on Kim's body.[26] Malaysian officials later commented that the autopsy proceeded as the North Korean diplomats failed to submit a formal protest.[28] A post-mortem on Kim was conducted on 15 February at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital mortuary in the presence of several North Korean officials,[46] and concluded the following day with formally confirming the identity of Kim's body.[28] The autopsy was conducted by pathologist Mohamad Shah Mahmood of Kuala Lumpur Hospital, who testified that Kim's lungs, brain, liver and spleen were affected by the poison.[47] Chemical pathologist Nur Ashikin Othman[nb 2] testified that Kim's urine showed the effects of being exposed to the poison.[47] Low levels of cholinesterase indicated that Jong-nam had been exposed to an insecticide or nerve agent.[17][48] Forensic consultant Dr. Nurliza bte Abdullah testified that Jong-nam's pupil constriction, and the feces in his underwear, suggested he had been poisoned.[49][50]

On 24 February, Malaysia's police chief Khalid Abu Bakar announced that a post-mortem toxicology report had found traces of the nerve agent VX on Kim's face.[11] According to experts, the use of VX gas may explain why two assailants were involved, because each assailant "could have wiped two or more precursors" in Kim's face.[10] This is referred to as a binary chemical weapon.[51][52] This method could ensure that the assailants were not themselves killed by the poison, which can be fatal in very small amounts; additionally, smuggling the chemical components into Malaysia separately could have helped avoid detection.[10][51][53] Aisyah reported she vomited in the taxi afterward and has continued to feel unwell.[19]

Chemical weapons experts Jean-Pascal Zanders and Richard Guthrie noted that the reported effects were not entirely consistent with the potency of VX—Kim was able to walk to the medical station without suffering spasms, paramedics were not affected, the assailants survived and there were no other reports of injury even though the scene of the attack was not cleaned for over a week. VX degrades rapidly in storage and North Korea's supplies are believed to be several years old, which could explain the apparent weakness of the chemical.[54]

On 10 March, police completed the autopsy, confirming that the deceased was Kim Jong-nam based on DNA provided by his son Kim Han-sol,[55] and the body was handed to the Ministry of Health for further action.[56] The Health Ministry said they would then give Kim's family two to three weeks to claim his body,[57] with the body having been embalmed to preserve it during the period.[58] The family, however, declined to take the body and gave the Malaysian authorities permission to manage the remains.[59] Over objections of Kim Han-sol, the body was flown to Pyongyang on 31 March.[60] Kim Jong-nam's blazer, backpack and watch were initially submitted to a police chemistry department for analysis, but subsequently returned to officials from the North Korean embassy.[24]

Diplomatic protest

Following Malaysia's refusal to release the body immediately, North Korea's ambassador Kang Chol accused Malaysia of collaborating with the country's enemies over the assassination of Kim Jong-nam.[61] The ambassador said they would reject the outcome of the post-mortem conducted "on its citizen without permission" and perceived the decision as a "violation of human rights" and thus would lodge a complaint to the International Court of Justice (ICJ).[31] The ambassador was summoned by the government of Malaysia on 20 February, while the Malaysian ambassador to North Korea was recalled.[62]

The ambassador then responded that they could not trust the investigation conducted by the Malaysian police, noting there had been no evidence of the cause of death even a week after the attack. He also proposed that North Korea and Malaysia open a joint investigation together in order to prevent influence from South Korea which, he said, was trying to malign North Korea as the party responsible for the killing.[63] Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak responded to the ambassador that his country would be objective during the investigation, rejecting the request for joint investigation.[64][65] On 22 February, Malaysian police said there was evidence of an attempted break-in at the mortuary where Kim's body was being held.[66]

The North Korean government rejected all findings, accused the Malaysian police of "fabricating evidence" in collusion with South Korea and demanded the release of the three people being held in connection with the death.[67]

North Korean–Malaysian dispute

On 28 February, the North Korean government dispatched a high level delegation to Malaysia.[68] North Korea said the claim that VX nerve agent was used to kill one of its citizens was "absurd" and lacked scientific basis, portraying it as an allegation jointly made by the United States and South Korea to tarnish its image,[69] adding that the death was caused by a "heart attack" as Kim Jong-nam has a record of heart disease. The North Koreans stressed that if it was indeed caused by the chemical, it should be proven by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[70] Malaysian police immediately rejected the North Korean claims.[71] However, in a statement released by the Malaysian Foreign Ministry, the country said it was already co-operating with OPCW.[72][13]

Malaysia announced that from 6 March they would cancel visa-free entry for North Koreans, citing "security issues".[73] On 4 March, the North Korean ambassador Kang Chol was declared persona non grata and asked to leave within 48 hours[74] with a similar move having been imposed by North Korea towards the Malaysian ambassador.[75] The North Korean authorities also reacted on 7 March by barring all Malaysian citizens in North Korea from leaving.[76] Malaysian authorities imposed reciprocal measures, prohibiting North Korean citizens from leaving Malaysia.[77]

On 30 March, former-Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak said that all Malaysians in North Korea as well as North Koreans in Malaysia would be allowed to return to their home countries after the receipt of a letter from Kim's family requesting his remains be returned to North Korea.[78]

Attempts to restore diplomatic relations

Following the 2018 North Korea–United States Summit held in Singapore on 12 June 2018, the new Malaysian-led government of Pakatan Harapan under Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad said

"the world should not treat North Korea leader Kim Jong-un with skepticism and instead learn from his new attitude towards bringing about peace".[79]

In a joint press conference in Tokyo, Japan, he said: "We hoped for a successful outcome from the historic meeting",[80] adding that "Malaysia will re-open their embassy in North Korea as an end to the diplomatic row over the assassination of Kim Jong-nam".[81] On 13 February 2019, Mahathir said that Malaysia will settle its problem with North Korea soon after the 2019 North Korea–United States Vietnam Summit held in Hanoi, Vietnam on 27-28 February 2019 but after the changing of leadership, no major statement has been issued since.[82][83]

Further investigations

According to lead police investigator Wan Azirul Nizam Che Wan Aziz, Kim Jong-nam told a friend that he feared his life was in danger six months before the assassination.[84]

One of the suspects, Siti Aisyah, had been in Malaysia at least a day before the attack reportedly to celebrate her birthday with her friends.[85] Aisyah was a divorced mother who worked as a spa masseuse in Kuala Lumpur. She regularly returned to Indonesia to meet her mother and son. She told her mother that she found a better job as an actor in prank video for the Chinese market.[86] After Hương and Aisyah were arrested, they claimed they thought they were participating in a prank.[87] According to both suspects, they were told to play harmless tricks on people in the vicinity for a prank TV show, one target being Kim Jong-nam.[88] They said they were promised US$100, but after losing contact with their handlers, they never received the money.[89]

According to their lawyers, Hương was recruited in December 2016 in Hanoi, Vietnam, while Aisyah was recruited in January 2017 by a Malaysian scout working for the North Koreans. The women were handled by separate teams of North Korean men, who posed as being from Japan and China, one of the recruiters being Ri Ji-u.[89] Since their recruitment, Aisyah had performed the prank on at least 10 occasions. She was flown to Phnom Penh to perform the prank three times with an offer of US$200, while Hương performed it four times in locations including the airport terminals and Mandarin Oriental hotel in Kuala Lumpur.[89] The prank involved approaching unsuspecting men and putting hands on their faces or kissing them on the cheek, then apologising before running away. Then Ri Ji-u said that a new actress and actor would join them for the airport prank. He described the actor as a fat and bald man with a “black bag and jacket”, matching Kim's description on the day of his death.[90] The Malaysian police retrieved a photo of "James" from Siti Aisyah's phone. He was later identified as Ri Ji-u.[91] The police searched for him but he was already in the North Korean embassy.[86]

On 19 February, Malaysian police named four more North Korean suspects.[92] They were identified as Ri Ji-hyon (aged 33), Hong Song-hak (34), O Jong-gil (55) and Ri Jae-nam (57), all of whom left Malaysia after the attack, and the Malaysian police requested help from Interpol and other relevant authorities in tracking them.[93] According to an unnamed source, the four suspects flew to Jakarta, Dubai and Vladivostok before reaching Pyongyang.[94][95] Three other male North Korean suspects were still in Malaysia: Ri Ji-u, who had lived in Malaysia for three years; Kim Uk-il, an employee of Air Koryo; and Hyon Kwang-song, the second secretary at the North Korean embassy.[96][97] These suspects had taken refuge in the North Korean embassy.[98][99]

On 22 February, Malaysian police Chief Khalid said that the killing was "a planned effort" and that the two women arrested had been trained to carry out the attack and had repeatedly rehearsed it together at Pavilion Kuala Lumpur and Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC).[97] Khalid also alleged that the women apparently knew they were handling poisonous substances.[97] That same day, an unnamed Malaysian man believed to be a chemist was picked up by police during a raid on a condominium where he then led police to another condominium where various chemicals were seized.[100]

On 28 February, both women were charged with murder, which carries a mandatory death sentence.[88][101] A lawyer for Hương requested a second autopsy as he doubted Malaysian expertise, calling for experts from Japan and Iraq as well pathologists from North Korea itself to be involved.[102] The Malaysian police responded by telling the lawyer to appeal to the high court.[103]

On 3 March, the only detained North Korean suspect, Ri Jong-chol, was released and deported due to lack of evidence.[104] While in transit through China, he told the media that the Malaysian police threatened to hurt his family if he did not confess his involvement in the murder and said his arrest was part of a "conspiracy".[105][106] Malaysian police strongly denied his allegation.[107][108]

On 16 March, Interpol issued a red notice for the four North Korean suspects who had fled to Pyongyang.[109] The three North Korean suspects, Ri Ji-u, Kim Uk-il and Hyon Kwang-song, who were holed up in the North Korean embassy in Malaysia, were released on 30 March and allowed to return home after investigators interviewed them and cleared them of any wrongdoing.[110]

On 22 March, Yonhap News Agency released information stating that Rhi Ji-hyon, one of the four suspects who left Malaysia after the attack (the man with a cap on the photo from the airport CCTV), is the son of former North Korean ambassador to Vietnam Ri Hong. From November 2009, he worked as a trainee diplomat in Hanoi for more than a year before becoming an interpreter for another few years. With his ability to converse fluently in the Vietnamese language, he is suspected of having seduced and lured the Vietnamese national Hương into a fake TV prank, making her believe that he is a rich South Korean man.[111][112] On the request of the Judicial Authorities of Malaysia, Interpol had published a red notice for Rhi Ji-hyon for his involvement in the murder plot.[113]

According to the forensics investigation, Kim had a Dell laptop which had accessed data stored on a USB pen drive while he was in Langkawi, though the pen drive was not in his possession when he died.[114]

Murder trial

The murder trial of Siti Aisyah and Đoàn Thị Hương began on 2 October 2017 at the High Court in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, with both pleading not guilty.[115][116] Judge Datuk Azmi Ariffin was the presiding judge.[117]

A Malaysian government chemist testified before the court that VX degradation products were found on the two women.[118][119] The testimony was the first evidence to provide a link between the defendants and the VX nerve agent.[118] Claims by North Korean authorities that Kim had died of a heart attack were disputed by pathologist Mohamad Shah Mahmood, who told the court there was no evidence of a heart attack on autopsy and that post-mortem toxicology reports showed VX was the sole cause of death.[120] Under cross-examination by both defense lawyers, Mohamad, however, acknowledged he had limited knowledge of nerve agents in general and said he did not know the amount of the poison that was used.[120]

Another chemical pathologist, Nur Ashikin Othman, told the court that Kim had very low blood levels of cholinesterase, the enzyme inhibited by anticholinesterase agents such as VX. She also stated that cholinesterase levels were within the normal range for both defendants, but that this did not rule out the possibility they had been in contact with VX.[121] Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital doctor Ranjini Sivaganabalan, a specialist in poisons, testified that VX may not be fatal in very low dosages and disagreed with an assertion that as little as 10 milligrams of VX would be lethal to humans, and claimed that a person with VX on their hands may not be fully decontaminated by washing it off with soap and water.[120][122] Toxicologist K. Sharmilah testified that vials of atropine, a drug used as an antidote to poisoning with nerve agents such as VX, were found in Kim Jong-nam's bag.[123][124] On 8 October, the trial had to be moved to a high-security laboratory due to the danger posed by the nerve agent-tainted clothing admitted into evidence.[15]

Police investigator Wan Azirul identified four suspects in the CCTV images as Mr. Chang (identified as Hong Song-hac), Mr. Y (Rhi Ji-hyon), James (O Jong-gil), and Hanamori (a.k.a. "Grandpa" and "Uncle") (Ri Jae-nam).[125] The men were not arrested because Malaysian police did not have sufficient information to identify or locate the suspects, according to investigating officer Wan Azirul and Deputy Public Prosecutor Wan Shaharuddin Wan Ladin.[126]

When the trial resumed in January 2018, Justice Azmi Ariffin ruled that certain CCTV records could not be admitted as evidence.[127][128] On 14 March, Hương lawyer Hisyam Teh Poh Teik presented a recorded statement from Nguyễn Bích Thủy, a bar owner and Hương's friend, to the Vietnamese police on 1 March 2017, detailing how Hương was recruited by a man named as "Li" (identified as Rhi Ji-hyon).[nb 3] Through the statement, Thủy said:

Me and Hương used to work together as waitresses at the Seventeen Bar in Hanoi from 2014 to May 2016. On 27 December 2016, Li (Rhi Ji-hyon) came to the Hay Bar in Hanoi that was run by me and my husband. Li claimed he had a Korean father and Vietnamese mother and that he was married but divorced with no children. He offered me a job as an actress but I refused because I need to take care of my young son. Li then asked me to introduce him to one of her friends. I remembered Hương loved acting and contacted her. When Hương came by the bar to meet Li, I heard him telling Hương that his team was making prank videos at the airport and she was required to "dress nicely, pass by another person and pour a cup of liquid on his/her head".[129]

During the cross examination, the defence lawyer also produced an affidavit Thủy had made the previous October that also contained her police statement.[129][130] The Malaysian police lead investigator Wan Azirul then came under fire from the lawyer after he admitted not seeking out Thủy even though the accused (Hương) had mentioned her in her statement, with the lawyer said "In doing an investigation you are supposed to look for the truth, but your investigation is only focused on the CCTV footage. The truth is there (in Vietnam) but no one in Malaysia is interested".[129][130][131] The lawyer also told that in November he had asked the Malaysian attorney general's office for assistance in convincing Thủy to travel to Malaysia to testify about her role in introducing Hương to the North Korean man. The request was however declined when another attorney representing Hương, Salim Bashir said "It's unfortunate that the attorney general declined to exercise his power to do this and in doing that deprived us of having the opportunity for police to go to Vietnam and investigate".[130] Salim added that the fact that security videos showed Hương appeared to be touching her hair briefly after approaching Kim and going to a toilet farther away to wash her hands showed an "innocent mind" and not the conduct of someone who knew she had poison on her hand.[132] According to lawyer Hisyam, Thủy also turned down efforts by Vietnamese police and defence lawyers to travel to Malaysia to testify for Hương, citing her responsibility in running her bar with her husband and taking care of her young child.[130]

Meanwhile, on the Siti Aisyah side according to her lawyer Gooi Soon Seng, he slammed Malaysian investigators for not allowing him to meet Aisyah during her 14-day remand and not releasing portions of the video linked to the attack as well for the authorities failure to copy all the footage from the CCTV server of the airport which compromised the defence of Aisyah.[130][131] The lawyer blamed the police for not publishing the entire incident of the video during the attack as it was seen during the trials that police had deliberately cut off the key moments of the killing from the video that the accused (Aisyah) was adjusting glasses after attacking the victim (to which the footage of Aisyah wearing sunglasses was dropped as evidence is not appropriate when police are trying to convict his client of murder).[133][134][135] The lawyer adding that police has failed to investigate crucial evidence such as Aisyah's jeans and glasses that were not sent for lab tests. Based on a chemistry department test also showing that Aisyah's finger nail cuttings, nail swabs and blood found no traces of VX.[130][131]

Both defence lawyers agreed that their clients did not know they were handling poison and made a scapegoat moreover with the absence of the four North Korean suspects.[132][90] Through the trial from 20 March, Hisyam screened a video of CCTV recorded at Noi Bai International Airport on 2 February 2017 on her client played a prank on a Vietnamese government official named Trịnh Ngọc Linh in Hanoi less than two weeks before the attack, which showed her approaching the man from behind and putting her arms around his neck.[90][136] Another video screened by the lawyer showing Hương acting as the victim of pranks played by a Vietnamese filmmaker, Nguyễn Mạnh Quang (also known as Quang Bek).[137] Through an affidavit made by Quang, Quang said he had hired Hương to act in the video, which recorded in 2016.[90] The lawyer then explained that "these videos explain why the accused identified herself as an actress" and questioned police investigator Wan Azirul if he "made some efforts to track Quang after receiving affidavits and ask if the task was important or that it was a waste of time" which was replied by "no efforts was made and agreeing to the latter question".[138] The Malaysian police investigator however deny the blame that with the absence of four North Korean suspects their investigation had caused prejudice, insisting that "as for the case, the main perpetrators who committed the killing are the two accused", as well denying on the accusation that Malaysian police did not take adequate measures to pursue the four men, stressing that Interpol had issued an alert for the four men to be arrested based on Malaysia's request.[132] After being questioned by another Hương lawyer Naran Singh during the session hearing, the police investigator admitted there was a mistake in his investigation due to pressure from previous Malaysian police Chief Khalid though Wan Azirul still declining the claim that his investigation is controlled by his superior.[139][140]

Closing arguments in the trial began on 27 June 2018.[141] On 16 August, the Malaysian court has decided to continue the trial on 1 November until April 2019,[142] with the judge saying that "a political assassination cannot be ruled out" although there was not enough evidence to say, adding that security camera footage "showed that they had the knowledge that the liquid on their hands was toxic and there was no hidden crew and no attempt to bring the person in on the joke afterward, as is common in reality TV prank shows".[143] Both of the accused are then being called to enter their defense since the trial would take another few months before a final verdict is reached.[144] On 1 September, the Malaysian police are tracking down two Indonesian women who are willing to testify on the case.[145][146]

On 28 January 2019, the trial was postponed to March.[147]

Dismissal of murder charges

Release of Siti Aisyah

Request letter signed by Yasonna Laoly of Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights delivered to Malaysian attorney general for Aisyah release

In March 2019, Siti Aisyah was released after her murder charge was dismissed.[148] Both the Indonesian and Vietnamese media later revealed that her release was due to a request letter sent by the Indonesian government, which had received a response from Malaysian attorney general Tommy Thomas.[149][150][151] This was later admitted by Thomas and confirmed by Reuters,[152] though Thomas refused to respond to other media sources when asked to comment on the decision.[153][154]

On March 13, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Liew Vui Keong further explained that the power to dismiss charges against any individual in Malaysia rests with the nation's attorney general as established in the constitution.[155] Despite similar callings from the Vietnamese government to release Đoàn Thị Hương in the manner of the Indonesian suspect,[156] Malaysian prosecutors rejected the request and said the trial would continue to proceed with a postponement until April 1 due to Hương's poor health and psychological condition—she had not slept for three nights following the Malaysian attorney general's decision to drop the charges against Aisyah.[157][158]


Hương's defence lawyers felt the Malaysian government was practicing discrimination in the judiciary system since the court previously stated that it found a prima facie case against both suspects but only released one. They provided reasons for doing so, such as "taking consideration of good relations between Indonesia and Malaysia thus agreed to the passage of nolle prosequi for Aisyah", as evidenced from the discovery of the hidden letter delivered by the attorney general of Malaysia to the Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights as a response towards their appeal request.[157][159] The Malaysian attorney general's different treatment towards the two suspects attracted criticism from Ramkarpal Singh, the Malaysian Member of Parliament for Bukit Gelugor. Ramkarpal felt that Thomas's refusal to withdraw the murder charge against the second suspect was "mind boggling and raises questions about the powers of attorney general in the country".[160][161] He further stated:

I am of the view that the charge against Hương ought to have been dropped the same way it was dropped against Siti Aisyah, if the Attorney General (AG) was of the view that North Korea had a hand in Kim's murder. Subjecting Hương to further prosecution and not her co-accused, particularly when a prima facie case has been found against both, is, with respect, unprecedented and regrettable. Since both Hương and Siti Aisyah were charged together, Hương has a constitutional right to be treated the way Siti Aisyah was, as she is entitled to equal protection of the law. Hương would never know why she was treated differently from Siti Aisyah. If she is convicted, she will always wonder if Siti Aisyah was equally culpable. In cases like these, the discretion of the AG ought to be open to question, particularly when a person's life is at stake.[160][161]

Vietnamese Foreign Affairs Ministry spokeswoman Lê Thị Thu Hằng regretted the Malaysian attorney general's decision and called for a fair trial on the case.[162] Her statement was echoed by other Vietnamese ministers, including Foreign Minister Phạm Bình Minh, Deputy Foreign Minister Nguyễn Quốc Dũng, and Vietnamese ambassador to Malaysia Lê Quý Quỳnh.[163][164] The release of Siti Aisyah "sparked anger in Malaysia", with sources suggesting that the release was a result of political lobbying and "diplomatic pressure" from the Indonesian government; Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad "denied that the Malaysian government caved in to diplomatic pressure", claiming that he had "no information" regarding the assassination and that the release was done based on the "rule of law".[165][166][167]

Bridget Welsh, a Southeast Asia expert with John Cabot University, predicted that the decision will risk a "thorny bilateral problem with Vietnam if there is no similar treatment towards their citizen".[168] Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) President Wee Ka Siong expressed concern over possible meddling in the trial outcome. According to Wee, he had obtained a reply to his written question during a Parliament session in Malaysia, where Prime Minister Mahathir said that the attorney general could still follow his directive even though the attorney general had the discretion to decide on the timeline for criminal prosecution procedures.[169] His statement was followed by MCA spokeswoman Chan Quin Er, who echoed Ramkarpal's statements and stressed that "Malaysian laws should not discriminate" and everyone "is equal before the law".[170]

Outgoing Malaysian Bar president George Varughese expressed that "the Attorney General has the prerogative to drop charges", but "it would be good if the Attorney General could give his reasons for dropping the charges" to avoid speculation.[171] Other Malaysian lawyers viewed the decision as discriminatory against Hương—not only in the sense of Malaysia's justice system, but also to the public (who mostly wanted a fair, transparent trial), as voiced by lawyer Nur Hannan Ishak.[172]

Sentencing and release of Đoàn Thị Hương

On 1 April 2019, the murder charge against Hương was dropped, and she pleaded guilty to the lesser charge of "voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means."[173][174] She was sentenced to three years and four months in prison, but received a one-third reduction in her term, and was released on 3 May 2019.[175][176]

See also


  1. Alternatively transliterated as Muhammad Farid Jalaluddin.[23]
  2. Alternatively transliterated as Nur Asyikin Osman.[17]
  3. "Li" was the name that Rhi Ji-hyon introduced himself as to Thủy.[129]


  1. Pak, Jung H. (February 2018). "The education of Kim Jong-un". Brookings Institution. Kim probably also ordered the deadly attack by the application of a VX nerve agent—one of the most toxic of the chemical warfare agents—against Jong-nam, his half-brother and erstwhile competitor for the position of supreme leader of North Korea.
  2. Patricia Bauer, Kim Jong-Nam, Encyclopædia Britannica (last updated on 6 May 2018): "analysts believed that the murder was likely to have been ordered by Kim Jong-Un."
  3. Jackson, Van (2018). On the Brink: Trump, Kim, and the Threat of Nuclear War (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 98–99. doi:10.1017/9781108562225.006. ISBN 9781108562225. S2CID 239502111.
  4. Latiff, Rozanna (29 January 2018). Fernandez, Clarence (ed.). "Kim Jong Nam met U.S. national on Malaysian island before he was killed, police say". Reuters. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  5. Kyodo News (29 January 2018). "Police: Kim Jong Nam met American days before murder". The Bangkok Post. In his cross examination, he grilled Mr Azirul about Kim's Langkawi meeting with a Korean-American man based in Bangkok, which was first reported by Japan's Asahi Shimbun last year. While Mr Azirul confirmed that the meeting took place at a hotel, he said the police have been unable to identify the man, who the Asahi said was a US intelligence officer.
  6. "North Korean leader's brother Kim Jong-nam 'killed' in Malaysia'". BBC News. 14 February 2017. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  7. McCurry, Justin (14 February 2017). "Kim Jong-un's half-brother dies after 'attack' at airport in Malaysia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  8. Samuel Osborne (14 February 2017). "Kim Jong-un's half-brother 'assassinated with poisoned needles at airport'". The Independent.
  9. "How the Hit Team Came Together to Kill Kim Jong Nam". The Wall Street Journal. 23 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  10. Julian Borger, North Korea's use of nerve agent in murder sends a deliberate signal to foes Archived 24 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian (24 February 2017).
  11. "Kim Jong-nam killing: VX nerve agent 'found on his face'". BBC News. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  12. Richard C. Paddock & Choe Sang-Hun (23 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam Was Killed by VX Nerve Agent, Malaysians Say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017.
  13. "Report on the use of a chemical weapon in the death of a DPRK national" (PDF). Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 7 March 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  14. Ng, Eileen (2 October 2017). "Witnesses recount N. Korean leader's brother's last moments". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  15. The Associated Press (9 October 2017). "Video shows North Korean motionless on gurney after attack". The National Post. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  16. Leong, Trinna (4 October 2017). "Kim Jong Nam murder trial: Victim showed signs of poisoning, says doctor". The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  17. Leong, Trinna (3 October 2017). "Kim Jong Nam had 'constricted, pinpoint pupils' and other symptoms of VX poisoning, court hears". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  18. Dewan, Angela (17 February 2017). "Kim Jong Nam died within 20 minutes, autopsy shows". CNN. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  19. Fifield, Anna (26 February 2017). "North Korean leader's half brother suffered a 'very painful death,' Malaysian officials say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  20. Menon, Praveen; Chow, Emily (16 February 2017). "Murder at the airport: the brazen attack on North Korean leader's half brother". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  21. "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysia police hold female suspect". BBC News. 15 February 2017. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  22. Ryall, Julian (16 February 2017). "Did Kim Jong-nam's Facebook fixation lead to his death?". The Telegraph. Tokyo, Japan. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  23. Hong, Bede (25 October 2017). "Jong-nam trial told police found no footage of practice runs". The Malaysian Insight. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017.
  24. "Murdered North Korean Kim Jong Nam had $100,000 in backpack, police witness says". The Japan Times. Reuters. 12 October 2017.
  25. "Doan Thi Huong, Vietnamese woman linked to Kim Jong-nam murder, to be freed on May 3". South China Morning Post. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019. High Court judge Azmi Ariffin sentenced Huong to three years and four months in jail, running from the date of her arrest on February 15, 2017
  26. Holmes, Oliver (15 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysian police arrest female suspect". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  27. "Kim Jong-Nam killing: Second woman arrested in Malaysia". Sky News. 16 February 2017. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  28. Kim, Stella; Bell, Chapman (16 February 2017). "Kim Jong Nam's Death: 3rd Arrest in Dictator's Half-Brother Case". NBC News. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  29. "Killing of North Korean: Suspect thought she was playing a prank". Free Malaysia Today. 15 February 2017. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  30. Eileen Ng (11 October 2017). "Video of fatal attack on Kim Jong Nam shown at women's trial". Associated Press News. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  31. Ryall, Julian (18 February 2017). "North Korean man arrested in Malaysia over killing of Kim Jong-nam as second autopsy to be conducted". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  32. Farik Zolkepli (18 February 2017). "Fourth person arrested in Jong-nam murder probe". The Star. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  33. Park Su-ji (21 February 2017). "One suspect in Kim Jong-nam's killing was middleman buying commodities in Malaysia". The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  34. Sang-hun, Choe (14 February 2017). "Kim Jong-un's Half Brother Is Reported Assassinated in Malaysia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  35. Choe, Sang-hun; Paddock, Richard C. (15 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam, the Hunted Heir to a Dictator Who Met Death in Exile". The New York Times. New York. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017. "there has been a standing order" to assassinate his half brother, Lee Byung-ho, the director of the South's National Intelligence Service, said during a closed-door briefing at the National Assembly, according to lawmakers who attended it."This is not a calculated action to remove Kim Jong-nam because he was a challenge to power per se, but rather reflected Kim Jong-un's paranoia," Mr. Lee was quoted as saying. Kim Jong-un wanted his half brother killed, Mr. Lee said, and there was an assassination attempt against him in 2012. Mr. Kim was so afraid of assassins that he begged for his life in a letter to his half brother in 2012. "Please withdraw the order to punish me and my family," Mr. Kim was quoted as saying in the letter. "We have nowhere to hide. The only way to escape is to choose suicide." (...)
  36. Paddock, Richard C.; Mullany, Gerry (21 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam Investigators Seek to Question North Korean Embassy Officer". The New York Times. New York. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  37. Holmes, Oliver. "Kim Jong-nam was assassinated, say US and South Korean officials". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  38. Michael D. Shear; David E. Sanger (20 November 2017). "Trump Returns North Korea to List of State Sponsors of Terrorism". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  39. "U.S. sanctions North Korea for killing of leader's half-brother". Reuters. 7 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  40. Nauert, Heather (6 March 2018). "Imposition of Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act Sanctions on North Korea". United States Department of State. On February 22, 2018, the United States determined under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 (CBW Act) that the Government of North Korea used the chemical warfare agent VX to assassinate Kim Jong Nam, in the Kuala Lumpur airport.
  41. McCurry, Justin (11 June 2019). "Kim Jong-nam, half-brother of North Korean leader, 'was a CIA informant'". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  42. Warren P. Strobel (10 June 2019). "North Korean Leader's Slain Half Brother Was a CIA Source". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  43. Fifield, Anna (2019) [2019]. "Chapter 13 The unwanted brother". The Great Successor: The secret rise and rule of Kim Jong Un (eBook) (First ed.). John Murray. ISBN 978-1-529-38724-7.
  44. Ahn Jun-yong (12 December 2018). "N.Korea 'Apologized to Vietnam Over Kim Jong-nam Killing'". The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  45. "OPCW Executive Council Condemns Chemical Weapons Use in Fatal Incident in Malaysia". Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  46. "North Korean embassy cars seen at KL hospital mortuary". The Star. 15 February 2017. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  47. Agence France-Presse (3 October 2017). "Kim Jong-Nam suffered extensive organ damage, trial hears". The Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  48. Shim, Elizabeth (3 October 2017). "Kim Jong Nam 'red' and 'sweating' after attack, witnesses say". UPI. Retrieved 6 October 2017. Nur Asyikin Osman, a chemical pathologist with the Malaysian government, said in her court testimony a blood analysis of Kim indicated the enzyme cholinesterase was at a very low level of 344 units per liter, when the normal level is 5,300 units per liter, according to South Korean news agency Yonhap.
  49. The Associated Press (27 November 2017). "Doctor: Kim Jong Nam's underwear soiled, pupils contracted". Yahoo News. Nurliza Abdullah, a government doctor who conducted the autopsy on Kim's body, told the court Monday that the pupil constriction and the large excrement found in Kim's underwear both pointed to poisoning.
  50. "Kim Jong-nam's underwear soiled with faeces, trial told". The Star. 27 November 2017. Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) medical forensic consultant, Dr Nurliza Abdullah, 52, who did a post mortem on Kim Chol's body, said the large amount of faeces found on Kim Chol's underwear was sign of poisoning. [...] Questioned by DPP Wan Shaharuddin Wan Ladin during examination-in-chief, Dr Nurliza said there was also contraction of the victim's pupils, which was also a sign of poisoning.
  51. McCurry, Justin (20 February 2017). "What is the VX nerve agent that killed North Korean Kim Jong-nam?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  52. David Bradley, VX Nerve Agent in North Korean's Murder: How Does It Work? Archived 25 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Chemistry World, republished at Scientific American (24 February 2017).
  53. Richard C. Paddock, Choe Sang-hun & Nicholas Wade, In Kim Jong-nam's Death, North Korea Lets Loose a Weapon of Mass Destruction Archived 25 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times (24 February 2017).
  54. "Was Kim Jong-nam killed by VX nerve gas? Doesn't look like it". New Scientist. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  55. "Malaysian assassination victim's identity confirmed by DNA". Kyodo News. Bangkok Post. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  56. "Malaysia confirms 'Kim Chol' is Kim Jong Nam: IGP Khalid". Channel NewsAsia. 10 March 2017. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  57. Eileen Ng (13 March 2017). "Malaysia says it will give Kim's family time to claim body". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  58. "Malaysia says body of North Korean Kim Jong-nam embalmed to 'preserve' it". The Telegraph. Associated Press. 14 March 2017. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  59. Farik Zolkepli (16 March 2017). "'Jong-nam's family has given Malaysia permission to manage his remains'". The Star. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  60. Norikyo, Masatomo (2 July 2017). "Kim Jong Nam's son did not want body handed over to N. Korea". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  61. Kumar, M (18 February 2017). "North Korea will reject autopsy report, says ambassador". The Star. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  62. "Malaysia-North Korea row escalates over Kim Jong-nam". Al Jazeera. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  63. Fifield, Anna (20 February 2017). "North Korea says Malaysia can't be trusted to investigate the killing of leader's half brother". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  64. "Malaysian PM says probe into airport killing will be fair". Reuters. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017.
  65. Lai, Adrian (20 February 2017). "Jong-nam assassination: Najib says 'no' to N. Korea demand for joint investigation". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  66. Kumar, Kamles (22 February 2017). "Cops say detected bids to break into mortuary holding Kim Jong-nam body". Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  67. Choe Sang-hun; Richard C. Paddock; Chau Doan; Fira Abdurachman (23 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam Evidence Being Fabricated by Malaysia, North Korea Says". The New York Times.
  68. Ashwin Kumar (28 February 2017). "North Korea sends high powered envoy to solve issues with Malaysia". The Sun. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  69. Jack Kim; Clarence Fernandez (1 March 2017). "North Korea says claim its citizen killed in Malaysia by VX agent 'absurd'". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  70. Smith, Alexander (2 March 2017). "North Korea Says Kim Jong Nam Likely Died of a Heart Attack". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  71. "IGP Dismisses Claim That Kim Chol Died of a Heart Attack". Bernama. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  72. "The use of a chemical weapon in the death of a DPRK national". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. 3 March 2017. Archived from the original on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  73. "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysia scraps visa-free entry for North Koreans". The Guardian. Associated Press. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  74. Kumar, Ashwin (4 March 2017). "N. Korean ambassador given 48 hours to leave Malaysia". The Sun. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  75. "North Korea Has Expelled Malaysia's Ambassador as Tensions Over Kim Jong Nam's Death Mount". Time. Associated Press. 6 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  76. "Pyongyang bans Malaysians from leaving N. Korea". Agence France-Presse. The Star. 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  77. "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysia and N Korea in tit-for-tat exit bans". BBC. 7 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  78. "Kim body to be sent to Pyongyang, Malaysians freed: Najib". Agence France-Presse. Business Times. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  79. Jonathan Loh (12 June 2018). "Malaysia PM Mahathir says the world can learn from Kim Jong Un's 'new attitude' and decision to meet Trump". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  80. "Malaysia, Japan hope for successful US – North Korea summit". Bernama. New Straits Times. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  81. Praveen Menon; Darren Schuettler (12 June 2018). "Malaysia to reopen embassy in North Korea: Mahathir". Reuters. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  82. "Malaysia to settle its problem with North Korea – Dr M". Bernama. The Borneo Post. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  83. Takashi Nanako (13 February 2019). "North Korea and ASEAN heal ties torn by Kim brother's murder". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  84. Latiff, Rozanna (27 February 2018). Macfie, Nick (ed.). "'My life is in danger,' North Korea leader's half-brother quoted as saying months before poisoning". Reuters. Kim arrived in Malaysia on Feb. 6 last year and was picked up at the airport by the driver of friend Tomie Yoshio, lead police investigator Wan Azirul Nizam Che Wan Aziz said. The driver was instructed to take Kim to his lodgings and other places he wanted to go after Kim told Yoshio his "life was in danger" during a prior visit to Malaysia.
  85. Sandi Sidhu; Ben Westcott. "Indonesian suspect partied night before Kim Jong Nam murder". Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  86. Melissa Goh (19 March 2017). "Pranks, stardom, money: How a woman was allegedly coaxed into killing Kim Jong". Channel News Asia. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  87. "Malaysia to charge women with murder of Kim Jong-nam". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  88. Eileen Ng (28 February 2017). "Malaysia charges two women in death of Kim Jong-nam". The Globe and Mail. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  89. Richard C. Paddock; Choe Sang-hun (13 April 2017). "Lawyers for Women in Kim Jong-nam Case Say They Were Scapegoated". The New York Times.
  90. "Woman accused in Kim Jong Nam killing played prank on Vietnamese official, lawyer says". Business Insider. Reuters. 21 March 2018. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  91. Ho Kit Yen (6 November 2017). "Jong Nam murder: Cop reveals identity of 5th N Korean suspect". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2018. Azirul added that the information he was provided gave the name of the four men as Hong Song Hac, 34 (who was known as Chang); Ri Ji Hyon, 33 (Mr Y); Ri Jae Nam, 57 (Hanamori), and O Jong Gil, 55 (James). He also said SB's information showed one more suspect Ri Ji U, 30, who was also known as "James".
  92. Joseph Sipalan; Praveen Menon; Michael Perry (19 February 2017). "Malaysia searching for four more North Korean suspects in Kim Jong Nam death". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  93. Farik Zolkepli; Jastin Ahmad Tarmizi (19 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam murder: Suspects left country on day of killing". The Star. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  94. "4 North Korean suspects in Kim Jong Nam murder back in Pyongyang: Sources". The Star/Asia News Network. The Straits Times. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  95. Park Su-ji (20 February 2017). "Four North Korean suspects fled Malaysia immediately after Kim Jong-nam's killing". The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  96. Richard C. Paddock; Gerry Mullany (21 February 2017). "Senior North Korean Diplomat Is Sought in Death of Kim Jong-nam". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  97. Rozanna Latiff; Liz Lee; Kanupriya Kapoor; Praveen Menon; Simon Cameron-Moore (22 February 2017). "Malaysia names North Korean diplomat wanted for questioning in murder case". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  98. Paddock, Richard C. (1 March 2017). "North Korean Suspects in Killing of Kim Jong-nam Join Tradition of Holing Up in Embassies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  99. Joshua Berlinger; Salhan K. Ahmad (31 March 2017). "North Koreans hiding in Malaysian embassy return to Pyongyang". CNN. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  100. "Malaysian police seize chemicals from condominium as part of probe on Kim Jong Nam murder". The Star/Asia News Network. The Straits Times. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  101. "Malaysia to charge women for murder of Kim Jong-nam". Al Jazeera. 28 February 2017. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  102. "Lawyer for Vietnamese suspect in Kim murder calls for second autopsy". Agence France-Presse. VnExpress. 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  103. Only A-G can approve second autopsy request (video). Astro Awani. 7 March 2017. Event occurs at 02:09. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  104. "Kim Jong Nam murder: Malaysia to release, deport North Korean suspect due to lack of evidence". Fox News. Associated Press. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  105. "Kim Jong-nam death: North Korean says arrest was 'conspiracy'". BBC News. 4 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  106. Eileen Ng (3 March 2017). "Deported Korean says Malaysia threatened to harm his family". The News Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  107. "Police Dismiss North Korean's Claim of Conspiracy". Bernama. Malaysian Digest. 5 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  108. "We treated Jong-chol well, says IGP". The Star. 5 March 2017. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  109. "Interpol 'red notice' on Kim Jong-nam murder suspects". STV News. 16 March 2017. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  110. Eileen Ng (31 March 2017). "Malaysia interviewed, cleared 3 N. Koreans before they left". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  111. "N.K. suspect in Kim Jong-nam's killing is son of ex-envoy to Vietnam". Yonhap News Agency. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  112. "Kẻ 'dụ dỗ' Đoàn Thị Hương là con cựu đại sứ Bắc Hàn tại VN" [The 'man' who seduced Đoàn Thị Hương is the former son of the North Korean ambassador to Vietnam] (in Vietnamese). VOA Tiếng Việt. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  113. "Extract of the Red Notice". Interpol. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  114. The Associated Press (30 January 2018). "Kim Jong-nam, half-brother of North Korean leader, met with suspected US spy days before he was killed, court hears". South China Morning Post. Fuelling speculation that Kim had ties with US intelligence, Wan Azirul also confirmed that a forensic report on Kim's Dell laptop showed that some data was accessed by a USB pen drive several times on February 9, 2017, while he was in Langkawi. The pen drive was not among the items found on Kim when he died on February 13.
  115. Rozanna Latiff; Praveen Menon (28 July 2017). Neil Fullick; Clarence Fernandez (eds.). "Malaysia sets October 2 for trial of women suspects in Kim Jong Nam killing". Reuters. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  116. "Kim Jong-nam death: Women plead not guilty". BBC News. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  117. "Trial of the year begins". The Malay Mail. 2 October 2017. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Judge Datuk Azmi Ariffin presided over the case.
  118. "VX nerve agent trace found on women accused of killing Kim Jong-nam, court hears". The Guardian. Associated Press. 5 October 2017. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  119. Eileen Ng (5 October 2017). "Chemist says VX nerve agent byproduct was on Kim Jong Nam murder suspect's shirt". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  120. Eileen Ng (4 October 2017). "Masks worn in Malaysian court as VX-tainted evidence shown". The Colorado Gazette. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  121. Eileen Ng (2 October 2017). "Post-mortem: VX poison killed brother of North Korean leader". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  122. Mustafa, Muzliza (4 October 2017). "North Korea's objection delayed post-mortem, says pathologist". The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved 12 October 2017. The trial resumed after a break with the testimony of Dr Ranjini Sivaganabalan, a clinical toxicologist at Tengku Ampuan Rahimah in Klang.
  123. "Kim Jong-nam had antidote to nerve agent that killed him in bag". The Guardian. Reuters. 1 December 2017. The vials contained atropine, an antidote for poisons such as VX and insecticides, toxicologist Dr K. Sharmilah told the court on Wednesday, according to state news agency Bernama.
  124. "Kim Jong-nam killing: Regime critic carried 'antidote'". BBC News. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  125. Surach, G. (8 November 2017). "Two North Koreans initially identified as suspects: Jong-nam murder trial". The Sun. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2017. Previously, the court had witnessed footage of the duo helping the four suspects, "Mr Chang" was identified as Hong Song Hac, 34, "Mr Y" as Ri Ji Hyon, 33, "Hanamori @ Grandpa-Uncle as Ri Jae Nam, 57, and "Mr James" as O Jong Jil, 55, to leave Malaysia barely hours after the murder.
  126. "Kim Jong Nam murder trial: Malaysian court told police had insufficient info on four accused". Straits Times. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  127. Bernama (22 January 2018). "Jong-nam trial: Judge dismisses CCTV footage evidence". Malaysiakini. But Gooi stressed that if the prosecution wanted to replay the whole recording, he would apply for a trial within a trial on the admissibility of the exhibit. Justice Azmi Ariffin sustained the objection and ruled that the recording would not be played or admitted as evidence.
  128. "Geeks vouch for resurrected footage of Kim assassination". The Australian. Associated Press. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018. (subscription required)
  129. "Kim Jong-nam murder suspect explains how North Koreans recruited her for 'assassination disguised as prank TV show'". South China Morning Post. Associated Press. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  130. Hadi Azmi (14 March 2018). "Malaysia: Defense Lawyers Blast Prosecutors in Kim Jong Nam Murder Case". Benar News. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  131. "Defence lawyer slams Malaysian police over Kim murder probe". Agence France-Presse. Channel NewsAsia. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
      "Defence lawyer slams cops over Jong-nam murder probe". Agence France-Presse. The Malay Mail. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  132. Eileen Ng (22 March 2018). "Malaysia police deny prejudice against Kim murder suspects". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  133. Elizabeth Shim (14 March 2018). "Police omitted Kim Jong Nam assassination footage, attorney says". UPI. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  134. "Police Deliberately Omitted Key Moments in the Assassination of Kim Jong Un's Half-Brother: Defense Lawyer". Al Bawaba. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  135. Hoài Linh (15 March 2018). "Luật sư vụ án 'Kim Jong Nam' tố cảnh sát ỉm bằng chứng" [Lawyers case of 'Kim Jong Nam' police prosecution evidence] (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Net. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  136. Trong Giap (22 March 2018). Hé lộ video Đoàn Thị Hương diễn tập tại sân bay Nội Bài [Revealing the video of Đoàn Thị Hương rehearsing at Nội Bài airport]. VNExpress (video) (in Vietnamese). Việt Nam Mới. Event occurs at 0:53. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  137. Ánh Dương (21 March 2018). Vụ Kim Jong Nam: Video làm chứng Đoàn Thị Hương từng diễn chơi khăm [The case of Kim Jong Nam: The witnesses video Đoàn Thị Hương who used to play pranks] (video) (in Vietnamese). Tin tức Việt Nam. Event occurs at 5:51. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  138. Nurbaiti Hamdan (20 March 2018). "Kissing prank makes court laugh in Kim murder trial". The Star. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  139. Minh Hạnh (22 March 2018). "Điều tra viên vụ Đoàn Thị Hương thừa nhận mắc sai sót" [Investigator of the case of Đoàn Thị Hương admits mistakes]. Tiền Phong (in Vietnamese). Soha. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  140. Nurbaiti Hamdan (22 March 2018). "I was under constraint from my superiors, says cop". The Star. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  141. "Women accused of poisoning N. Korean scion arrive for trial". The Associated Press. Stars and Stripes. 27 June 2018. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018. Two women accused of poisoning the estranged half brother of North Korea's leader arrived at court Wednesday for closing arguments in a murder trial that could send the women to the gallows.
  142. "Kim Jong-Nam murder case: Dec 18 for decision on notice of motion". Bernama. The Sun. 14 December 2018. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018. The court set Jan 7 to 10, Jan 28 to 31 and Feb 18 and 19 for Siti Aisyah to enter a defence, while the dates for the court to hear Doan's defence are March 11 to 14, March 18 to 21, April 1 to 4 and April 8 and 9.
  143. James Doubek (16 August 2018). "Judge Cites A 'Well-Planned Conspiracy' In Kim Jong Nam's Death". NPR. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  144. Elizabeth Shim (16 August 2018). "Malaysian court to extend Kim Jong Nam assassination trial". Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  145. "Malaysian police seeking pair to testify in Kim Jong-nam murder trial". Agence France-Presse. VNExpress. 2 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  146. "Kim Jong-nam murder: Police seek pair to testify at murder trial". BBC News. 1 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  147. "Kim Jong Nam Case: Malaysian Court Postpones Trial's Defense Phase until March". Benar News. Radio Free Asia. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  148. Hannah Ellis-Petersen (11 March 2019). "Kim Jong-nam death: suspect Siti Aisyah released after charge dropped". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  149. "Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights Request Letter". Retrieved 14 March 2019 via Tuổi Trẻ.
  150. "Malaysian Attorney-General Respond Letter". Retrieved 14 March 2019 via Tuổi Trẻ.
  151. Widjiono Wasis (14 March 2019). "Terungkap Isi Surat Jaksa Agung Malaysia soal Bebasnya Siti Aisyah" [Revealed Letter Contents from Malaysian Attorney General on the Release of Siti Aisyah] (in Indonesian). Senayan Post. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  152. "Siti Aisyah freed on Indonesia's request, says AG". Free Malaysia Today. Reuters. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  153. Nurbaiti Hamdan (12 March 2019). "AG Tommy Thomas stays mum on Siti Aisyah's release". The Star. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  154. Novi Christiastuti (13 March 2019). "Ditanya Soal Bebasnya Siti Aisyah, Ini Jawaban Jaksa Agung Malaysia" [Asked about the Sudden Release of Siti Aisyah, This is the Answer of the Malaysian Attorney General] (in Indonesian). DetikNews. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  155. Syed Umar Ariff (13 March 2019). "Liew: Power to drop charge rests with AG". New Straits Times. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  156. Anh Ngoc (13 March 2019). "Vietnam asks Malaysia to free Vietnamese suspect in Kim Jong-nam murder case". VnExpress. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  157. Rahmat Khairulrijal (14 March 2019). "(Update) Kim Jong Nam murder trial: AGC rejects Vietnam woman's bid to withdraw charge". New Straits Times. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  158. Hannah Ellis-Petersen (14 March 2019). "Kim Jong-nam murder trial: prosecutors reject request to free Doan Thi Huong". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  159. Nadirah H. Rodzi (14 March 2019). "Lawyers for Vietnam woman in Kim Jong Nam murder accuse Malaysia of 'discrimination' as her trial is postponed". The Straits Times. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  160. "Murder charge against Vietnamese Doan should also be dropped, says Ramkarpal". The Star. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  161. Novi Christiastuti (14 March 2019). "Politikus Malaysia: Sangat Mengherankan Jaksa Tolak Cabut Dakwaan Doan" [Malaysian Politician: Very Surprising the Prosecutor Refused to Revoke Doan Indictment] (in Indonesian). DetikNews. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  162. Minh Nguyen; James Pearson; Clarence Fernandez (14 March 2019). "Vietnam asks Malaysian for fair treatment of citizen accused of Kim Jong Nam murder". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  163. Chew, Amy; Azmi, Hadi (14 March 2019). "Malaysia Rejects Acquittal Bid for Vietnamese Suspect in Kim Jong Nam Murder". Benar News. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  164. Agni Vidya Perdana (14 March 2019). "Vietnam Sesalkan Jaksa Malaysia yang Tak Bebaskan Doan Thi Huong" [Vietnam Regrets Malaysian Prosecutors Decision to Keep Detaining Doan Thi Huong]. Agence France-Presse (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  165. "Kim Jong Nam murder: Mahathir denies knowledge of Indonesian govt lobbying for Siti Aisyah's release". The Straits Times. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  166. "Malaysia PM says release of Siti Aisyah in N. Korea case within rules". Agence France-Presse. The Jakarta Post. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  167. "Imbas Pembebasan Siti Aisyah: Polemik di Indonesia, Kontroversi di Malaysia" [Flashback on the Release of Siti Aisyah: Polemic in Indonesia, Controversy in Malaysia] (in Indonesian). DetikNews. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  168. Dinh, Hau; Ng, Eileen (14 March 2019). "Vietnamese suspect in Kim Jong Nam's killing seeking release". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  169. Habibu, Sira (14 March 2019). "Wee questions 'executive' meddling of legal process". The Star. Star Media Group Berhad. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  170. "Prosecution of Doan: MCA condemns AG's double standard". The Malaysian Times. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  171. "AG's prerogative to drop charges against Siti Aisyah in Kim Jong-nam's murder case, says outgoing Malaysian Bar chief". The Star. Star Media Group Berhad. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  172. M Fakhrull Halim (16 March 2019). "Kes Aisyah: AG hanya ada satu pertimbangan – Peguam" [Aisyah Case: AG has only one consideration – Attorney]. Malaysiakini (in Malay). Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  173. Mayberry, Kate (1 April 2019). "Vietnamese suspect in Kim Jong Nam murder handed prison term". Al Jazeera.
  174. "Vietnam's Doan Thi Huong sentenced to 40 months at Kim Jong Nam murder trial". Tuoi Tre News. 1 April 2019.
  175. "Vietnamese woman in Kim Jong Nam murder trial to be freed May 3". Kyodo News. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  176. "Kim Jong-nam: Vietnamese woman freed in murder case". BBC. 3 May 2019.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.