Timeline of Malaysian history

This is a timeline of Malaysian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Malaysia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Malaysia.

2nd century

200Ancient Hindu Malay kingdom of Langkasuka was founded by Merong Mahawangsa, a descendant of Alexander the Great or Dhul-Qarnayn.
Ancient Hindu Malay kingdom of Gangga Negara was founded by Ganji Sarjuna, a son of Merong Mahawangsa.

3rd century

4th century

400Emergence of Kedah Tua civilisation began with the involvement of the community in Guar Kepah conducting trade with foreign traders in Sungai Mas. The center of the civilisation was in Sungai Mas and Pangkalan Bujang.
Gangga Negara also served as a port, frequented by foreign traders for its rich natural resources such as gold and tin.

7th century

630Hindu Malay Kingdom of Kedah was founded by Maharaja Derbar Raja of Persia.
671I-tsing visited Kedah and Srivijaya on his way to India from China.[1]
682I-tsing returned to Kedah and Srivijaya on his way back from India to China. He described the Malays at the time as having high status in regards to controlling the economy and its kingdom's entry points.
700Malay Peninsula was under the dominance of the Buddhist Malay Srivijaya, based in Palembang.[2]
Sawaku Kingdom was founded by Datu Merpati near Santubong and Sarawak River, while Samadong Kingdom was founded near Samarahan and Sadong.

8th century

750Srivijaya attacked Langkasuka and succeeded in conquering the kingdom.
775King of Srivijaya married a princess of Langkasuka and made Ligor as his capital.

9th century

850Gangga Negara managed to defend its sovereignty from Srivijaya invasion.
890Klang Kio attacked and defeated Gangga Negara but withdrew after its ruler, Bolaputra married a princess of Gangga Negara.

11th century

1025Chola army invasion from southern India weakened the trades in Kedah and Gangga Negara.
1100Melano Kingdom was founded by Tugau near Sungai Retus.

12th century

1136Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam and founded the Kedah Sultanate, so ending the practice of Hinduism in the dynasty.

13th century

1245Sang Sapurba, a legendary great ancestor of major dynasties in the Malay world, also a descendant of Alexander the Great or Dhul-Qarnayn, enters into a sacred covenant with Demang Lebar Daun, the ruler of Palembang, and subsequently laid the basis of the proper relationship between the Malay rulers and the subjects.
1260Minangkabau journeyed to Malay Peninsula.
1280Siamese had begun to occupy the northern Malay Peninsula. Negara Sri Dharmaraja and Patani, became Siamese vassals.
1299Kingdom of Singapura was founded by Sang Nila Utama, a son of Sang Sapurba.

14th century

1303Islam reached Terengganu, proven by the discovery of the Terengganu Inscription Stone in Kuala Berang. It was also the earliest evidence of Jawi writing in the Malay world.
1330The Chinese traveller Wang Dayuan visited Singapura and records an attack by Siam, recording it down alongside Long Ya Men and Ban Zu.
1360Singapura Kingdom attacked and defeated by the Hindu Buddhist Javanese Kingdom of Majapahit
1362Badang, a legendary Malay strongman was elected as the Hulubalang of Singapura
1363Brunei Sultanate was established, when the Sultan of Brunei married with a princess of Singapura and converted to Islam
1398Parameswara, a prince of Srivijaya, the last king of Singapura flees from Singapura.

15th century

1400Malacca Kingdom was founded by Parameswara, the last king of Singapura.
1403Chinese admiral Yin Ching reached Malacca, establishing diplomatic ties between China and Malacca.
The first Malay-Chinese dictionary was complied in Chinese characters containing about 500 words related to trade used in Malacca.
1409Chinese admiral Cheng Ho reached Malacca, strengthening diplomatic ties between China and Malacca.
1414Malacca established diplomatic ties with Pasai, when Megat Iskandar Shah married a princess of Pasai and converted to Islam.
1444Hang Tuah, the legendary Malaccan Laksamana was born in Malacca.
1445Tun Perak, the Penghulu of Klang, led the Malaccan army to victory by defeating Siamese invaders in Muar.
1450Sharif ul-Hashim, arrived in Sulu from Malacca, married a daughter of Raja Baginda, and founded Sultanate of Sulu.
1451Malacca become the center of Islam in southeast Asia.
1456Tun Perak once again led the Malaccan army to victory by defeating Siamese invaders in Batu Pahat. He was then made Bendahara of Malacca.
1459Emperor of China sent away his daughter Hang Li Po and 500 followers as a gift to Sultan Mansur Shah. Sultan Mansur Shah established Bukit Cina as a settlement for the Chinese.
1463Malacca established diplomatic ties with Ryukyu. Ryukyu traders are highly respected in Malacca because they were honest and well behaved.
1470Tun Besar, a son of Tun Perak was killed because he had accidentally displaced Raja Muhammad's destar, a prince of Malacca.
Raja Muhammad was exiled to Pahang and founded the Pahang Sultanate.

16th century

150911 SeptemberDiogo Lopes de Sequeira, the first European to reach the Far East, arrived in Malacca.
151124 AugustMalacca comes under Portuguese rule after falling to an army led by Alfonso de Albuquerque.
NovemberFlor de la Mar, carrying a large treasure trove from Malacca, sank near Sumatran coast.
Panglima Awang was acquired as a slave by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
1512Fortress of Malacca, the oldest European architectural remains in the Far East was built in Malacca.
The first Portuguese expedition was sent eastward from Malacca to search for the Spice Islands led by Francisco Serrão.
152121 AprilMagellan Expedition was received with hostility by the Mactan natives, led by Lapu-Lapu. Panglima Awang was believe to have left Mactan and made his way back to the Malay Peninsula, thus becoming the first person in recorded history to circumnavigate the world.
Brunei was visited by Magellan Expedition.
Church of Saint Paul was built, the oldest church building in Southeast Asia.
1522The first Malay-Italian dictionary was complied by Antonio Pigafetta, who accompanied Ferdinand Magellan circled the globe. The dictionary contains about 426 words related to trade used in Moluccas.
1528Johor Sultanate was founded by Raja Alauddin, son of Mahmud Shah, the last king of Malacca.
Perak Sultanate was founded by Raja Muzaffar, also a son of Mahmud Shah.
1540Luak Rembau was founded.
1545Francis Xavier arrived in Malacca and devoted much of his life to missions in Asia especially in Malacca and Maluku Islands.
1547Francis Xavier met a Japanese man named Anjirō who had travelled from Kagoshima to Malacca to meet him and become the first Japanese Christian
1548Francis Xavier established a school in the premises of the chapel known as Church of Saint Paul and thus the first school in the Malay archipelago.
Cik Siti Wan Kembang rules Kelantan.
1563Kota Jelasin was built for Cik Siti Wan Kembang and her adopted daughter, Puteri Saadong.
Manuel Godinho de Erédia, Malay-Portuguese writer and cartographer of early Malay Peninsula was born in Malacca.
1577Sultan Mansur Shah was abducted by the Acehnese forces. Acehnese forces captured the Sultan's widow and children, brought them back to Aceh.
Raja Alauddin, a prince of Perak was married to an Acehnese princess and installed as the Sultan of Aceh.
Perak nobles journeyed to Acehnese and requested Alauddin Mansur Syah for a successor. He sent his brother to become Perak's monarch to maintain the unbroken Malacca dynasty lineage.
1578Castilian War : War broke out between Brunei and Spain in Borneo and Mindanao.
Sulu Sultanate gained its independence from Brunei.
1594Perak rotational succession system among members of the royal family began.
1598Raja Tengah, accepted the offer by the Sultan of Brunei to be the Sultan of Sarawak

17th century

160325 FebruaryDutch led by Jacob van Heemskerk with the assistance of Johor, seizured the Portuguese merchant vessel, Santa Catarina off the coast of Singapore.
Malay-Dutch vocabulary, the earliest Malay book printed in Europe was published by Frederick de Houtman in Amsterdam.
1612Sejarah Melayu was composed by Tun Sri Lanang, the Bendahara of Johor.
1613Aceh attacked Johor in Batu Sawar. Tun Sri Lanang was captured and taken to Aceh.
1614Pahang ruled by Johor.
1635Raja Kuning of Patani married the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Johor.
1636Perak nobles turned to Sultan Iskandar Thani of Aceh who sent his relative, Raja Sulong, to be the sultan of Perak because the previous sultan died without an heir and many royal family members died due to an epidemic that swept through the sultanate. Raja Sulong was a prince of Siak and was not genealogically linked to Perak royalty on his father's side.
1641Dutch with the help from Johor, conquered Malacca from the Portuguese. Hikayat Hang Tuah was composed by an unknown writer from Johor after the Portuguese defeat in Malacca.
1644Tarian Asyik was created to comfort the mourning Raja Kuning after the loss of her beloved bird.
1650Kelantan become a part of the Patani founded by Raja Sakti I.
1653Kota Sena was established by Muhyiddin Mansur Shah as a capital of Kedah.
1660Brunei Civil War: Started over disagreement between the son of the Sultan of Brunei, Pengiran Muda Bongsu and Pengiran Muda Alam, the son of Pengiran Abdul Mubin over the results of a cockfight which Pengiran Muda Bungsu lost.
1666SeptemberKedah was under Thai sovereignty.
1667Puteri Saadong ruled the territory of Kota Jelasin.
1670Kelantan split into two, Kelantan Barat (center in Kota Kubang Labu) and Kelantan Timur (center in Kota Pangkalan Datu).
1671Puteri Saadong managed to heal the King Narai of Siam, who promised her freedom if she able heal his disease. Puteri Saadong return to Kota Jelasin and killed her husband, Raja Abdullah, who remarried with another princess.
1673Johor-Jambi war: Jambi attacked Johor in Johor Lama.
Brunei Civil War: Eastern part of Sabah was given to Sulu as the reward for assisting the Muhyiddin's forces.
1679Johor-Jambi war: Tun Abdul Jamil defeated Jambi, so ending the Johor-Jambi war.
1699Tun Abdul Jalil, the Bendahara of Johor was elected as the Sultan of Johor, after the dead of "Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang".

18th century

1700Luak Sungai Ujong was founded.
1701First original Malay-English dictionary by Thomas Bowrey was printed in London.
1704Sultan of Brunei cedes the lands east of Marudu Bay to the Sultanate of Sulu.
1708Terengganu Sultanate was founded by Zainal Abidin I, son of Tun Habib Abdul Majid, the Bendahara of Johor.
1718Abdul Jalil Shah IV was overthrown by Raja Kecik from Siak and was supported by Minangkabau forces.
1722Raja Sulaiman, a son of Abdul Jalil Shah IV overthrown by Raja Kecik with help of five Bugis warrior – Daeng Parani, Daeng Marewah, Daeng Chelak, Daeng Menambun, and Daeng Kamasi.
Daeng Marewah was elected as the first Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Johor.
1750Luak Teraci was founded, under the suzerainty of Sungai Ujong.
Luak Gunung Pasir was founded, under the suzerainty of Rembau.
Luak Ulu Muar was founded, under the suzerainty of Johol.
Luak Jempol was founded, under the suzerainty of Jelebu.
Luak Inas (Jelai) was founded.
1757Tun Abdul Jamal was elected as the first Temenggong of Johor, direct ancestor to the House of Temenggong.
1762Long Yunus, a prince from Kota Kubang Labu succeeded in uniting both Kelantan Barat and Kelantan Timur.
1766Selangor Sultanate was founded by Raja Lumu, son of Daeng Chelak, the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Johor.
1767Kedah was under Burmese sovereignty after the fall of Ayutthaya
1769Kedah once again was under Thai sovereignty.
1770Penghulu Luak of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol and Rembau invited a prince of the Minangkabau in Sumatra to rule Negeri Sembilan.
1773Negeri Sembilan established as a confederation of nine states, with Raja Melewar as its first Yamtuan Besar.
1784Raja Haji Fisabilillah, the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Johor, led a series of raids against the Dutch in Malacca and died at Teluk Ketapang.
178611 AugustPenang was founded by Francis Light and was named "Prince of Wales Island"
1795Administration of Malacca was given to British following the Kew Letters.
1796Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, the father of modern Malay literature was born in Malacca
1800Seberang Perai was ceded to Penang and was named "Province Wellesley"

19th century

1807Fortress of Malacca was almost totally demolished but was saved by Stamford Raffles.
1808Raja Ali Haji, a grandson of Raja Haji Fisabilillah was born in Selangor or Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga. He as a scholar and historian, led a renaissance of Malay letters.
1809JuneKedah helped Siam during the Burmese invasion of Tanjung Salang
1811Malay gamelan was first performed in public in Pekan during the wedding ceremony of Tengku Hussain, the son of Sultan Mahmud Shah of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga, with Wan Esah, a sister of Raja Bendahara Tun Ali of Pahang.
Sultan Mahmud Shah died in Lingga, the throne of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga went instead to Tengku Jummat, whose was supported by the Bugis in Lingga but opposed by the Malay chiefs in Riau and Pahang who were supporters of Tengku Hussain
1816Sekolah Melayu Gelugor was established in Penang, the first Malay school.
Penang Free School was built in Penang, the first English school.
1818Malacca was once again ruled by the Dutch following the end of the Napoleonic Wars
18196 FebruaryStamford Raffles, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Tengku Hussain signed a treaty, marking Singapore as a British settlement.
1820Cantonese-dominated Ghee Hin and Hakka-dominated Hai San, two main secret societies in Malaya were established.
1821NovemberKedah was invaded by the Siamese forces, a few years after Mahsuri's execution.
182227 NovemberTengku Jummat was proclaimed the Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga with strong support from Raja Jaafar, Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga and the Dutch
182417 MarchAnglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed by the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, partitioning the southern Malay states, Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga between British Malaya and Dutch East Indies.
182620 JuneBurney Treaty was signed between Siam and the United Kingdom, partitioning the northern Malay states between British Malaya and Siam.
Straits Settlements were established, consisting of Penang, Malacca and Singapore.
Alexander Hare, an English adventurer brought his Malay harem and slaves from the Malay archipelago to the Cocos Islands, forming a community called Cocos Malays.
1831Naning War: The opposition of Dol Said to British taxation policy in Naning led to the Naning War.
1832Luak Tampin founded.
1833Naning War: Dol Said surrenders to British forces in return for an official pardon, so ending the Naning War.
1836Malays and Bidayuhs of Sarawak River basin revolted and proclaimed their independence from Brunei.
1839Kedah was divided into four administrative units by Siam, Setul, Perlis, Kubang Pasu and Kedah.
15 AugustJames Brooke first arrived in Kuching.
184020 DecemberJames Brooke and Serib Japper negotiate and accept the surrender of Siniawan Rebels in Upper Sarawak
184114 FebruaryJames Brooke receives permission from the Sultan of Brunei to trade and reside in Sarawak
24 SeptemberSarawak was ruled by James Brooke.
1843Siam recognized Syed Hussin Jamalullail as the ruler of Perlis.
18468 JulyBrunei captured by the British
AugustBrunei cedes Sarawak - Tg. Datu to mouth of Samarrahan to James Brooke
18 DecemberBrunei cedes Labuan to the British
1853JanuaryRentap forces attacked Brooke's fort in Nanga Skrang and killed Alan Lee, a British officer.
1855Ali Wallace was recruited as a cook for Alfred Russel Wallace in his explorations and was later responsible for independently collecting many significant specimens that are credited to Wallace.
185925 JuneSharif Masahor forces attacked Brooke's fort in Kanowit and killed Charles Fox and Henry Steele, two British officers.
1861JulyFirst Larut War: Hai San Society tried to sabotage Ghee Hin's waterway.
1865Second Larut War: Started over gambling quarrel between members of Ghee Hin and Hai San.
1867Klang War: Raja Mahadi challenged Raja Abdullah for authority over Klang.
1 AprilStraits Settlements came under direct British control as a crown colony.
1866Baju Kurung Telok Belanga, a version of Baju Kurung was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar and named after the centre of the Johor at that time. Baju Kurung is the national dress of Malaysia.
1869Yap Ah Loy became the Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur
1870Klang War: Ghee Hin had joined Raja Mahadi's forces, and Hai San had sided with Tengku Kudin.
1871Third Larut War: Began with an affair between Ghee Hin's leader and a member of Hai San and conflict of Perak succession between Raja Abdullah and Raja Ismail.
1873Fourth Larut War: Quarrelling Malay chiefs had taken sides in the Larut Wars, by showing support to the quarrelling Chinese secret societies.
Klang War: Tengku Kudin, with British aid, a Pahang army, and his Chinese allies, defeated Raja Mahadi and his supporters.
187420 JanuaryPangkor Treaty of 1874 was signed, signalling the British involvement in the policies of the Malays, and the establishment of British Malaya.
War break out in Sungai Ujong between the forces of Dato' Kelana and Dato' Bandar. British sided with Dato' Kelana and defeated Dato' Bandar and Sungai Ujong felt to British dominance.
18752 NovemberPerak War: James W. W. Birch, the first Resident of Perak was assassinated by Malay chief, Dato Maharaja Lela's forces in Pasir Salak.
7 NovemberPerak War: Sultan of Perak and Malay chiefs attempted to end foreign influence in the region.
A Persian theatre company from Bombay performed in Penang, led to the creation of Bangsawan.
1876Perak War: Raja Abdullah, Ngah Ibrahim and Mohammad Amin were exiled to the Seychelles.
187720 JanuaryPerak War: Dato' Maharaja Lela was executed by hanging in Taiping.
1882MayNorth Borneo became a British protectorate under the sovereign North Borneo Chartered Company.
1885The first Railway track was built connecting Taiping with Port Weld.
1887Terengganu Inscription Stone was discovered by villagers in Kuala Berang.
1895Terusan Wan Mat Saman was built by the Prime Minister of Kedah, connecting Alor Setar with Gurun, the longest aqueduct in Malaysia.
1895Undang-undang Tubuh Kerajaan Johor was introduced by Sultan Abu Bakar, the first written constitution in Malaysia.
1896Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang joined to become the Federated Malay States, a federation of British protectorates.
1897Mat Salleh Rebellion: Mat Salleh forces attacked and destroyed British's administrative center in Pulau Gaya.

20th century

190910 MarchThe Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 was signed by the United Kingdom and Thailand, effectively dissecting the northern Malay states.
191428 OctoberBattle of Penang: The German cruiser SMS Emden sank two Allied warships in the Strait of Malacca.
1915William Kellie Smith, a Scottish planter started the construction project of Kellie's Castle in Batu Gajah, Perak.
1922Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong represented one of the 43 farmers being put to trial in a court for doing farming without permission.
1928Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong assembled about 1,000 people in Kampung Buluh, to launch their resistance to get the British out of their state. Several police stations were attacked were made in Kuala Berang.
19417 DecemberAttack on Pearl Harbor: Japan opened hostilities with the Allies and their colonies.
8 DecemberJapanese occupation of Malaya: Japanese forces invaded and began the occupation of British Malaya.
16 DecemberJapanese occupation of British Borneo: Japanese forces invaded and began the occupation of British Borneo.
10 DecemberThe British battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser HMS Repulse were sunk by Japanese bombers.
194214 JanuaryBattle of Muar: The last major battle of the Malayan campaign was fought.
23 JanuaryParit Sulong Massacre: Allied soldiers were massacred by Japanese forces.
9 FebruaryBattle of Singapore: The Japanese crossed the Strait of Johor in inflatable boats and landed in Singapore.
13 FebruaryBattle of Pasir Panjang: A Malay regiment led by Lieutenant Adnan bin Saidi fought bravely against the Japanese at Pasir Panjang Ridge.
18 OctoberKedah became the Thai possession of Syburi.
1944 11 January World War II: Action of 11 January 1944

World War II: Action of 17 July 1944

1945JanuarySandakan Death Marches: Cruel marches began which were forced by Japan.
JuneSandakan Death Marches: The death marches came to an end.
27 JuneBattle of North Borneo: A battle was fought between the Australians and Japanese.
14 AugustJapan surrendered, leaving a power vacuum.
5 SeptemberThe British returned and established a military administration in the Straits Settlements.
23 SeptemberKedah and the three other states were returned to the British.
19461 AprilThe Straits Settlements were dissolved and replaced by the Malayan Union, conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government.
8 FebruaryCharles Vyner Brooke declared that the Sarawak Supreme Council agreed on the cession of Sarawak to British.
1 JulyBritish officially declared Sarawak as Crown Colony of Sarawak
194831 JanuaryOpposition from Malay nationalists forced the Malayan Union to disband in favour of the Federation of Malaya, which restored the symbolic positions of the rulers of the Malay states.
18 JuneSungai Siput Incident: Rubber plantations and tin mines in Malaya were destroyed by Communists, leading the British to declare a state of emergency.
16 JulyDeath of Lau Yew: British security forces clashed with those of the Malayan Communist Party resulting in the death of one of their key leaders, Lau Yew.[3]
19498 OctoberThe University of Malaya was established following the merger of Raffles College and King Edward Medical College.
3 DecemberRosli Dhobi and several members from Rukun 13 orchestrated the assassination of the Governor of Sarawak, Sir Duncan Stewart in Sibu.
195023 FebruaryBukit Kepong Incident: An armed encounter took place between Communists and the police.
19516 OctoberAssassination of Sir Henry Gurney: British High Commissioner Sir Henry Gurney was killed by members of the Malayan Communist Party in Fraser's Hill.
195618 JanuaryA constitutional conference proposed the appointment of the Reid Commission to devise a constitution for a fully self-governing and independent Federation of Malaya.
8 FebruaryBaling Talks: An talk between representative of the government of Malaya and Malayan Communist Party to resolve the Malayan Emergency situation. Tan Cheng Lock, David Marshall and Tunku Abdul Rahman represented the government whereas Chin Peng, Rashid Maidin and Chen Tien represented the communists. However, the talks were unsuccessful because the surrender terms were not acceptable to the Malayan Communist Party.
195721 FebruaryThe Reid Commission submitted its working draft to a Working Committee.
31 JulyIndependence of the Federation of Malaya
15 AugustThe new Federal Constitution was passed by the Federal Legislative Council.
31 AugustFormal independence of the Federation of Malaya was achieved.
196127 MayMalayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman proposed a merger between Singapore, Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak.
196217 JanuaryCobbold Commission: The Cobbold Commission, was a Commission of Enquiry set up to determine whether the people of North Borneo (now Sabah) and Sarawak supported the proposal to create the Federation of Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Brunei, Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak.
19628 DecemberBrunei Revolt: A revolt led by Yassin Affandi began coordinated attacks on oil installations, police stations and government facilities around the protectorate.
196320 JanuaryIndonesia–Malaysia confrontation: Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio announced that Indonesia would pursue a policy of konfrontasi with the Federation of Malaysia, North Borneo and Sarawak.
9 JulyThe Malaysia Agreement was signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak.
31 JulyManila Accord was signed by the governments of Malaya (now Malaysia), Indonesia and, Philippines.
16 SeptemberMalaysia established. Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Malaya merged to form Malaysia.
1965MayLee Kuan Yew began campaigning for a Malaysian Malaysia.
7 AugustSingapore and Malaysia signed a separation agreement.
9 AugustThe Malaysian Parliament voted to expel Singapore from the Federation.
19667 FebruaryExchange of notes by the government of Malaysia (formerly Malaya) and Philippines constituting an agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord of 31 July 1963.
1967FebruaryCommunist insurgency in Malaysia (1968–89): A renewed insurgency was conducted by the Malayan Communist Party against Malaysian federal security forces.
196910 May1969 Malaysian general election: The third general election since independence was held in West Malaysia.
13 May13 May Incident: Ethnic riots between Malays and Chinese took place in Kuala Lumpur.
14 MayA state of emergency and accompanying curfew were declared throughout the country.
16 MayThe state of emergency and curfew were lifted.
1970Rukun Negara, the national philosophy was instituted by royal proclamation on Merdeka Day, after the May 13 Incident in 1969.
1971An affirmative action program known as the Malaysian New Economic Policy was launched by the Malaysian government.
19741 FebruaryDesignation of first Federal Territory.
19755 August1975 AIA building hostage crisis: Japanese Red Army took more than 50 hostages at the AIA building, which housed several embassies.
19778 November1977 Kelantan Emergency: The state of emergency was declared by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) on 8 November 1977 upon the request of the federal government following a political impasse and street violence in Kelantan.[4]
197921 DecemberPedra Branca dispute: Singapore lodged a formal protest with Malaysia in response to a map published by Malaysia in 1979 claiming Pedra Branca.
198116 JulyMahathir Mohamad was sworn in as prime minister at the age of 56. One of his first acts was to release 21 detainees held under the Internal Security Act, including journalist Samad Ismail and a former deputy minister in Hussein's government, Abdullah Ahmad, who had been suspected of being an underground communist.
19821 JanuaryThe time zone in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore changed to UTC+08:00 and has not changed since.
1 MayThe time zone in East Malaysia changed to UTC+08:00 and has not changed since.
198416 AprilLabuan became a Federal Territory of Malaysia.
19914 OctoberThe Kuala Lumpur Tower official ground-breaking.
1 NovemberThe Kuala Lumpur International Airport official ground-breaking.
1993The Parliament passed amendments to the Constitution with the aim of stripping the royalty of legal immunity.
1 FebruaryKuala Lumpur International Airport construction began.
19941 JanuaryPetronas Towers construction commenced.
19961 JanuaryPetronas Twin Towers completed.
Kuala Lumpur International Airport opened to public service.
1 MayThe Kuala Lumpur Tower completed.
1 JuneAstro was launched as Malaysia's first subscription-based satellite television station.
19981 JanuaryPetronas Towers opened to public service of Aquaria KLCC, Suria KLCC and Petronas Philharmonic Hall.
11 July The KL Sports City was officially inaugurated by the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, ahead of the 16th Commonwealth Games.
11 SeptemberOpening ceremony of the 16th Commonwealth Games held in Kuala Lumpur.

21st century

2000DecemberGunung Mulu National Park and Kinabalu Park became UNESCO World Heritage Sites of nature.
20011 JanuaryThe Kuala Lumpur Central Station officially opened.
1 FebruaryPutrajaya was declared as a Federal Territory Putrajaya was handed over from the Selangor state authorities.
8 SeptemberOpening ceremony of the 21st Southeast Asian Games held in Kuala Lumpur.
200222 JuneAt UMNO's general assembly in 2002, Mahathir Mohamad announced that he would resign as prime minister, only for supporters to rush to the stage and convince him tearfully to remain.
200331 OctoberAbdullah Ahmad Badawi became the new Prime Minister of Malaysia.
23 MayPedra Branca dispute resolved. Singapore gained sovereignty over Pedra Branca; Malaysia gained sovereignty over Middle Rocks.
12 DecemberPenang and Malacca City became a cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site, citing as the Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca.
2007 10 November The first Bersih rally was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
25 November 2007 HINDRAF rally: More than 30,000 Hindu Rights Action Force supporters participated in a rally which was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
20093 February2009 Perak constitutional crisis: Began when three Pakatan Rakyat state legislators defected, causing a collapse of the state government.
20126 JulyLenggong became a cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site.
201311 February2013 Lahad Datu standoff: Sulu Militants' attempt to siege Lahad Datu District from Sabah, Malaysia.
201427 JanuaryKajang Move: The attempted replacement of Khalid Ibrahim as Menteri Besar (Chief Minister) of Selangor with Anwar Ibrahim starts a political crisis.
8 MarchMalaysia Airlines Flight 370 disappeared.
17 JulyMalaysia Airlines Flight 17 shot down over Ukraine, killing all 298 people aboard.
23 SeptemberKajang Move: The crisis concludes with the appointment of Parti KeADILan Rakyat Deputy President, Azmin Ali, as Menteri Besar.
20155 June18 people were killed in the Sabah earthquake.
2 JulyThe Wall Street Journal (WSJ) reported that Malaysian investigators have traced nearly US$700 million of deposits into what they believe are personal bank accounts of Prime Minister Najib Razak.[5]
201713 FebruaryKim Jong-nam assassinated at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.[6]
20189 MayBarisan Nasional was defeated by Pakatan Harapan, the first change of governing coalition since independence.
8 December The anti-ICERD rally was organised by opposition right-wing political parties Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), with the support of various non-governmental organisations in response to the Pakatan Harapan government's plan to ratify the United Nations convention known as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD).[7]
2020 25 January The first cases of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was detected in Malaysia among travellers from China in Johor.[8][9]
4 February First Malaysian tested positive for COVID-19.[10]
24 February Mahathir Mohamad resigned as the seventh Prime Minister of Malaysia due to the country's political crisis.[11]
18 March The Malaysian government led by the newly appointed Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin imposed a nationwide lockdown known as the Movement Control Order (MCO) in response to the emerging COVID-19 pandemic in the country.[12]
28 July The High Court convicted former prime minister Najib Razak on all seven counts of abuse of power, money laundering and criminal breach of trust, becoming the first Prime Minister of Malaysia to be convicted of corruption,[13][14] and was sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment and fined RM210 million.[15][16]
2021 12 January 2021 Malaysian state of emergency had been declared by the government.
18 February High Court orders Rosmah Mansor, the wife of former Prime Minister Najib Razak to enter defence on all three graft charges.[17]
16 August Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin and his cabinet resign. He remained as caretaker prime minister before new PM is appointed.[18][19]
21 August Ismail Sabri Yaakob is sworn in as the ninth Prime Minister at Istana Negara officially marks the start of his term as PM and the end of Muhyiddin Yassin's term as caretaker PM.[20]
8 December The Court of Appeal upholds the conviction and sentence of former prime minister Najib Razak.[21]

See also

  • Timeline of the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal


  1. Junjiro Takakusu, (1896), A record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago AD 671–695, by I-tsing, Oxford, London.
  2. Andaya, Barbara Watson; Andaya, Leonard Y. (1982). A History of Malaysia. London: MacMillan Press Ltd. pp. 26–28, 61, 151–152, 242–243, 254–256, 274. ISBN 0-333-27672-8.
  3. "Malayan Emergency", Britain's Small Wars accessed 17 November 2013
  4. Cheah, Boon Kheng (2002). Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 179. ISBN 978-981-230-175-8.
  5. Clark, Tom Wright and Simon (2 July 2015). "Investigators Believe Money Flowed to Malaysian Leader Najib's Accounts Amid 1MDB Probe". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660.
  6. "Kim Jong-nam killed by VX nerve agent". The Guardian. 24 February 2017.
  7. "PAS and Umno to hold anti-Icerd rally in KL on Dec 8 - Malaysiakini". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  8. Elengoe, Asita (June 2020). "COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia". Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives. 11 (3): 93–100. doi:10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.3.08. ISSN 2210-9099. PMC 7258884.
  9. "Malaysia: First cases of 2019-nCoV confirmed January 25". GardaWorld. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  10. "First Malaysian tests positive for Wuhan coronavirus | The Star Online". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  11. "Dr Mahathir resigns". The New Straits Times. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  12. Bunyan, John (16 March 2020). "PM: Malaysia under movement control order from Wed until April 14, all shops closed except for essential services". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  13. "Najib gets concurrent 12-year jail sentence, RM210mil fine (Live Updates)". The Star. Malaysia.
  14. "Najib Razak: Former Malaysian PM guilty on all charges in corruption trial". BBC News. 28 July 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  15. "Ex-Malaysian PM Najib gets 12 years' jail in 1MDB-linked graft trial". The Straits Times. 28 July 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  16. "Former Malaysia PM Najib Razak sentenced to 12 years in jail following guilty verdict in 1MDB trial". Channel NewsAsia. 28 July 2020. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  17. "High Court orders Rosmah to enter defence on all three graft charges". Astro Awani. 18 February 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  18. "Malaysia's Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin and cabinet resign, palace confirms". CNBC. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  19. Tho, Xin Yi; Yusof, Amir (16 August 2021). "Muhyiddin Yassin appointed Malaysian caretaker PM after resignation is accepted by the king". CNA. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  20. Tan, Vincent (21 August 2021). "Ismail Sabri Yaakob sworn in as Malaysia's 9th prime minister". CNA. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  21. "Court of Appeal upholds Najib's SRC conviction". The Star. Malaysia.
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