Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

Tun Abdullah bin Ahmad Badawi (Jawi: عبد الله بن احمد بدوي; born 26 November 1939) is a Malaysian politician who served as the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia from October 2003 to April 2009. He was also the sixth president of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the largest political party (that time) in Malaysia, and led the governing Barisan Nasional (BN) parliamentary coalition. He is informally known as Pak Lah, Pak meaning 'Uncle', while Lah is taken from his name 'Abdullah'.

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
عبد الله احمد بدوي
Badawi in 2014
5th Prime Minister of Malaysia
Honoured as
Father of Human Capital Development
Bapa Pembangunan Modal Insan
باڤ ڤمباڠونن مودل انسان
In office
31 October 2003  3 April 2009
DeputyNajib Razak
Preceded byMahathir Mohamad
Succeeded byNajib Razak
6th President of the United Malays National Organisation
In office
23 September 2004  26 March 2009
DeputyNajib Razak
Preceded byMahathir Mohamad
Succeeded byNajib Razak
Ministerial roles
1978–1980Parliamentary Secretary of Federal Territories
1980–1981Deputy Minister of Federal Territories
1981–1984Minister in the Prime Minister's Department
1984–1986Minister of Education
1986–1987Minister of Defence
1991–1999Minister of Foreign Affairs
1999–2004Minister of Home Affairs
1999–2003Deputy Prime Minister
2003–2008Minister of Finance
2004–2008Minister of Internal Security
2008–2009Minister of Defence
Other roles
2003–2006Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Faction represented in Dewan Rakyat
1978–2013Barisan Nasional
Personal details
Abdullah bin Ahmad Badawi

(1939-11-26) 26 November 1939
Bayan Lepas, Penang, Straits Settlements, British Malaya (now Malaysia)
Political partyUnited Malays National Organisation
Other political
Barisan Nasional
Muafakat Nasional
Perikatan Nasional
Height1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Endon Mahmood
(m. 1965; died 2005)

(m. 2007)
RelationsSyeikh Abdullah Fahim (grandfather)
Khairy Jamaluddin (son-in-law)
Children4 (2 children and 2 stepchildren)
Residence(s)Bait Badawi, Kampung Palimbayan, Sungai Penchala, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia[1]
EducationBukit Mertajam High School
Alma materUniversity of Malaya (BA)

He was also a Member of Parliament (MP) for Kepala Batas for eight consecutive terms, that was from 1978 to 2013. Currently, he serves as the Chancellor of Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP).

Background, early life and education

Abdullah was born in Bayan Lepas, Penang to a prominent religious family. Badawi's paternal grandfather, Syeikh Abdullah Badawi Fahim, was of Hadrami descent.[2] Syeikh Abdullah was a well-respected religious leader and nationalist, was one of the founding members of Hizbul Muslimin, later known as PAS. After independence, Syeikh Abdullah became the first mufti of Penang after Independence.[3] His father, Ahmad Badawi, was a prominent religious figure and UMNO member. His mother, Kailan Haji Hassan died in Kuala Lumpur at the age of 80 on 2 February 2004.[4] His maternal grandfather, Ha Su-chiang (traditional Chinese: 哈蘇璋; simplified Chinese: 哈苏璋; pinyin: Hā Sūzhāng; Wade–Giles: Ha1 Su1-chang1) (also known as Hassan Salleh), was an Utsul Muslim who came from Sanya in Hainan.[5][6][7][8][9]

Abdullah is a former student of Bukit Mertajam High School. He studied at MBS (Methodist Boys' School) Penang for his 6th form. Abdullah obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Islamic Studies from the University of Malaya in 1964.[10]

Political career

After graduating from the University of Malaya, he joined the Malaysian Administrative and Diplomatic Corps (the formal term for the civil service). He served as Director of Youth at the Ministry of Youth and Sport as well as Secretary of the National Operations Council (MAGERAN). He resigned in 1978 to become the member of parliament for his constituency of Kepala Batas in northern Seberang Perai (which had also been represented by his father).

Early during Mahathir's tenure as prime minister, a bitter dispute erupted within the ruling UMNO party and it was divided into two camps, which were colloquially known as 'Team A', comprising Mahathir loyalists, and 'Team B', which supported former Minister of Finance Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah and former Deputy Prime Minister Musa Hitam. Mahathir prevailed, leading to the exclusion of Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah from the newly established UMNO (Baru) or New UMNO. Abdullah was a close supporter of his political mentor Musa Hitam in Team B and as a result, he was sacked from his post of Minister of Defence in the Cabinet. He did not join the Semangat 46 (Spirit 46) party which was set up by Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. Semangat 46 is now defunct.

When UMNO (Baru) was formed in February 1988, Mahathir, the UMNO President and Prime Minister, brought Abdullah into the pro tem committee of UMNO (Baru) as the vice-president. In 1990, Abdullah retained his seat as vice-president. During the Cabinet reshuffle in 1991, Mahathir brought him back into the Cabinet as Foreign Minister. He held this post until November 1999, when Syed Hamid Albar succeeded him. Even though he lost his vice presidency in the 1993 UMNO elections, he remained in the Cabinet and was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. Prior to 1998, he also served as Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Minister of Education, Minister of Defence, and Minister of Foreign Affairs. He completed his probation when he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia and Minister of Home Affairs following the dismissal of Anwar Ibrahim. After Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was dismissed, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad appointed Abdullah as Deputy Prime Minister in 1999. Abdullah went on to succeed Mahathir as Prime Minister in 2003.

Prime Minister

American president George W. Bush meets with Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi of Malaysia during Bush's visit to New York City for the United Nations General Assembly, 18 September 2006.

First term

Upon coming into power as prime minister, Abdullah Badawi promised to clamp down on corruption, thus empowering anti-corruption agencies and providing more avenues for the public to expose corrupt practices. He advocated an interpretation of Islam known as Islam Hadhari, which advocates the intercompatibility between Islam and economic and technological development. His administration emphasised a revival of the Malaysian agricultural sector.

In the 2004 general election, Abdullah scored a significant victory. In the 11th General Election, Abdullah Badawi's first as Prime Minister of Malaysia, he delivered a landslide victory for his party's coalition Barisan Nasional (of which UMNO is the dominant party) by winning 198 out of 220 seats in parliament and wresting control of the Terengganu state government from the Islamist opposition Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), as well as coming close to capturing the traditional PAS stronghold of Kelantan. The victory was widely regarded as an approval of his vision of moderate Islam over religious fundamentalism as well as support for his anti-corruption policies.

Former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, upon his release from prison in September 2004, publicly credited Abdullah Badawi for not interfering with the court's overturning of his sodomy conviction.

On 10 September 2004, Abdullah Badawi became Finance Minister and presented his maiden budget, which was seen by many as maintenance-oriented as opposed to the growth policies emphasised by Mahathir Mohamad. He also focused on Malaysia's internal security after the increase in corrupt practices, such as bribery, in law enforcement in Malaysia.

Abdullah Badawi was heavily involved in foreign policy-making. He was the chairman of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference since the start of his premiership in 2003.

As of 2005, Abdullah Badawi was the chairman of the ASEAN, and he also served as chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) from October 2003 until September 2006.

Economic policies

Abdullah Badawi declared an end to the economic legacy and grandiose projects of his predecessor, Mahathir Mohamad, during the 57th UMNO General Assembly. He told delegates that he would not pursue the economic strategies adopted two decades ago by Dr. Mahathir.

He said that in the past, wealth was generated not by innovation and creativity, but by foreign investment, government contracts, and privatisation.

Agriculture and biotechnology are some of the highlighted issues in 9MP that the government believes such sectors are still able to generate wealth for many Malaysians, especially those in rural areas.

In late 2005, Badawi successfully led Malaysia into a historic free trade agreement with Japan enabling the two countries to scrap tariffs on essentially all industrial goods and most agricultural, forestry and fishery products within a decade.[11]

Under the Abdullah Badawi administration, the country is moving down to a value chain economy by developing its inherent strengths in agriculture without losing its existing manufacturing base.[12] However, Abdullah has been criticised as to his handling of the sudden hikes in the price of petrol and electricity through the restructuring of government subsidies, especially as it is detrimental to Malaysia's position as a traditional exporter.

50 years of nationhood

On 31 August 2007, Abdullah Badawi shouted 'Merdeka!' during the midnight celebrations of Malaysia's 50 years of nationhood. The celebrations were held at Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur, where thousands of people had congregated. This was a symbolic gesture which emulated the actions of Malaya's first prime minister, the late Tunku Abdul Rahman when the latter declared independence from the British in 1957.[13]

Second term

Abdullah Badawi won a second term as prime minister by winning the 2008 general election, held in March 2008, with a reduced majority. In the 12th General Election, Barisan Nasional won a slim majority of seats but lost its two-thirds majority and also lost 5 states to Opposition Pact. He also lost four additional states to the opposition (Kedah, Penang, Perak and Selangor). Although his party, Barisan Nasional, suffered a major setback, Abdullah Badawi vowed to fulfill the promises in his manifesto amid calls from Mahathir, the opposition and even among UMNO members for him to resign. However, his deputy, Najib Razak, and others in his party voiced unreserved support for his leadership.[14] It took a while before open dissent started brewing at grassroots levels, with petition and campaigns being launched to ask for his resignation.[15]

He was sworn in for a second term as prime minister on 10 March 2008.[16] Badawi unveiled a streamlined 68-member Cabinet on 18 March 2008, dropping half the ministers in his previous administration and keeping the crucial finance portfolio for himself.[17]

Abdullah faced a political crisis not only from the onslaught of the Opposition which gained much ground by taking the richest and most important states (Selangor and Penang, which incidentally is the hometown of Abdullah Badawi). He also faced growing discontent from within his own ranks in the UMNO party. Mukhriz Mahathir, the son of the former prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, openly called for him to step down. The UMNO Youth chief, Hishammuddin Hussein, did not take any action against Mukhriz and dismissed it as a personal opinion.

Regarding the live telecast in Dewan Rakyat (the first time since after the 12th General Election),[18] Abdullah said he was ashamed at what had transpired in the Dewan Rakyat on 30 April 2008 (Wednesday) and agreed that live telecast of the proceedings should be scrapped. He said what happened was just "too much."

"I felt ashamed if people watched television and saw what was happening in our Dewan. In my heart, I also felt that all this happened because there was a live broadcast at that time," said the Prime Minister.

There were many ideas from the government MPs and opposition MPs. Some MPs suggested that the live telecast should not be scrapped to let the people know what was really happening in the Dewan Rakyat and judge the MPs in conducting the people's voice in the parliament. The live telecast of the proceedings is to be continued to show that there is transparency and to let the people know how the MPs are behaving and debating.

On 19 May 2008, the dispute between Mahathir and Abdullah reached a "shocking" stage when Dr Mahathir, who had served as UMNO President for 22 years, announced that he was quitting the party after having lost confidence in Abdullah Badawi's leadership, and that he would only rejoin the party after Abdullah had stepped down as UMNO President and Prime Minister.[19]

On 15 September 2008, Abdullah's cabinet Minister in Prime Minister Department Senator Datuk Zaid Ibrahim submitted his resignation letter to the Prime Minister. He tendered his resignation as a protest to the government's action in detaining a blogger, a member of parliament and a reporter under the Internal Security Act. Abdullah later accepted his resignation.[20]

Retirement and transfer of power

Abdullah was under heavy pressure to step down after many within his UMNO party including former Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamad openly asked him to take full responsibility for the dismal performance during the 12th General Election in March 2008. On 10 July 2008, Abdullah announced he would step down as UMNO President and Prime Minister in mid-2009. He stepped down in favour of his successor, Najib Razak, during the UMNO General Assembly held on 1 April 2009. Nevertheless, shortly before he resigned, Najib gave promises to Abdullah that his constituency in Kepala Batas would continue to receive development funds, where he would continue to serve as its MP.[21]

Abdullah Badawi handed his resignation letter to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on 2 April 2009. On 3 April 2009, he was succeeded by Najib Razak as prime minister.[22] The Deputy Prime Minister, Najib, was sworn in as the new Prime Minister the following day. Abdullah was then conferred with a "Tun" title by King Mizan Zainal Abidin for his service to the nation.[23][24]

Controversies and issues


Abdullah Badawi's administration has been criticised for failing to assert its anti-corruption credentials. After moves to charge prominent figures such as Eric Chia and the then Land and Co-operative Development Minister, Kasitah Gaddam, with corruption, Abdullah Badawi's administration's efforts to combat corruption allegedly became less transparent. It was noted by the Economist that little progress has been made on curbing corruption.[25]

Malaysia as an Islamic State

In 2007 Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi first called Malaysia an Islamic state. Earlier that month he had made another statement, saying Malaysia was neither a theocratic or secular state.[26] A similar statement was made by Prime Minister on 12 March 2009, where he stated Malaysia was a "negara Islam".[27] The Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), a political group representing Malaysian Chinese, expressed reservations over this announcement. The MCA's position is that Malaysia is a fully secular state, and that the law transcends religion.[27]

Iraq Oil-for-Food scandal

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi has been criticised for endorsing his relatives who were involved in abuses related to the Iraqi Oil-for-Food Programme.[28]

Nuclear proliferation

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi has been criticised after one of his son's companies was found to be producing components for centrifuges purported to be intended for use in Libya's secret uranium enrichment program.

Concerns and disputes by Mahathir Mohamad and UMNO

In 2005, it was alleged that under Abdullah Badawi's administration, there had been a significant increase in cases of cronyism regarding the distribution of import permits for foreign-manufactured vehicles. Former Prime Minister Mahathir had called for an investigation of the issue. Later, Mahathir Mohamad criticised Abdullah for cancelling a number of development projects that the former had started, such as the construction of a bridge to replace the causeway linking Malaysia and Singapore.[29]

Vote of no confidence to Abdullah Badawi in Parliament

On 18 June 2008, the Sabah Progressive Party, a member of the 14-party ruling Barisan Nasional coalition, said its two legislators in the federal parliament will move or back a motion of no-confidence against Abdullah.[30]

Malaysia has never experienced a serious no-confidence vote before and it is unclear what is the next step if, in the unlikely event, Abdullah loses the vote; whether a snap election is held, or whether the King dissolves parliament, or whether a new leader is given the opportunity to form a new government. No Malaysian Prime Minister has ever faced a vote of no-confidence presented by a member of his own coalition before. The Barisan Nasional has 140 lawmakers in the 222-member Parliament, enough to defeat any vote against Abdullah who is also president of the UMNO.

Nevertheless, the motion was rejected by the Speaker on the basis that there were no grounds for the motion to be put forward.

Personal life

Badawi with his wife, Jeanne Abdullah

On 20 October 2005, Abdullah Badawi's wife, Endon Mahmood, died of breast cancer. Endon discovered the disease in 2003 while her twin sister Noraini, who had earlier been diagnosed with the same illness, died in January 2003. She received treatment in the United States and returned to Malaysia 18 days before her death. She is buried at a Muslim cemetery, at Taman Selatan, Precinct 20, Putrajaya.

On 6 June 2007, the Prime Minister's office announced Abdullah Badawi's marriage to Jeanne Abdullah. On 9 June, a private ceremony was conducted at the Prime Minister's residence, Seri Perdana, and attended by close relatives. Jeanne was formerly married to the younger brother of Abdullah Badawi's late wife. She was also a manager at the Seri Perdana residential complex and has two children from her previous marriage.[31]

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi has been criticised for allowing his son-in-law, Khairy Jamaluddin, to become unduly influential in UMNO politics.[32]

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi has been criticised for allowing his brother Fahim Ibrahim Badawi to buy 51 percent of the government-controlled MAS Catering Sdn Bhd. Fahim later sold this stake to Lufthansa's LSG Skychef at a huge profit.[33]

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi is known also as a poet.[34] His poem I Seek Eternal Peace was translated into more than 80 languages and published as a book.[35]

In September 2022, Abdullah Badawi was reported to be suffering from dementia and requires the use of a wheelchair, according to Khairy.[36]

Election results

Parliament of Malaysia[37][38]
Year Constituency Votes Pct Opponent(s) Votes Pct Ballots cast Majority Turnout
1978 P035 Kepala Batas, Penang Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 12,645 62.41% Musa Mohd. Yatim (PAS) 7,616 37.59% 5,029 Unknown
1982 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 16,759 68.51% Mohamad Sabu (PAS) 4,115 16.82% 25,277 12,644 80.29%
Khoo Siew Hoe (DAP) 3,589 14.67%
1986 P038 Kepala Batas, Penang Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 15,463 69.33% Ahmad Hasan Salahuddin (PAS) 6,841 30.67% 22,900 8,622 75.81%
1990 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 17,025 70.35% Ahmad Awang (S46) 7,174 29.65% 24,931 9,851 80.25%
1995 P041 Kepala Batas, Penang Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 22,521 82.77% Naser Mohd Radzi (S46) 4,687 17.23% 28,301 17,834 78.39%
1999 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 19,985 69.40% Abd Khalid Rasid (PAS) 8,810 30.60% 29,413 11,175 81.22%
2004 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 25,403 77.72% Abd Khalid Rasid (PAS) 7,281 22.28% 33,356 18,122 84.19%
2008 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (UMNO) 23,445 65.78% Subri Md Arshad (PAS) 12,199 34.22% 36,328 11,246 84.45%

Honours and awards

Honours of Malaysia

  •  Malaysia :
  •  Federal Territory (Malaysia) :
    • Grand Knight of the Order of the Territorial Crown (SUMW) – Datuk Seri Utama (2010)[40]
  •  Johor :
    • Grand Commander of the Royal Family Order of Johor (DK I) (2004)[41]
  •  Kelantan :
    • Recipient of the Royal Family Order of Kelantan or Star of Yunus (DK) (2006)[42]
  •  Kedah :
    • Recipient of the Kedah Supreme Order of Merit (DUK) (2006)
  •  Malacca :
    • Knight Grand Commander of the Premier and Exalted Order of Malacca (DUNM) – Datuk Seri Utama (2004)
  •  Negeri Sembilan :
    • Knight Grand Commander of the Order of Loyalty to Negeri Sembilan (SPNS) – Dato' Seri Utama (2000)
  •  Pahang :
    • Grand Knight of the Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang (SSAP) – Dato' Sri (1999)
    • Member 2nd class of the Family Order of the Crown of Indra of Pahang (DK II) (2006)[43]
  •  Penang :
    • Member of the Order of Defender of the State (DJN) (1979)
    • Companion of the Order of Defender of the State (DMPN) – Dato' (1981)
    • Commander of the Order of Defender of the State (DGPN) – Dato' Seri (1997)
    • Knight Grand Commander of the Order of Defender of the State (DUPN) – Dato' Seri Utama (2004)
  •  Perak :
    • Ordinary Class of the Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah (SPSA) – Dato' Seri DiRaja (2003)[44]
  •  Perlis :
    • Knight Grand Companion of the Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail (SSSJ) – Dato' Seri Diraja (2001)
  •  Sabah :
  •  Sarawak :
    • Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Hornbill Sarawak (DP) – Datuk Patinggi (2003)
  •  Selangor :
  •  Terengganu :
    • Supreme Class of the Order of Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu (SUMZ) – Dato' Seri Utama (2005)

International honours

Places named after him

Several places were named after him, including:

  • Kolej Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, a residential college at Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Simpang Empat, Perlis


  1. "Minister fined for violating SOP with Pak Lah house visit". Malaysiakini. 12 July 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  2. Noor, Elina, Noor, Ismail. Pak Lah: A Sense of Accountability–An Insight Into Effective Stewardship, Utusan Publications & Distributors, 2003, ISBN 978-967-61-1492-1.
  3. "Case of three Abdullah Badawi's at launching of Institute", The Star, 13 February 2008. Archived 8 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. "Pak Lah's mother dies at 78". The Star Online. 3 February 2004.
  5. Backman, Michael. Asia Future Shock: Business Crisis and Opportunity in the Coming Years, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, ISBN 978-0-230-00677-5, p. 133.
  6. PM meets relatives from China Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The Star Online, 22 December 2003.
  7. "UMNO man and that 'immigrants' remark suspended".
  8. "Radaris Asia: Looking for Su Chiang? What's a background check? View name, hometown or phone number!".
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  14. Annie Freeda Cruez and V. Vasudevan."PM gets backing from BN, Umno supreme councils". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-11., New Straits Times, 11 March 2008.
  15. "M'sian PM defiant despite fading prospects", AFP AsiaOne News.
  16. "Malaysian prime minister sworn in for second term". Archived from the original on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13., Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 10 March 2008.
  17. "Malaysia PM announces new Cabinet". Archived from the original on 23 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-23., CNN, 18 March 2008.
  18. "Live Telecast of Parliament Malaysia". YouTube. 30 April 2008. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 2011-02-15. .
  19. "Dr M quits Umno". The Star Online. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  20. "Law Minister Zaid 'tenders resignation'". Malaysiakini. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  21. "Abdullah's boon to Kepala Batas folk". The Star. 2 April 2009. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  22. "New Malaysian PM sworn in", Al Jazeera. Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. "Exit PM Pak Lah, enter Tun Abdullah". Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. Najib sworn in, Tunship for Abdullah and wife, 2009/04/03, New Straits Times Online Archived 19 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  25. Malaysia | Cleaning up? Economist.com
  26. "Malaysia: Prime Minister declares, "Yes, we ARE an Islamic state" | Women Reclaiming and Redefining Cultures". Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  27. "MCA: Malaysia is a secular state". 17 March 2009.
  28. Asia Times Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  29. The velvet gloves come off Malaysia Today Archived 16 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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  31. "Prime Minister To Wed Jeanne Abdullah Badawi Saturday". Bernama. 6 June 2007. Archived from the original on 14 July 2007.
  32. Goh, Melissa (18 November 2006). Khairy says he does not influence government decisions. Channel News Asia. Archived 4 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  33. "Malaysia Chronicle: Mahathir and Badawi in 2 separate abuse-of-power cases". 26 August 2010. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  34. "Abdullah's poem holds personal meaning". The Star. 2 November 2003. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  35. Dato' Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (2008), Ku cari damai abadi (I seek eternal peace) in 80, Faculty of Language and Linguistics University of Malaya, ISBN 9789675148026
  36. "Khairy: Pak Lah is suffering from dementia". New Straits Times. 11 September 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Parlimen/Dewan Undangan Negeri" (in Malay). Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Percentage figures based on total turnout.
  38. "Malaysia General Election". undiinfo Malaysian Election Data. Malaysiakini. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Results only available from the 2004 election.
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  41. "Abdullah tops Johor Sultan's birthday list". The Star. 8 April 2004. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
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  43. "Abdullah heads awards list". The Star. 24 October 2006. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
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  45. "DSSA 1992".
  46. "SPMS 2000".
  47. "Former Malaysian PM leaves Brunei". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). Retrieved 23 December 2019.

Further reading

  • Bridget Welsh & James Chin (ed) Awakenings: The Abdullah Badawi Years in Malaysia (KL: SIRD 2013)
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