Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are the citizens, nationals and individuals associated with the country of Australia. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or ethno-cultural.[16] For most Australians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Australian. Australian law does not provide for a racial or ethnic component of nationality, instead relying on citizenship as a legal status.

A group of young Australians at a beach (1938)
Total population
25,739,256 in Australia (2019)[1]
Map of the Australian diaspora

Common ancestries: English, Aboriginal Australian, Irish, New Zealander, German, Italian, Chinese and Indian.
Regions with significant populations
Australian diaspora: 577,255 (2019)[2]
 United Kingdom165,000 (2021)[3]
 United States98,969 (2019)[4]
 New Zealand75,696 (2018)[5]
 Canada21,115 (2016)[6]
 South Korea15,222 (2019)[7]
 Hong Kong SAR14,669 (2016)[8]
 Germany13,600 (2020)[9]
 Mainland China13,286 (2010)[10]
 Japan12,024 (2019)[11]
Christianity (Catholicism, Anglicanism and other denominations), various non-Christian religions and irreligion[upper-alpha 1][15]

Since the postwar period, Australia has pursued an official policy of multiculturalism and has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30 percent of the population in 2019.[17][18]

Between European colonisation in 1788 and the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles (principally England, Ireland and Scotland), although there was significant immigration from China and Germany during the 19th century. Many early settlements were initially penal colonies to house transported convicts. Immigration increased steadily, with an explosion of population in the 1850s following a series of gold rushes. In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades. Since the late 1970s, following the end of the White Australia policy in 1973, a large and continuing wave of immigration to Australia from around the world has continued into the 21st century, with Asia now being the largest source of immigrants.[19] A smaller proportion of Australians are descended from Australia's indigenous peoples, comprising Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

The development of a distinctive Australian identity and national character began in the 19th century and culminated in the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901. The primary language is Australian English. Australia is home to a diversity of cultures, a result of its history of immigration.[20] Since 1788, Australian culture has primarily been a Western culture strongly influenced by early Anglo-Celtic settlers.[21][22] As the Asian Australian population continues to expand and flourish as a result of changes in the demographic makeup of immigrants and as there has been increased economic and cultural intercourse with Asian nations, Australia has observed the gradual emergence of a "Eurasian society" within its major urban hubs, blending both Western and Asian material and popular culture within a distinctly Australian context. Other influences include Australian Aboriginal culture, the traditions brought to the country by waves of immigration from around the world,[23] and the culture of the United States.[24] The cultural divergence and evolution that has occurred over the centuries since European settlement has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture.[25][26]


The majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the indigenous population and others from outlying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.

Australians are referred to as "Aussies", or "Antipodeans" by those in the northern hemisphere.[27][28]

The primary law governing nationality regulations is the Australian Citizenship Act 2007, which came into force on 1 July 2007. Regulations apply to all states and territories of Australia. All persons born in Australia before 20 August 1986 were automatically citizens at birth regardless of the nationalities of their parents. Individuals born in the country after that date receive Australian citizenship at birth if at least one of their parents is an Australian citizen or permanent resident. Foreign nationals may be granted citizenship after living in the country for at least four years while holding permanent residency and showing proficiency in the English language.


The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, and five other colonies were established in the 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred following a series of gold rushes in the 1850s and after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe. Since the end of the White Australia policy in 1973, immigrants to Australia have come from around the world, and from Asia in particular.[19]

The predominance of the English language, the existence of a parliamentary system of government drawing upon the Westminster system, constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, and the popularity of sports including cricket, rugby football and tennis are evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage derived from the descendants of early settlers who form an ancestral group known as Anglo-Celtic Australians. As a result of many shared linguistic, historical, cultural and geographic characteristics, Australians have often identified closely with New Zealanders in particular. Australian citizenship prior to 1949 was a social, moral, and political concept.[29] Prior to the introduction of Australian citizenship, Australians had the status of "British subjects".[30] The High Court of Australia in Potter v Minahan (1908) stated that "Although there is no Australian nationality as distinguished from British nationality, there is an Australian species of British nationality."[31]


The Australian Bureau of Statistics does not collect data on race, but asks each Australian resident to nominate up to two ancestries each census.[32] These ancestry responses are classified into broad standardised ancestry groups.[33] At the 2021 census, the number of ancestry responses within each standardised group as a proportion of the total population was as follows:[34] 57.2% European (including 46% North-West European and 11.2% Southern and Eastern European), 33.8% (including 29.9% Australian) Oceanian[N 1], 17.4% Asian (including 6.5% Southern and Central Asian, 6.4% North-East Asian, and 4.5% South-East Asian), 3.2% North African and Middle Eastern, 1.4% Peoples of the Americas, and 1.3% Sub-Saharan African. At the 2021 census, the most commonly nominated individual ancestries as a proportion of the total population were:[36]

European Australians

European Australians are Australians of wholly or partially European descent. Australians of European descent are the majority in Australia, with the number of ancestry responses categorised within the European groups as a proportion of the total population amounting to 57.2% (including 46% North-West European and 11.2% Southern and Eastern European).[34][33] The proportion of Australians with European ancestry is thought to be higher than the numbers captured in the census as those nominating their ancestry as "Australian" are classified within the Oceanian group, and the Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are Anglo-Celtic Australians.[35] Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia.

The largest statistical grouping of European Australians are Anglo-Celtic Australians, Australians whose ancestors originate wholly or partially in the British Isles. This includes English Australians, Irish Australians, Scottish Australians and Welsh Australians.[37] Anglo-Celtic Australians have been highly influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will.[38] Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority of Colonial Era settlers being British and Irish.[39] About 20 percent of Australians are descendants of convicts.[40] Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, and Ireland.[41][42][43] Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland.[44] In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, and almost all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, and 6 percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia.[45] In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of the Australian population. There were 1.3 million British migrants to Australia in the period from 1861 to 1914, of whom 13.5 percent were Scots. 5.3 percent of the convicts transported to Eastern Australia between 1789 and 1852 were Scots.[46] The census of 1901 showed that 98 percent of Australians had Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins.[47] In 1939 and 1945, still 98 percent of Australians had Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins.[48] Until 1947, the vast majority of the population were of British origin.[49]

Germans formed the largest non-British Isles ancestry for most of the 19th century.[50] Between 1901 and 1940, 140,000 non-British European immigrants arrived in Australia (about 16 percent of the total intake).[51] Before World War II, 13.6 percent were born overseas, and 80 percent of those were British.[52] Following the Second World War, large numbers of continental Europeans immigrated to Australia, with Italian Australians and Greek Australians being among the largest immigrant groups during the post-war era. During the 1950s, Australia was the destination of 30 per cent of Dutch emigrants and the Netherlands-born became numerically the second largest non-British group in Australia.[53] In 1971, 70 percent of the foreign born were of European origin.

Italian Australians are Australians of Italian ancestry, and comprise the largest non Anglo-Celtic European ethnic group in Australia, with the 2021 census finding 4.4% of the population claiming ancestry from Italy be they migrants to Australia or their descendants born in Australia of Italian heritage.[54][55] Australia's long-history of Italian immigration has given rise to an Italo-Australian dialect of the Italian language.

German Australians are Australians of German ancestry. The German community constitutes the second largest non-Anglo Celtic European ethnic group in Australia, amounting to 4% of respondents in the 2021 Census.[56] Germans formed the largest non-English-speaking group in Australia up to the 20th century.[57] Old Lutherans emigrated in response to the 1817 Prussian Union and organized churches both among themselves and with other German speakers, such as the Kavel-Fritzsche Synod. Although a few individuals had emigrated earlier,[58] the first large group of Germans arrived in South Australia 1838, not long after the British colonisation of South Australia. These "Old Lutherans" were from Province of Brandenburg (then a Prussian province), and were trying to preserve their traditional faith.

Asian Australians

Asian Australians are Australians with ancestry wholly or partially from the continent of Asia. At the 2021 census, the number of ancestry responses categorised within the Asian groups as a proportion of the total population amounted to 17.4% (including 6.5% Southern and Central Asian, 6.4% North-East Asian, and 4.5% South-East Asian).[34][33] This figure excludes Australians of Middle Eastern ancestry, who are separately categorised within the North African and Middle Eastern group.

Chinese Australians are Australians of Chinese ancestry, forming the single largest non Anglo-Celtic ancestry in the country, constituting 5.5% of those nominating their ancestry at the 2021 census.[59] Chinese Australians are one of the largest groups of Overseas Chinese people, forming the largest Overseas Chinese community in Oceania, and are the largest Asian-Australian community. Per capita, Australia has more people of Chinese ancestry than any country outside Asia. Many Chinese Australians have immigrated from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan as well as Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines, while many are descendants of such immigrants. The very early history of Chinese Australians involved significant immigration from villages of the Pearl River Delta in Southern China i.e. mostly from the Cantonese subgroup. More recent Chinese migrants include Mainland China, Taiwan, etc. which include those from Mandarin and other Chinese dialects or forms. Less well-known are the kinds of society Chinese Australians came from, the families they left behind and what their intentions were in migrating. Gold rushes lured many Chinese to the Australian colonies. (From the mid-19th century, Chinese dubbed Australia the New Gold Mountain after the Gold Mountain of California in North America.) They typically sent money to their families in the villages, regularly visited their families, and retired to their home villages after many years working as market gardeners, shopkeepers or cabinet-makers. As with many overseas Chinese groups the world over, early Chinese immigrants to Australia established several Chinatowns in major cities, such as Sydney (Chinatown, Sydney), Melbourne (Chinatown, Melbourne, since the 1850s) and Brisbane (Chinatown, Brisbane), Perth (Chinatown, Perth), as well as in regional towns associated with the goldfields such as Cairns (Cairns Chinatown).[60]

Indian Australians are Australians of Indian ancestry, and are the second-largest Asian Australian ancestry, comprising 3.1% of the total population.[61] Indian Australians are one of the largest groups within the Indian diaspora. Indians are the youngest average age (34 years) and the fastest growing community both in terms of absolute numbers and percentages in Australia.[17] Migration of Indians to Australia followed the pattern of "from 18th-century sepoys and lascars (soldiers and sailors) aboard visiting European ships, through 19th-century migrant labourers and the 20th century’s hostile policies to the new generation of skilled professional migrants of the 21st century... India became the largest source of skilled migrants in the 21st century."[62]

Indigenous Australians

Aboriginal Australians, 1981

Indigenous Australians are descendants of the original inhabitants of the Australian continent.[63] Their ancestors are believed to have migrated from Africa to Asia around 70,000 years ago[64] and arrived in Australia around 50,000 years ago.[65][66] The Torres Strait Islanders are a distinct people of Melanesian ancestry, indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands, which are at the northernmost tip of Queensland near Papua New Guinea, and some nearby settlements on the mainland. The term "Aboriginal" is traditionally applied to only the indigenous inhabitants of mainland Australia and Tasmania, along with some of the adjacent islands. Indigenous Australians is an inclusive term used when referring to both Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders, i.e.: the "first peoples".

Dispersing across the Australian continent over time, the ancient peoples expanded and differentiated into hundreds of distinct groups, each with its own language and culture.[67] More than 400 distinct Australian Aboriginal peoples have been identified across the continent, distinguished by unique names designating their ancestral languages, dialects, or distinctive speech patterns.[68]

In 1770, fearing he had been pre-empted by the French, James Cook changed a hilltop signal-drill on Possession Island in Torres Strait, into a possession ceremony, fabricating Britain's claim of Australia's east coast.[69] Eighteen years later, the east coast was occupied by Britain and later the west coast was also settled by Britain. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000,[70] divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages.

At the 2021 census, 3.2% of the Australian population identified as being IndigenousAboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.[N 4][71] Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.[72][73] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.[74]

Country of birth

In 2019, 30% of the Australian resident population, or 7,529,570 people, were born overseas.[17]

The following table shows Australia's population by country of birth as estimated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2021. It shows only countries or regions or birth with a population of over 100,000 residing in Australia.

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2021)[75]
Place of birth Estimated resident population[upper-alpha 2]
Total Australian-born 18,235,690
Total foreign-born 7,502,450
England[upper-alpha 3] 967,390
India 710,380
China[upper-alpha 4] 595,630
New Zealand 559,980
Philippines 310,620
Vietnam 268,170
South Africa 201,930
Malaysia 172,250
Italy 171,520
Sri Lanka 145,790
Scotland[upper-alpha 5] 130,060
Nepal 129,870
United States 109,450
Germany 107,940
South Korea 106,560
Hong Kong[upper-alpha 6] 104,990
Greece 100,650

For more information about immigration see Immigration to Australia and Foreign-born population of Australia.


Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language.[76] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon,[77] and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling.[78] General Australian serves as the standard dialect.

At the 2021 census, English was the only language spoken in the home for 72% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin (2.7%), Arabic (1.4%), Vietnamese (1.3%), Cantonese (1.2%) and Punjabi (0.9%).[79] Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact,[80] of which fewer than twenty are still in daily use by all age groups.[81][82] About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people.[82] At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home.[83] Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 10,112 deaf people who reported that they use Auslan language at home in the 2016 census.[84]


Australia has no official religion; its Constitution prohibits the Commonwealth government, but not the states, from establishing one, or interfering with the freedom of religion.[85]

At the 2021 Census, 38.9% of the population identified as having "no religion",[86] up from 15.5% in 2001.[87] The largest religion is Christianity (43.9% of the population).[88] The largest Christian denominations are the Roman Catholic Church (20% of the population) and the Anglican Church of Australia (9.8%). Multicultural immigration since the Second World War has led to the growth of non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (3.2%), Hinduism (2.7%), Buddhism (2.4%), Sikhism (0.8%), and Judaism (0.4%).[89]

In 2021, just under 8,000 people declared an affiliation with traditional Aboriginal religions.[89] According to Australian Aboriginal mythology and the animist framework developed in Aboriginal Australia, the Dreaming is a sacred era in which ancestral totemic spirit beings formed The Creation. The Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and land.[90]


The current Australian resident population is estimated at 27,026,000 (1 February 2023).[91] This does not include Australians living overseas. In 2015, 2.15% of the Australian population lived overseas, one of the lowest proportions worldwide.[92] This ratio is much lower than many other countries in the OECD.

Historical population

The data in the table is sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics[93][94] The population estimates do not include the Aboriginal population before 1961. Estimates of Aboriginal population prior to European settlement range from 300,000 to one million, with archaeological finds indicating a sustainable population of around 750,000.[95]

See also


  1. The ABS gives the following "Explanatory Information" regarding census interpretation of irreligion: "'No religion' is equivalent to 'Secular Beliefs and Other Spiritual Beliefs and No Religious Affiliation'. For further details, see the Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary (cat. no. 2901.0)"[14]
  2. Only countries with 100,000 or more are listed here.
  3. The Australian Bureau of Statistics source lists England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland separately although they are all part of the United Kingdom. These should not be combined as they are not combined in the source.
  4. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, Mainland China, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.
  5. The Australian Bureau of Statistics source lists England and Scotland separately although they are both part of the United Kingdom. These should not be combined as they are not combined in the source.
  6. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, Mainland China, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.
    1. Includes those who nominate “Australian” as their ancestry. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry have at least partial Anglo-Celtic European ancestry.[35]
    2. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry have at least partial Anglo-Celtic ancestry.[35]
    3. Those who nominated their ancestry as "Australian Aboriginal". Does not include Torres Strait Islanders. This relates to nomination of ancestry and is distinct from persons who identify as Indigenous (Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) which is a separate question.
    4. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.


    1. "Australian Demographic Statistics, Sep 2019". Australian Bureau of Statistics. June 2021. Catalogue number - 3101.0 -. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
    2. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019), International Migrant Stock 2019, UN database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2019; spreadsheet file: XLSX
    3. "Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality - Office for National Statistics".
    4. "Explore Census Data".
    5. "2018 Census totals by topic – national highlights (updated) | Stats NZ".
    6. Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (25 October 2017). "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables - Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".
    7. "문서뷰어".
    8. "Main Tables | 2016 Population By-census".
    9. Statistisches Bundesamt. "Ausländische Bevölkerung Ergebnisse des Ausländerzentralregisters" (PDF). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit [Population and employment] [Foreign Population: Results of the Central Register of Foreigners] (Report) (in German).
    10. National Bureau of Statistics of China (29 April 2011). "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census".
    11. "在留外国人統計(旧登録外国人統計) 在留外国人統計 月次 2019年12月 | ファイル | 統計データを探す". 政府統計の総合窓口 (in Japanese).
    12. "2011 Census QuickStats". Archived from the original on 6 November 2015.
    13. Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 June 2017). "2071.0 - Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016". No. Cultural Diversity in Australia, 2016. Canberra: Australian Government. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
    14. "Religion in Australia, 2016: Feature article". Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016. Australian Bureau of Statistics.
    15. "Religion in Australia: 2016 CENSUS DATA SUMMARY". Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
    16. "Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
    17. "Table 5.1 Estimated resident population, by country of birth(a), Australia, as at 30 June, 1996 to 2019(b)(c)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
    18. "The Evolution of Australia's Multicultural Policy". Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2006. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
    19. "2018-19 Migration Program Report" (PDF). Department of Home Affairs (Australia). p. 19. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
    20. "Face the Facts: Cultural Diversity". Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
    21. Jupp1, pp. 796–802
    22. Teo & White 2003, pp. 118–20
    23. Jupp1, pp. 808–812, 74–77
    24. White, Richard (1 January 1983). "A Backwater Awash: The Australian Experience of Americanisation". Theory, Culture and Society. 1 (3): 108–122. doi:10.1177/026327648300100309. S2CID 144339300.
    25. Davison, Hirst & Macintyre 1998, pp. 98–99
    26. Teo & White 2003, pp. 125–27
    27. Princeton University WordNet. "Aussie". Retrieved 4 March 2011.
    28. Oxford Dictionaries Online, 2011. "Antipodean". Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
    29. Helen Irving (1999). To Constitute a Nation: A Cultural History of Australia's Constitution. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780521668972.
    30. "Minister for Immigration Arthur Calwell when he proclaimed in his speech to parliament announcing the 1948 Nationality and Citizenship Act that 'to say one is an Australian is, of course, to indicate beyond all doubt that one is British'." – A. Haebich, Spinning the Dream: Assimilation in Australia 1950–1970, 2008, p. 67
    31. Potter v Minahan [1908] HCA 63; 7 CLR 277.
    32. "Understanding and using Ancestry data". 28 June 2022.
    33. "Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG), 2019 | Australian Bureau of Statistics". 18 December 2019.
    34. "2021 Census Ancestries Data". Retrieved 23 December 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    35. "Feature Article – Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Australia (Feature Article)". 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 1995. Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics.
    36. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    37. James Jupp (January 1995). Australian Bureau of Statistics (ed.). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Australia (Feature Article)". Year Book Australia, 1995. ABS Catalogue No. 1301.0. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
    38. "HISTORICAL RECORDS REVEAL OZ ANCESTORS OF 16 MILLION BRITS". Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
    39. J. Jupp, From White Australia to Woomera: The Story of Australian Immigration, 2007, p. 16
    40. Sood, Suemedha. "Australia's penal colony roots". BBC.
    41. J. Jupp, The English in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 27
    42. R. Watts, P. Trudgill, Alternative Histories of the English Language, Routledge, 2002, p. 70
    43. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, C. Nelson, The Handbook of World Englishes, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, p. 295
    44. C. Meierkord, Interactions across Englishes: Linguistic Choices in Local and International Contact Situations (Studies in English Language), Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 37
    45. Prochner, Laurence Wayne (2009). A history of early childhood education in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Vancouver: UBC Press. p. 134. ISBN 9780774816595.
    46. "history essay – Queensland Migration Heritage Hub" (PDF).
    47. Lines, William J. (1991). Taming the great south land: A history of the conquest of nature in Australia. North Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin. p. 140. ISBN 9781863730174.
    48. Pike, Jeffery (2004). Australia. Insight Guides (6th; updated ed.). APA Insight Guides. pp. 55, 75. ISBN 978-981-234-799-2.
    49. Dixson, Miriam (1999). The imaginary Australian: Anglo-Celts and identity, 1788 to the present. Sydney: UNSW Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0868406657.
    50. G. Leitner, Australia's Many Voices: Australian English—The National Language, 2004, p. 79
    51. V. Colic-Peisker, Migration, Class and Transnational Identities: Croatians in Australia and America (Studies of World Migrations), 2008, p. 72
    52. J. Abowd, R. Freeman, Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market, 2007, p. 386
    53. "Netherlands country profile".
    54. Cresciani, Gianfranco (27 August 2003). The Italians in Australia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521537780 via Google Books.
    55. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    56. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    57. G. Leitner, Australia's Many Voices: Australian English – The National Language, 2004, p. 181
    58. "09/06/1837-16/10/1837: Solway [Hamburg to Nepean Bay]". Passengers in History. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
    59. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    60. "99 Grafton St (entry 602511)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
    61. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    62. The story of the Indian diaspora in Australia and New Zealand is 250 years old,, 30 October 2018.
    63. "About Australia:Our Country". Australian Government. Australia's first inhabitants, the Aboriginal people, are believed to have migrated from some unknown point in Asia to Australia between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.
    64. Rasmussen, Morten; et al. (7 October 2011). "Science Magazine: Sign In". Science. 334 (6052): 94–98. doi:10.1126/science.1211177. hdl:10072/43493. PMC 3991479. PMID 21940856.
    65. "Aboriginal Australians descend from the first humans to leave Africa, DNA sequence reveals", Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).
    66. iCommunity Newsletter. "Sequencing Uncovers a 9,000 Mile Walkabout" (PDF). illumina Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
    67. Lourandos, Harry (1997) "New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory," Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. ISBN 0-521-35946-5.
    68. Horton, David (1994) The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History, Society, and Culture, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra. ISBN 0-85575-234-3.
    69. Cameron-Asn, M. (2018). Lying for the Admiralty:Captain Cook's Endeavour Voyage. Sydney: Rosenberg. pp. 180–189, 190–196. ISBN 9780648043966.
    70. "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population". 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2008. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
    71. "2021 Australia, Census All persons QuickStats | Australian Bureau of Statistics".
    72. Lunn, Stephen (26 November 2008). "Life gap figures not black and white". The Australian. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
    73. Gibson, Joel (10 April 2009). "Indigenous health gap closes by five years". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
    74. Grattan, Michelle (8 December 2006). "Australia hides a 'failed state'". Melbourne: The Age. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
    75. "Table 5.1 Estimated resident population, by country of birth(a), Australia, as at 30 June, 1996 to 2021(b)(c)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
    76. "Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?". 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2009. "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language."
    77. Moore, Bruce. "The Vocabulary Of Australian English" (PDF). National Museum of Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
    78. "The Macquarie Dictionary", Fourth Edition. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, 2005.
    79. "2021 Australia, Census All persons QuickStats | Australian Bureau of Statistics".
    80. Romaine, Suzanne (1991). Language in Australia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33983-4.
    81. "A mission to save indigenous languages". Australian Geographic. 19 August 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
    82. "National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005". Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
    83. Australian Bureau of Statistics (4 May 2010). "4713.0 – Population Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006". Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
    84. Australian Bureau of Statistics (9 August 2016). "Census 2016, Language spoken at home by Sex (SA2+)". 2016 Census Tables : Australia. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
    85. "116. Commonwealth not to legislate in respect of religion". Constitution of Australia. Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
    86. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    87. "2001 Australia, Census All persons QuickStats | Australian Bureau of Statistics".
    88. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    89. "2021 Census Community Profiles: Australia".
    90. Flood, Josephine (2019). pp. 163-69
    91. Australian Official Population Clock. The Australian Official Population Clock automatically updates daily at 00:00 UTC.
    92. "United Nations Population Division – Department of Economic and Social Affairs". Retrieved 13 May 2016.
    93. TABLE 2. Population by sex, states and territories, 30 June 1901 onwards. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 23 May 2006. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
    94. TABLE 1.1. Population by sex, states and territories, 31 December 1788 onwards. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 5 August 2008.
    95. "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population". 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2002. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 20 August 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2009.


    • Davison, Graeme; Hirst, John; Macintyre, Stuart (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-553597-6.
    • Jupp, James (2001). The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0.
    • Teo, Hsu-Ming; White, Richard, eds. (2003). Cultural history in Australia. Sydney: UNSW Press. ISBN 978-0868405896.
    This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.