Khalid Ibrahim

Abdul Khalid bin Ibrahim (Jawi: عبدالخالد بن إبراهيم; 14 December 1946 – 31 July 2022) was a Malaysian politician who served as the 14th Menteri Besar of Selangor from 2008 to 2014. He was the Member of the Selangor State Assembly (MLA) for Ijok from 2008 to 2013, and MLA for Pelabuhan Klang from 2013 to 2018. At the same time, he served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bandar Tun Razak from 2013 to 2018.

Abdul Khalid Ibrahim
عبدالخالد إبراهيم
Khalid Ibrahim in 2007
14th Menteri Besar of Selangor
In office
13 March 2008  22 September 2014
MonarchSharafuddin Idris Shah
Preceded byKhir Toyo
Succeeded byAzmin Ali
Pelabuhan Klang
Member of the Malaysian Parliament
for Bandar Tun Razak
In office
8 March 2008  9 May 2018
Preceded byTan Chai Ho
Succeeded byKamarudin Jaffar
Majority2,515 (2008)
11,832 (2013)
Member of the Selangor State Assembly
for Pelabuhan Klang
In office
6 May 2013  9 May 2018
Preceded byBadrul Hisham Abdullah
Succeeded byAzmizam Zaman Huri
Majority2,994 (2013)
Member of the Selangor State Assembly
for Ijok
In office
8 March 2008  5 May 2013
Preceded byK. Parthiban
Succeeded byIdris Ahmad
Majority1,920 (2008)
Personal details
Abdul Khalid bin Ibrahim

(1946-12-14)14 December 1946
Jeram, Selangor, Malayan Union (now Malaysia)
Died31 July 2022(2022-07-31) (aged 75)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Resting placeShah Alam Royal Mausoleum, Selangor
Political party
Other political
SpouseSalbiah Tunut
Alma mater
ProfessionBusinessman, lecturer

Khalid was a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), but became an independent in August 2014, coinciding with his resignation as Menteri Besar. He was sacked from the party for his refusal to vacate his Selangor Menteri Besar post, in a political manoeuvre that was widely criticised by the public and invoked a rare rebuke from the Sultan of Selangor.

During his tenure as Menteri Besar, Khalid prioritised sensible spending of the state government's coffers, initiating many projects and policies that benefitted Selangor state. As a result, he was well-liked by the people of Selangor.[1]

Early life and career

Abdul Khalid bin Ibrahim was born on 14 December 1946 in the village of Kampung Jalan Raja Abdullah in Kuala Selangor, Selangor. He was educated at the Jeram Malay School in 1956, attended the Special Malay Class, and then studied at the Kampung Kuantan English School.

Khalid obtained a Bachelor of Economics (BEc) with honours from the University of Malaya and a Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the University of Queensland in 1975.[2]

Khalid began his career as a university lecturer. In 1979, he joined the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the leading party in Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition.[3] In the same year, he became the chief executive of the government-controlled fund management firm Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB), a position he held until 1994.[2] In 1981, he became famous for leading the "dawn raid" on the London Stock Exchange, which resulted in PNB gaining a 51% share in British plantation concern Guthrie in less than two hours. He later became the CEO of the Malaysianized Guthrie, now known as Kumpulan Guthrie Bhd, from 1995 to 2003.[2]

Political career

In 2006, Khalid joined the opposition PKR, founded by the former deputy prime minister Anwar Ibrahim, and became the party's treasurer-general. The party selected him as its candidate for a by-election for the Selangor State Legislative Assembly seat of Ijok, which he lost to K. Parthiban of the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), a component party of the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition.[4]

In the 2008 general election, he contested the federal parliamentary seat of Bandar Tun Razak and re-contested the Selangor State Assembly seat of Ijok. He won both seats, while the opposition Pakatan Rakyat coalition made unprecedented gains and took a majority in the Selangor State Assembly. Khalid was appointed the Menteri Besar of Selangor and was sworn in on 13 March 2008. He was the first person not of the BN coalition to hold the post.[5]

In his first term, Khalid's government implemented a policy of delivering to each Selangor household an initial 20 cubic metres of water each year free of charge. The State Assembly also passed the country's first freedom of information legislation. It was in these areas—social policy and government transparency—that his administration was able to make the most progress. But in some cases, differences between the partners in the governing coalition, which included the Democratic Action Party (DAP) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) proved difficult to reconcile.[6] For example, in 2009 Khalid rejected a move by PAS to draft legislation banning the sale of alcohol in Muslim-majority neighbourhoods.[7]

In the 2013 general election, Khalid's Pakatan Rakyat coalition increased its majority in the Selangor State Assembly, winning 44 out of its 56 seats. Though Khalid's PKR won fewer seats than the DAP and PAS, he retained the position of Menteri Besar.[8]

Resignation as Menteri Besar

In early 2014, PKR's national leader, Anwar Ibrahim, then a federal parliamentarian, sought to contest the Selangor State Assembly seat of Kajang in a by-election. The so-called "Kajang Move" would have allowed Anwar to oust Khalid as Menteri Besar with PKR's support. Anwar's conviction on a charge of sodomy caused Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, to take over Anwar's presidency of PKR and the nomination as PKR candidate in the by-election instead, which she won. In July, the party nominated Wan Azizah as its preferred Menteri Besar.[9] The following month, Khalid was expelled from the party after he refused to comply with its direction for him to resign as the state's premier and make way for Wan Azizah.[10] Khalid sacked the PKR and DAP members of Selangor's Cabinet-like Executive Council,[11] and continued to administer the state as an independent assemblyman with the remaining four councillors from PAS.[12] Khalid ultimately resigned on 26 August 2014, as it was clear that he could no longer command the confidence of the State Assembly.[13] He remained in office while Sultan Sharafuddin deliberated on whom to appoint his replacement, before settling on PKR's deputy president Azmin Ali, who was sworn in on 23 September 2014. After Azmin assumed office, the Sultan praised Khalid for leading the state "successfully and perfectly" and criticised the manner in which he had been ousted from the state's premiership by his own party.[14]

Election results

Selangor State Legislative Assembly[15][16][17]
Year Constituency Government Votes Pct Opposition Votes Pct Ballots cast Majority Turnout
2007 N11 Ijok Abdul Khalid Ibrahim (PKR) 4,034 40.67% K. Parthiban (MIC) 5,884 59.33% 10,052 1,850 81.90%
2008 Abdul Khalid Ibrahim (PKR) 7,196 57.70% Mohamed Sayuti Said (UMNO) 5,276 42.30% 12,684 1,920 82.01%
2013 N46 Pelabuhan Klang Abdul Khalid Ibrahim (PKR) 18,591 54.38% Nasarruddin M Zin (UMNO) 15,597 45.62% 34,835 2,994 87.15%
Parliament of Malaysia[15][16][17]
Year Constituency Opposition Votes Pct Opponent(s) Votes Pct Ballots cast Majority Turnout
2008 P124 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur Abdul Khalid Ibrahim (PKR) 40,334 53.92% Tan Chai Ho (MCA) 33,467 44.74% 54,995 2,515 75.72%
2013 Abdul Khalid Ibrahim (PKR) 44,067 57.02% Tan Kok Eng (MCA) 32,235 41.71% 78,157 11,832 85.89%
Mohamad Sukeri Abdul Samat (IND) 793 1.03%
Mokhtar Salahudin (IND) 191 0.25%


Khalid died of a heart valve infection on 31 July 2022 at 11.08pm at Cardiac Vascular Sentral Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, at age 76.[1][18][19] Khalid's remains were brought to the Saidina Umar Al-Khattab Mosque in Bukit Damansara for prayers the next day, before lying in state at the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque, Shah Alam, for the public to pay their last respects. At the personal request of the Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah, Khalid was laid to rest at the Shah Alam Royal Mausoleum; burials at the mausoleum are usually reserved for members of the Selangor Royal Family and the nobility.[20] Sultan Sharafuddin and the Tengku Laksamana of Selangor, Tengku Sulaiman Shah, attended the ceremony.[21]

Legacy and assessment

Khalid Ibrahim was the first Menteri Besar of Selangor since independence who was not from the then-dominant Barisan Nasional coalition. As such, his tenure saw radical administrative and policy changes in Selangor. Upon taking office, he applied his corporate experience to his new position, running the state "like a conglomerate". He valued efficiency and hard work, was frugal with state expenditures, and preoccupied with clean governance. Khalid had a propensity for understanding the workings of large organisations, the failings of governments and corporations, and providing solutions thereto. Firmly believing that state monies should go back to the people of Selangor, Khalid initiated the Merakyatkan Ekonomi Selangor ("state revenue channelled back to the people") program, a slogan that was much imitated in the following years. Due to his austere economic policies, Selangor recorded its strongest savings reserves up to that point, amounting to RM3.3 billion by the time he left office in 2014. Khalid also introduced the programme for Selangor households to receive 20 cubic metres of free water every year, a policy that is still in place as at 2022.[22][23]

Under Khalid's progressive administration, the Selangor Legislative Assembly passed the country’s first freedom of information enactment, in an effort to promote transparent governance and democratisation of information. He also abolished direct negotiations for state projects, and instructed that tenders be awarded based on the collective decision of the executive council and relevant state government officers, without seeking the Menteri Besar's endorsement.[1]

At the same time, his tendency to act independently, as well as his relative indifference to party politics, earned him the enmity of party colleagues. The political machinations that engineered his downfall were not well-received by Selangorians and the Sultan himself, and PKR was criticised for its removal of a highly-regarded Menteri Besar at the height of his popularity. Nevertheless, upon his enforced dismissal, Khalid sat out the rest of his terms as an MP and Member of the Legislative Assembly, whereupon he retired quietly from politics, serving as a consultant to several corporations and state governments. His various policies benefitting the state of Selangor made him beloved among many Selangorians, and he was widely mourned upon his passing, his death being seen as a great loss to the state.[24]


Honours of Malaysia


  1. "From 'Guthrie Dawn Raid' hero to beloved Mentri Besar". The Star. Bernama. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  2. "Fact boxes on Ijok (subscription required)". 19 April 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  3. "Sacked from party, Khalid set to join past Selangor MBs who fell from grace". Malaysian Insider. 10 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  4. "Khalid is Keadilan's pick for Ijok". The Sun (Malaysia). 18 April 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  5. "Khalid Ibrahim sworn-in as new Selangor Mentri Besar". The New Straits Times. 13 March 2008. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
  6. Harding, Andrew (2012). "Chapter 5". The Constitution of Malaysia: A Contextual Analysis. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1847319838.
  7. Mazlinda Mahmood (8 August 2009). "Khalid: Alcohol sales to continue". New Straits Times. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  8. "GE13: Pakatan retains Selangor with 44 seats". 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  9. "No surprise as PKR endorses Wan Azizah for Selangor MB post". Malaysian Insider. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  10. "Khalid Ibrahim expelled from PKR effective immediately". Astro Awani. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  11. Shazwan Mustafa Kamal (12 August 2014). "Khalid flexes muscle, sacks PKR, DAP excos". Malay Mail. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  12. Ruban, A. (20 August 2014). "Selangor MB crisis: PAS exco member throws support behind Khalid". The Star. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  13. Nuradilla Noorazam (26 August 2014). "S'gor Sultan defers Khalid's resignation until Pakatan names more candidates". New Straits Times. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  14. Shazwan Mustafa Kamal (26 September 2014). "Khalid was a wronged man, says Sultan of Selangor in surprising speech". New Straits Times. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  15. "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Parlimen/Dewan Undangan Negeri" (in Malay). Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Percentage figures based on total turnout.
  16. "Malaysia General Election". undiinfo Malaysian Election Data. Malaysiakini. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Results only available from the 2004 election.
  17. "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Parlimen 2013" (in Malay). Election Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  18. "Khalid contributed greatly to bumiputra economic development, says Anwar". The Star. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  19. "Former Selangor MB Khalid Ibrahim passes away at 76". Malaysiakini. 31 July 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  20. FMT Reporters (31 July 2022). "Bekas MB Selangor, Khalid Ibrahim meninggal dunia". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  21. Qistina Sallehuddin (1 August 2022). "Former Selangor MB Khalid Ibrahim laid to rest". New Straits Times. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  22. Wani Muthiah (2 August 2022). "A well-loved MB who brought Selangor to the fore". The Star. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  23. Nathaniel Tan (1 August 2022). "Remembering Khalid Ibrahim". The Star. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  24. R. Sekaran (1 August 2022). "Khalid's demise a big loss to S'gor, says Dr Wee in paying tribute to former MB". The Star. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  25. "SEMAKAN PENERIMA DARJAH KEBESARAN, BINTANG DAN PINGAT". Prime Minister's Department (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  26. "DPMS 1988". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  27. "SPMS 2009". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
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