Questions tagged [real-analysis]

For questions about real analysis, a branch of mathematics dealing with limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, the least upper bound property; and related analysis topics, such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. This tag can also be used for more advanced topics, like measure theory.

Real analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, which deals with the real numbers and real-valued functions. In particular, it deals with the analytic properties of real functions and sequences, including convergence and limits of sequences of real numbers, the limits of sequences of functions of real numbers, continuity, smoothness and related properties of real-valued functions.

It also includes measure theory, integration theory, Lebesgue measures and integration, differentiation of measures, limits, sequences and series, continuity, and derivatives. Questions regarding these topics should also use the more specific tags, e.g. .

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Discontinuous derivative.

Could someone give an example of a ‘very’ discontinuous derivative? I myself can only come up with examples where the derivative is discontinuous at only one point. I am assuming the function is real-valued and defined on a bounded interval.
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Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form

From Wikipedia: In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, an indeterminate form is an algebraic expression obtained in the context of limits. Limits involving algebraic operations are often performed by replacing subexpressions by…
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Good book for self study of a First Course in Real Analysis

Does anyone have a recommendation for a book to use for the self study of real analysis? Several years ago when I completed about half a semester of Real Analysis I, the instructor used "Introduction to Analysis" by Gaughan. While it's a good book,…
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Induction on Real Numbers

One of my Fellows asked me whether total induction is applicable to real numbers, too ( or at least all real numbers ≥ 0) . We only used that for natural numbers so far. Of course you have to change some things in the inductive step, when you want…
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Find a real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(f(x)) = -x$?

I've been perusing the internet looking for interesting problems to solve. I found the following problem and have been going at it for the past 30 minutes with no success: Find a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $f(f(x)) = -x$ for…
Gamma Function
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What functions can be made continuous by "mixing up their domain"?

Definition. A function $f:\Bbb R\to\Bbb R$ will be called potentially continuous if there is a bijection $\phi:\Bbb R\to\Bbb R$ such that $f\circ \phi$ is continuous. So one could say a potentially continuous (p.c.) function is "a continuous…
M. Winter
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Sum of random decreasing numbers between 0 and 1: does it converge??

Let's define a sequence of numbers between 0 and 1. The first term, $r_1$ will be chosen uniformly randomly from $(0, 1)$, but now we iterate this process choosing $r_2$ from $(0, r_1)$, and so on, so $r_3\in(0, r_2)$, $r_4\in(0, r_3)$... The set of…
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Examples of bijective map from $\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$

Could any one give an example of a bijective map from $\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$? Thank you.
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Proving an alternating Euler sum: $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k+1} H_k}{k} = \frac{1}{2} \zeta(2) - \frac{1}{2} \log^2 2$

Let $$A(p,q) = \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k+1}H^{(p)}_k}{k^q},$$ where $H^{(p)}_n = \sum_{i=1}^n i^{-p}$, the $n$th $p$-harmonic number. The $A(p,q)$'s are known as alternating Euler sums. Can someone provide a nice proof that $$A(1,1) =…
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Is it possible for a function to be in $L^p$ for only one $p$?

I'm wondering if it's possible for a function to be an $L^p$ space for only one value of $p \in [1,\infty)$ (on either a bounded domain or an unbounded domain). One can use interpolation to show that if a function is in two $L^p$ spaces, (e.g. $p_1$…
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Is there an integral that proves $\pi > 333/106$?

The following integral, $$ \int_0^1 \frac{x^4(1-x)^4}{x^2 + 1} \mathrm{d}x = \frac{22}{7} - \pi $$ is clearly positive, which proves that $\pi < 22/7$. Is there a similar integral which proves $\pi > 333/106$?
5 answers

Construction of a Borel set with positive but not full measure in each interval

I was wondering how one can construct a Borel set that doesn't have full measure on any interval of the real line but does have positive measure everywhere. To be precise, if $\mu$ denotes Lebesgue measure, how would one construct a Borel set $A…
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Proofs of AM-GM inequality

The arithmetic - geometric mean inequality states that $$\frac{x_1+ \ldots + x_n}{n} \geq \sqrt[n]{x_1 \cdots x_n}$$ I'm looking for some original proofs of this inequality. I can find the usual proofs on the internet but I was wondering if someone…
4 answers

How to show that a set of discontinuous points of an increasing function is at most countable

I would like to prove the following: Let $g$ be a monotone increasing function on $[0,1]$. Then the set of points where $g$ is not continuous is at most countable. My attempt: Let $g(x^-)~,g(x^+)$ denote the left and right hand limits of $g$…
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Motivation for the rigour of real analysis

I am about to finish my first year of studying mathematics at university and have completed the basic linear algebra/calculus sequence. I have started to look at some real analysis and have really enjoyed it so far. One thing I feel I am lacking in…
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