National Mandate Party

The National Mandate Party (Indonesian: Partai Amanat Nasional), frequently abbreviated to PAN, is an Islam-based[6][7] political party in Indonesia.

National Mandate Party
Partai Amanat Nasional
General ChairmanZulkifli Hasan
Secretary-GeneralEddy Soeparno
Founded23 August 1998 (23 August 1998)
Youth wingBM PAN (National Mandate Upholder Young Front)
Women's wingPUAN (National Mandate Women)
Membership (2022)567,415[1]
IdeologyIslamic democracy
Religious nationalism[2]
Political positionCentre[3] to centre-right[4][5]
National affiliationOnward Indonesia Coalition
United Indonesia Coalition
SloganBela Rakyat Bela Umat
(Defend the people, defend the ummah)
Anthem"Mars PAN"
("PAN March")
Ballot number12
DPR seats
44 / 575
DPRD I seats
165 / 2,207

It was founded by the modernist strand of Muslim society in Indonesia, including Amien Rais, the chairman of the Muhammadiyah organization, during the Indonesian revolution. The party contested the 2009 elections under the chairmanship of Sutrisno Bachir.[8][9] It is described as a nationalist Muslim party.[6] It also upholds the Pancasila doctrine.

In 2014, the party obtained 7.59 percent of the popular vote, which is an increase from 6.03 percent in 2009 and 6.44 percent in 2004.[6] PAN is currently the ruling party in Southeast Sulawesi.[6]


On 14 May 1998, around 50 political figures, including Goenawan Mohammad, Faisal Basri and Amien Rais established an organization called the Peoples Mandate Council (Indonesian: Majelis Amanat Rakyat, MARA) open to anybody who wanted to listen and express opinions. At the time, Amien Rais said that MARA would assess the performance of president Suharto's cabinet over the next six months. He also said that the people needed a strong forum that was respected by those in power and that the power structure under Suharto was not good at listening to people's opinions because it had become arrogant. At the time of the downfall of the Suharto regime in 1998, many new parties were being established and some of them wanted Amien Rais and other members of MARA to join them. One of these was the Crescent Star Party whose eventual leader Yusril Ihza Mahendra tried to persuade Amien Rais to establish a party. When he refused the offer, the party went its own way. On July 27, 1998 (the day after the declaration of the creation of the Crescent Star Party), Amien Rais announced the establishment of a new party to be called the People's Mandate Party (Indonesian: Partai Amanat Bangsa, PAB). This was changed to the current name after a lengthy voting process. The new party had its roots in the principles of religious morality, humanity and prosperity.[10][11]

2020 Party fracas

On 11 February 2020, a PAN national congress, held in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, was marred by violence when party members started throwing chairs at one other amid a dispute over candidates to lead the party. One PAN member suffered a broken leg during the melee. Reports said thugs had been deployed at the congress to support Mulfachri Harahap's candidacy for the party leadership.[12] PAN leader Zulkifli was re-elected at the congress, receiving 331 votes, while Mulfachri received 225 votes.[13]

PAN in the legislature

Indonesian legislative election, 1999

In the 1999 elections, PAN won 7.4 percent of the vote and 34 seats in the legislature. The party then played a key role in putting together a central axis of Islamic political parties in the People's Consultative Assembly which helped ensure that Abdurrahman Wahid defeated Megawati Sukarnoputri when that chamber elected the president.

However, PAN's support for Abdurrahman Wahid did not last long. Less than a year after officially confirming its support for him at its first congress in Yogyakarta in February 2000, the party withdrew this support, saying it was concerned about the condition of the nation and state of Indonesia. Not long after that, Abdurrahman Wahid was voted out of office and replaced by Megawati Sukarnoputri.

Indonesian legislative election, 2004

For the 2004 elections, the party set a target of 15 percent of the vote. In order to promote his presidential candidacy, Amien Rais made a series of visits around the country. He also said that he was convinced that a retired military officer should be his vice-president. However, in the legislative election, the party won 6.4% of the popular vote and 52 out of 550 legislative seats. For the presidential election, Amien Rais stood with Siswono Yudo Husodo as his running mate, but only won 15% of the vote.[14]

Indonesian legislative election, 2009

Supporters of the PAN at a campaign rally ahead of the 2009 legislative election

The party came fifth in the 2009 legislative election with 6% of the vote, gaining 43 seats in the People's Representative Council.[15]

Indonesian legislative election, 2014

Despite its declining influence and popularity, the party aimed to garner at least 10 percent of the vote in 2014.[16] However in the legislative election, PAN only won 7.49 percent of the vote. A few weeks after the legislative election, PAN announced party leader Hatta Rajasa as vice presidential candidate to run alongside Prabowo Subianto.[17]

Party platform

PAN is open to all elements of society, regardless of gender, ethnicity or religion. According to the party website, PAN strives for the sovereignty of the people, social justice, and a better life for the people to bring about an Indonesian nation that is prosperous, developed, independent and dignified. It also wants to realize good and clean governance that protects all the people and brings prosperity, and to see a united, sovereign nation. The party wants to play a part in implementing world order based on independence, eternal peace and social justice, and wants Indonesia to be respected in the international community.[18]

Election results

Legislative election results

Election Ballot number Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Party leader
1999 15
34 / 500
7,528,956 7.12%[19] 34 seats, Governing coalition Amien Rais
2004 13
53 / 550
7,303,324 6.44%[20] 19 seats, Governing coalition Amien Rais
2009 9
46 / 560
6,273,462 6.01%[20] 7 seats, Governing coalition Sutrisno Bachir
2014 8
49 / 560
9,481,621 7.59%[21] 3 seats, Opposition (2014–2015, 2018–2019)
Governing coalition (2015–2018)
Hatta Rajasa
2019 12
44 / 575
9,572,623 6.84%[22] 5 seats, Opposition (until 2019)
Governing coalition (since 2021)
Zulkifli Hasan

Presidential election results

Election Ballot number Pres. candidate Running mate 1st round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome 2nd round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome
2004 3 Amien Rais Siswono Yudo Husodo 17,392,931 14.66% Eliminated N Runoff
2009 2 Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Boediono 73,874,562 60.80% Elected Y
2014 1 Prabowo Subianto[23] Hatta Rajasa 62,576,444 46.85% Lost N
2019 02 Prabowo Subianto Sandiaga Uno 68,650,239 44.50% Lost N

Note: Bold text suggests the party's member


  • Daniel Dhakidae (Ed), (2004) Partai-Partai Politik Indonesia: Ideologi dan Program 2004-2009 (Indonesian Political Parties: Ideologies and Programs 2004-2009) Kompas (1999) ISBN 979-709-121-X Indonesian
  • Evans, Kevin Raymond, (2003) The History of Political Parties & General Elections in Indonesia, Arise Consultancies, Jakarta, ISBN 979-97445-0-4
  • Musa Kazhim & Alfian Hamzah (1999) 5 Partai Dalam timbangan (5 Parties in Consideration), Putaka Hidaya, Bandung ISBN 979-9109-17-5 Indonesian


  1. "Info Pemilu - Partai Amanat Nasional". Komisi Pemilihan Umum RI. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  2. Putri, Zunita (1 October 2020). "PAN Tegaskan Beda dengan Partai Ummat: Kami Nasionalis Religius (National Mandate Party Affirms the Difference with the Ummah Party: Our Party is Religious Nationalists Political Party)". Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  3. "Rayakan HUT Ke-23, PAN Nyatakan Posisi Politiknya di Tengah". Newmandala. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  4. "Mapping the Indonesian political spectrum". Newmandala. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  5. Jono Hardjowirogo (2018). Noto of Java Iii The End of Day. Xlibris US. p. The descent of chaos. ISBN 9781984521460. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  6. Al-Hamdi, Ridho. (2017). Moving towards a Normalised Path: Political Islam in Contemporary Indonesia. JURNAL STUDI PEMERINTAHAN (JOURNAL OF GOVERNMENT & POLITICS). Vol. 8 No. 1, February 2017. p.52, pp.56, p.62.
  7. Al-Hamdi, Ridho. (2013). Partai politik Islam: Teori dan praktik di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
  8. Profil Partai Politik (Profile of Political Parties), Kompas newspaper 14 July 2008 pp. 38-39
  9. Dhakidae pp. 228
  10. Kazhaim & Hamzah (1999) pp. 34-37
  11. Dhakidae pp. 228-229
  12. "Kongres PAN Rusuh, Mulfachri Dituduh Bawa Preman". 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  13. "Zulkifli Reelected PAN Chairman in Chaotic Congress". Jakarta Globe. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  14. Dhakidae pp. 229-2
  15. "KPU Ubah Perolehan Kursi Parpol di DPR (KPU Changes Allocations of Parties' seats in the DPR)". Indonesian General Election Commission (in Indonesian). 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
  16. "PAN aims high despite declining influence". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  17. "PAN to announce Hatta's vice president nomination". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  18. "Prinsip Dasar". PAN official website (in Indonesian).
  19. "Pemilu 1999 - KPU" (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  20. "Bab V - Hasil Pemilu - KPU" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  21. "KPU sahkan hasil pemilu, PDIP nomor satu" (in Indonesian). BBC. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  22. Zunita Putri (21 May 2019). "KPU Tetapkan Hasil Pileg 2019: PDIP Juara, Disusul Gerindra-Golkar". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  23. Wardah, Fathiyah (19 May 2014). "6 Parpol Dukung Pasangan Prabowo-Hatta dalam Pilpres". Voice of America Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 August 2018.
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