Yogyakarta Sultanate

The Sultanate of Yogyakarta (Javanese: ꦏꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦤꦤ꧀​ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡ​ꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀, romanized: Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Javanese pronunciation: [ŋajogjɔkartɔ hadinɪŋrat]; Indonesian: Kesultanan Yogyakarta) is a Javanese monarchy in Yogyakarta Special Region, in the Republic of Indonesia. The current head of the Sultanate is Hamengkubuwono X.[3]

Sultanate of Yogyakarta
Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat
Royal Coat of Arms (Praja Cihna)
Anthem: Gending Monggang[1]
The realm of Yogyakarta Sultanate (green) in 1830
StatusPolitical status:
  • De facto independent state (1755–1830)
  • De jure protectorate state of the Dutch East India Company (1755–1799)
  • De jure protectorate state of the Batavian Republic (1800–1811)
  • De jure protectorate state of the British East India Company (1811–1816)
  • De jure protectorate state of the Dutch East Indies (1816–1830)
  • Protectorate state of the Dutch East Indies (1830–1942)
  • Protectorate state of the Empire of Japan (1942–1945)
  • Protectorate state/special region of the Republic of Indonesia (1945–1950)
  • Protectorate state status was officially downgraded to the province-level special region status (1950)


  • In some areas was established the Duchy of Pakualaman at 1813
Official languageJavanese
Recognised languageDutch (1755–1811; 1816–1942)
English (1811–1816)
Japanese (1942–1945)
Indonesian (1945–present)
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (until 1945)
Devolved parliamentary constitutional monarchy within the unitary presidential republic (from 1945)
ISKS Hamengkubuwana I
ISKS Hamengkubuwana IX
ISKS Hamengkubuwana X
Pepatih Dalem 
 First (1755–1799)
Danureja I
 Last (1933–1945)
Danureja VIII
 Established: Giyanti Treaty
13 February 1755
 Status downgrade
4 March 1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mataram Sultanate
Surakarta Sunanate
Special Region of Yogyakarta
Today part of
Sultan of Yogyakarta
Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat
Hamengkubuwono X
since 7 March 1989
Sultan of Yogyakarta
Heir presumptivePrincess Mangkubumi
First monarchSultan Hamengkubuwono I
ResidenceThe Royal Palace of Yogyakarta

Yogyakarta existed as a state since 1755 on the territory of modern Indonesia in the central part of Java Island. The Sultanate became the main theatre of military operations during the Java War of 1825–1830, following which a significant part of its territory was annexed by the Dutch, and the degree of autonomy was significantly curtailed. In 1946–1948, during the war of independence of Indonesia, the capital of the republic was transferred to the territory of the sultanate, in the city of Yogyakarta.

In 1950, Yogyakarta, along with the Principality of Pakualaman became part of Indonesia, with the former royal realms united as a Special Region, with equal status to that of a national province. At the same time, the hereditary title of Sultan of Yogyakarta & the Prince of Pakualaman, with ceremonial privileges carried with the titles, were legally secured for the rulers. On 2012, the Indonesian Government formally recognised the reigning Sultan of Yogyakarta as the hereditary Governor of Special Region of Yogyakarta, with the Pakualam Prince as its hereditary Vice Governor (article 18 paragraph 1c).[4] The Sultanate is claimed to own almost 10% of land in the Special Region of Yogyakarta.[5]


The sultanate is located on the southern coast of the island of Java. In the south it is bordered by the Indian Ocean, with land surrounded by the province of Central Java. The area is 3,133 km², while the population in 2010 was about three and a half million people. The special district of Yogyakarta, along with Jakarta, has the largest population density among the provinces of Indonesia.[6]

Not far from the city of Yogyakarta is the volcano Merapi, the most active volcano in Indonesia which has erupted regularly since 1548, resulting in great damage to the population of the district. In October–November 2010, there was a strong volcanic eruption, forcing about a hundred thousand people to temporarily leave their homes.[7][8]


After Sultan Agung, the Sultanate of Mataram was declining due to a power struggle within the sultanate itself.[9] To make things worse, the Dutch East India Company exploited the power struggle to increase its control. At the peak of the conflict, the Mataram Sultanate was split in two based on the Treaty of Giyanti of 13 February 1755: Yogyakarta Sultanate and Surakarta Sunanate.[9][10][2]

The Giyanti Treaty mentioned Pangeran Mangkubumi as Sultan of Yogyakarta with the title of:

ꦔꦂꦱꦢꦊꦩ꧀ꦱꦩ꧀ꦥꦺꦪꦤ꧀ꦢꦊꦩ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦏꦁꦱꦶꦤꦸꦮꦸꦤꦏꦁꦗꦼꦁꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦲꦩꦼꦁꦏꦸꦨꦸꦮꦤꦱꦺꦤꦥꦠꦶꦲꦶꦁꦔꦭꦒꦔꦧ꧀ꦢꦸꦭ꧀ꦫꦏ꦳꧀ꦩꦤ꧀ꦱꦪꦶꦢꦶꦤ꧀ꦥꦤꦠꦒꦩꦏ꦳ꦭꦶꦥ꦳ꦠꦸꦭ꧀ꦭꦃ Ngarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwana Senopati-ing-Ngalaga Ngabdulrakhman Sayyidin Panatagama Khalifatullah[lower-alpha 1]

Translates as:[12][13]

His Highness the Sultan, Commander in the Battlefield, Servant of the Most Gracious, Cleric and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion[lower-alpha 2]

As the result of further colonial intervention within the ruling family of the former Mataram Sultanate, the area which today is Special Region of Yogyakarta was divided into the Sultanate of Yogyakarta (Kasultanan Yogyakarta) and the Principality of Pakualam (Kadipaten Pakualaman).[10]

The Dutch Colonial Government arranged for the carrying out autonomous self-government, arranged under a political contract. When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed, the rulers, the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Prince of Pakualaman made a declaration supporting the newly founded Republic of Indonesia, and they would unite with the Republic. After the republic's independence is formally recognised by International public, the former royal realms were formally unified on 3 August 1950 into the Yogyakarta Special Region, with the Sultan of Yogyakarta became the hereditary Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region & the Prince of Pakualaman become its hereditary Vice Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region, formally on 30 August 2012 (article 18 paragraph 1c);[14] both were responsible to the President of Indonesia.[15][10]

Princes and princesses of the Yogyakarta Sultanate (1870)

In carrying out the local government administration it considers three principles: decentralisation, concentration and assistance. The provincial government carries out the responsibilities and authorities of the central government, while on other hand carrying out its autonomous responsibilities and authorities. The Regional Government consists of the Head of the Region and the Legislative Assembly of the Region. Such construction guarantees good co-operation between the Head of Region and the Legislative Assembly of Region to achieve a sound regional government administration. The Head of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has got responsibility as the Head of the Territory and titled as a Governor.[10]

The first Governor was the late Hamengkubuwono IX, Sultan of Yogyakarta and continued by Paku Alam VIII as acting governor until Hamengkubuwono X ascended in 1998.[16] Unlike the other heads of regions in Indonesia, the governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has the privilege or special status of not being bound to the period of position nor the requirements and way of appointment (article 25 paragraph 1 & 2).[17] However, in carrying out their duties, they have the same authority and responsibilities.[10]

On 5 May 2015, following a Royal Decree issued by the Sultan, Princess Mangkubumi (previously known as Princess Pembayun) received the new name Mangkubumi Hamemayu Hayuning Bawana Langgeng ing Mataram. This denotes her as the heiress presumptive to the Sultanate.[18] The title Mangkubumi was formerly reserved for senior male princes groomed for the throne, including the reigning Sultan. The decree thus admits female royals into the line of succession for the first time since the founding of the Sultanate. According to the current Sultan, this was in line with his prerogatives; his action was nonetheless criticised by more conservative male family members such as his siblings, who were thus displaced in the line of succession.[19]


Pagelaran, the front hall of The Royal Palace of Yogyakarta

The principal residence of the sultan is the kraton (palace), sometimes called the keraton but otherwise known in formal terms Keraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (Javanese script: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀​ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡ​ꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀).

List of Sultans

List of sultans of Yogyakarta:

Name Birth-Death Start of Reign End of Reign Description Portrait
Hamengkubuwono I

Raden Mas Sujana

6 August 1717 – 4 March 1792 (aged 74) 1755 1792 Son of Amangkurat IV
Hamengkubuwono II

Raden Mas Sundoro

7 March 1750 – 3 January 1828 (aged 77) 1792 1810 Son of Hamengkubuwono I
Hamengkubuwono III

Raden Mas Surojo

20 February 1769 – 3 November 1814 (aged 45) 1810 1811 Son of Hamengkubuwono II
Hamengkubuwono IV

Raden Mas Ibnu Jarot

3 April 1804 – 6 December 1822 (aged 18) 1814 1822 Son of Hamengkubuwono III
Hamengkubuwono V

Raden Mas Gathot Menol

20 August 1821 – 1855 1822 1826 Son of Hamengkubuwono IV
Hamengkubuwono V

Raden Mas Gathot Menol

20 August 1821 – 1855 1828 1855 Son of Hamengkubuwono IV
Hamengkubuwono VI

Raden Mas Mustojo

1821 – 20 July 1877 1855 1877 Brother of Hamengkubuwono V
Hamengkubuwono VII

Raden Mas Murtejo

1839–1931 1877 1921 Son of Hamengkubuwono VI
Hamengkubuwono VIII

Raden Mas Sujadi

3 March 1880 – 22 October 1939 (aged 59) 1921 1939 Son of Hamengkubuwono VII
Hamengkubuwono IX

Raden Mas Dorodjatun

12 August 1912 – 2 October 1988 (aged 76) 1939 1988 Son of Hamengkubuwono VIII
Hamengkubuwono X

Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito

2 April 1946 1988 Current Sultan Son of Hamengkubuwono IX

See also


  1. Correct order of the title according to 2012 Indonesian Act No. 13 on the Uniqueness of Special Region of Yogyakarta, Article 1 No. 4[11]
  2. Khalifatullah literally means Caliph of Allah

Further reading

  • Brotodiningrat, K. P. H. (1975), The Royal Palace (Karaton) of Yogyakarta: Its Architecture and Its Meaning, Yogyakarta: Karaton Museum Yogyakarta, OCLC 12847099.
  • Dwiyanto, Djoko (2009), Kraton Yogyakarta: Sejarah, Nasionalisme & Teladan Perjuangan (in Indonesian), Yogyakarta: Paradigma Indonesia, ISBN 978-979-17834-0-8.


  1. "Gendhing Monggang - YouTube". YouTube.
  2. Sabdacarakatama (2009). Sejarah Keraton Yogyakarta. Penerbit Narasi. ISBN 9789791681049. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  3. Kahin, Audrey (2015). Historical dictionary of Indonesia. Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810849358.
  4. Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. "UU No. 13 Tahun 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  5. "A Javanese sultan wants his daughter to succeed him. His people object". The Economist. 17 August 2019.
  6. "Indonesia Population 2019". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  7. "Indonesia Volcano death rolls soars past 100".
  8. "Pictures: Indonesia's Mount Merapi Volcano Erupts". National Geographic News. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  9. Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia.[Volume two, H-Q]. [Volume one, A-G] : a historical encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor. Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576077705.
  10. Sejarah Kesultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, Tahun 1755–1950, dan Pembentukan Daerah Otonomi Khusus Yogyakarta Tahun 1950, sejarahnusantara.com
  11. id:Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 13 Tahun 2012  (in Indonesian). Republik Indonesia. 2012 via Wikisource.
  12. Indonesia Departemen Luar Negeri Direktorat (1968). Documenta diplomatica (in Indonesian). Departemen Luar Negeri. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  13. Overseas Trading. Australia: Department of Commerce and Agriculture. 1971. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  14. Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. "UU No. 13 Tahun 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  15. Hadiwitanto, Handi (2009). Religion and generalised trust : an empirical-theological study among university students in Indonesia. Zürich : Lit. ISBN 9783643907127.
  16. "Yogyakarta History". Blogspot.
  17. Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. "UU No. 13 Tahun 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  18. Slamet Susanto (6 May 2015). "Sultan names eldest daughter Crown Princess". theJakartapost.com. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  19. John Monfries (12 June 2015). "The Sultan's Coup". anu.edu.au. Retrieved 22 December 2015.

Official site of Sultanate of Yogyakarta

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