List of ruling political parties by country

This is a list of ruling political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to an overview of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. Individual parties are properly listed in separate articles under each nation.

The ruling party in a parliamentary system is the political party or coalition of the majority in parliament. It generally forms the central government.

Table

A

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Afghanistan Elective autocracy; political parties exist but are not allowed to participate in government[1][2][3][4][5] 2016 (supreme leader)
See also 2021 takeover
 Abkhazia Multi-party Independents, Amtsakhara
Aitaira
2022 (parliament)
 Åland Multi-party Centre, Moderate Coalition, ObS, Sustainable Initiative
Liberals, Social Democrats, Future of Åland, Ålandic Democracy[6]
2019 (legislative)
 Albania Multi-party Socialist Party of Albania, PSD
PD – Alliance for Change (PD, PR, PDIU, PAA, PLL, LZHK, PBDNJ), LSI
2021 (parliament)
 Alderney Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2020 (general)
 Algeria Multi-party National Liberation Front, National Rally for Democracy, Future Front, El-Bina
MSP, LP, FBG, FDJ, EFED, PLJ, Jil Jadid, FAN, El Karama, FNA, FFS
2021 (legislative)
2019 (presidential)
 Andorra Multi-party Democrats for Andorra, Liberal Party, Committed Citizens
Social Democratic Party, Third Way–Lauredian Union
2019 (parliament)
 Angola Dominant-party People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
UNITA, PRS, FNLA, PHA
2022 (general)
 Anguilla Two-party Anguilla Progressive Movement
Anguilla United Front
2020 (general)
 Antigua and
Barbuda
Two-party Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party
United Progressive Party, Barbuda People's Movement
2023 (general)
 Argentina Multi-party Frente de Todos (PJ, FR, Federal Commitment), SER, MPN
Juntos por el Cambio (PRO, UCR), Federal Peronists (CF, VcV, PDC, PS, 3P), FIT-U (PO, PTS), AL-LA
2021 (legislative)
2019 (general)
 Armenia Multi-party Civil Contract, United Labour Party
Armenia Alliance (ARF, Reborn Armenia, One Armenia), I Have Honor Alliance (RPA, Homeland)
2021 (parliament)
 Artsakh Multi-party Free Motherland - UCA Alliance, United Motherland
Justice, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Democratic Party
2020 (general)
 Aruba Multi-party People's Electoral Movement, RAIZ
AVP, Aruban Sovereignty Movement, RED, Accion 21
2021 (general)
 Ascension Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2019 (general)
 Australia Two-party Labor Party
Coalition (Liberal Party, National Party) (official opposition), Greens, Centre Alliance, KAP, One Nation, JLN
2022 (federal)
 Austria Multi-party Austrian People's Party, The Greens
Social Democratic Party, Freedom Party, NEOS
2019 (legislative)
 Azerbaijan Dominant-party New Azerbaijan Party, VHP, ADMP, VBP, AVP, BQP, Unity Party, MCP
DİP, REAL, BACXP
2020 (parliament)

B

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Bahamas Two-party Progressive Liberal Party
Free National Movement
2021 (general)
 Bahrain Dominant-party Pro-monarchy independents, Al Rabitah, Gathering of National Unity
Progressive Democratic Tribune
2022 (general)
 Bangladesh Dominant-party Awami League, Workers Party, JASAD, Jatiya Party (Manju), BTF
Jatiya Party (Ershad), Bangladesh Nationalist Party, BDB, Gano Forum
2018 (general)
 Barbados Two-party Barbados Labour Party
No parliamentary opposition, Democratic Labour Party
2022 (general)
 Belarus Dominant-party Independents (Belaya Rus), Communist Party, Patriotic Party, RPTS, Agrarian Party
LDPB[lower-alpha 1]
2019 (parliament)
 Belgium Multi-party PS, MR, Ecolo, CD&V, Open Vld, Groen, Vooruit
N-VA, Vlaams Belang, PTB/PVDA, Les Engagés, DéFI
2019 (general)
 Flanders Multi-party N-VA, CD&V, Open Vld
Vooruit, Groen, Vlaams Belang, PTB/PVDA
2019 (parliament)
 Wallonia Multi-party PS, MR, Les Engagés
PTB/PVDA, Ecolo
2019 (parliament)
 Brussels Multi-party PS, Ecolo, DéFI, Groen, Open Vld, Vooruit
MR, PTB/PVDA, Les Engagés, DierAnimal, N-VA, Vlaams Belang, CD&V, Agora
2019 (parliament)
 Belize Two-party People's United Party
United Democratic Party
2020 (general)
 Benin Multi-party Progressive Union for Renewal, Republican Bloc
The Democrats
2021 (presidential)
2023 (parliament)
 Bermuda Two-party Progressive Labour Party
One Bermuda Alliance
2020 (general)
 Bhutan Two-party Bhutan United Party
Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party
2018 (legislative)
 Bolivia Multi-party Movement for Socialism
Civic Community (FRI), Creemos (PDC, UCS)
2020 (general)
 Bonaire Multi-party Bonaire People's Movement
Bonaire Democratic Party, Bonaire Patriotic Union
2019 (general)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Multi-party SNSD, HDZ BiH, People and Justice, SDP BiH, DNS, Our Party, ZNG, DEMOS, United Srpska, BHI KF
Party of Democratic Action, Democratic Front-Civic Alliance, SDS, PDP, NES, ZPR
2022 (general)
 Botswana Dominant-party Botswana Democratic Party
UDC (official opposition), Botswana Patriotic Front, Alliance for Progressives
2019 (general)
 Brazil Multi-party Brazil of Hope (Workers' Party, PCdoB, PV), PSB, PDT, PSOL-REDE, PSD, MDB, Avante, Cidadania, SD, PROS
Liberal Party, Progressives, Brazil Union, Republicans, PSC, Patriota, PTB, PSDB, NOVO, Podemos
2022 (general)
 Brunei Absolute monarchy; no political parties[lower-alpha 2]No elections
 Bulgaria Multi-party Provisional non-partisan government
GERB-SDS, We Continue the Change, DPS, Revival, BSPzB (BSP, Ecoglasnost), DB (DSB, Yes, Bulgaria!, ZD), BV
2021 (general)
2022 (legislative)
 Burkina Faso Military junta (Patriotic Movement for Safeguard and Restoration); civilian government suspended See 2022 coup d'état
 Burundi Dominant-party National Council for the Defense of Democracy
National Congress for Liberty, Union for National Progress
2020 (general)

C

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Cambodia Dominant-party Cambodian People's Party
FUNCINPEC
2018 (parliament)
 Cameroon Dominant-party Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
UNDP, Social Democratic Front, CPNR, Cameroon Democratic Union, FNSC, MDR, USM
2020 (parliament)
 Canada Multi-party Liberal Party (minority), New Democratic Party
Conservative Party (main opposition), Bloc Québécois, Green Party
2021 (federal)
 Cape Verde Two-party Movement for Democracy
African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (president's party), UCID
2021 (presidential)
2021 (parliament)
 Cayman Islands Two-party Independents
People's Progressive Movement
2021 (general)
 Central African
Republic
Multi-party United Hearts Movement
Kwa Na Kwa, URCA, MLPC, MOUNI, RDC and others
2020-21 (general)
 Chad Military junta (Transitional Military Council); civilian government suspended See 2021 coup d'état
 Chile Multi-party Government Alliance (Apruebo Dignidad (Broad Front (CS, RD, Comunes), Chile Digno (PCCh, FREVS, AH), Democratic Socialism (PS, PPD, PR, PL))
Chile Vamos (National Renewal, UDI, Evópoli), Christian Social Front (PLR, PSC), PDC, Party of the People, AxCh, Democrats
2021 (general)
 China One-party Chinese Communist Party, other minor political parties (JS, CAPD, CDL, CNDCA, CPWDP, RCCK, CZGP, Taimeng) 2018 (congressional)
 Hong Kong Dominant-party Pro-Beijing camp (DAB, FTU, BPA, NPP, LP, FEW, FLU, Roundtable, PP, KWND, NP, NCF)
Third Side, Pro-democracy camp
2021 (legislative)
2019 (local)
 Macau Dominant-party Pro-Beijing camp (ACUM, UPD, UMG, UPP, ABL)
Pro-democracy camp (NE), Synergy Power
2021 (legislative)
 Colombia Multi-party Historic Pact, Liberal Party, Social Party of National Unity, Green Alliance, Colombia Reborn, ASI, Conservative Party, Citizen Force, Commons
Democratic Center, Radical Change, LIGA, Oxygen Green, MIRA, National Salvation Movement, Colombia Justa Libres
2022 (legislative)
2022 (presidential)
 Comoros Dominant-party Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros
Orange Party
2020 (legislative)
 Congo Dominant-party Congolese Party of Labour, MAR, RDPS
UPADS, UDH-Yuki, MAR, PRL, Club 2002, DRD, RDPS, APC, MUST, MDC, CPR, URDP, RC, MCDDI
2021 (presidential)
2022 (parliament)
 DR Congo Multi-party President: UDPS; Parliament: Common Front for Congo
Parliamentary opposition: Lamuka, Heading for Change
2018 (general)
2019 (senate)
 Cook Islands Multi-party Cook Islands Party, Pro-government independents
Democratic Party, Cook Islands United Party, One Cook Islands Movement
2022 (general)
 Costa Rica Multi-party Social Democratic Progress Party (minority)
PLN, PUSC, PNR, PLP, Broad Front
2022 (general)
 Croatia Multi-party Croatian Democratic Union (incl. HDS), SDSS, HSLS, HNS-LD, HSU
Social Democrats, SDP, The Bridge, DP (incl. BLOK), Green–Left (We can!, NL), Sovereignists, Centre-GLAS, HSS-RF, IDS-DDI, Focus (incl. DBNL, NS-R)
2020 (parliament)
 Cuba One-party Communist Party of Cuba 2018 (parliament)
 Curaçao Multi-party MFK, National People's Party
PAR, Partido MAN, Kòrsou Esun Miho, Work for Curaçao
2021 (general)
 Cyprus Multi-party Democratic Rally
AKEL, DIKO, ELAM, EDEK, Democratic Front, KOSP
2021 (legislative)
 Czech Republic Multi-party SPOLU (ODS, KDU–ČSL, TOP 09), PaS (STAN, Pirate Party)
ANO 2011, Freedom and Direct Democracy
2021 (legislative)
2018 (presidential)

D

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Denmark Multi-party Social Democrats, Venstre, Moderates, Union Party, Social Democratic Party, Siumut, Inuit Ataqatigiit
Green Left, Denmark Democrats, Liberals, Conservatives, Red–Greens, Social Liberals, Alternative, New Right, DF
2022 (general)
 Djibouti Dominant-party Union for the Presidential Majority (RPP, FRUD, PND, PSD, UPR)
UDJ–PDD, CDU
2021 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)
 Dominica Dominant-party Dominica Labour Party
No parliamentary opposition, Team Unity Dominica, United Workers' Party
2022 (general)
 Dominican Republic Multi-party Modern Revolutionary Party, Broad Front, APD, Dominicans for Change, PHD, BIS, PRSD, PQDC, PCR
Dominican Liberation Party, People's Force, PRSC, Dominican Revolutionary Party, ALPAÍS, PLR
2020 (general)

E

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 East Timor Multi-party Fretilin, People's Liberation Party, KHUNTO, Democratic Party
CNRT (president's party), Timorese Democratic Union, Frenti-Mudança, PUDD
2018 (parliament)
2022 (presidential)
 Ecuador Multi-party CREO, PSE, MC, MEU, Avanza, PSP, MDS, UE, MC25, Pachakutik, ID
Union for Hope (Citizen Revolution, CD), Social Christian Party
2021 (general)
 Egypt Dominant-party Independents, Nation's Future Party, RPP, New Wafd, HDP, MEP, SDP
CDM (RDP, ESDP, Justice) Tagammu, Conference, EFP, Al-Nour, EPM, EGP
2018 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
 El Salvador Multi-party Nuevas Ideas, GANA, PCN, PDC
ARENA, FMLN, Nuestro Tiempo, Vamos
2019 (presidential)
2021 (legislative)
 Equatorial Guinea Dominant-party Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea
No parliamentary opposition, Convergence for Social Democracy
2022 (general)
 Eritrea One-party People's Front for Democracy and Justice Elections postponed
 Estonia Multi-party Reform Party, Isamaa, Social Democratic Party
Centre Party, Conservative People's Party, Parempoolsed
2019 (parliament)
 Eswatini No political parties 2018 (general)
 Ethiopia Dominant-party Prosperity Party
NaMA, EZEMA, Gedeo People's Democratic Organization
2021 (general)
 European Union Multi-party EPP, PES, ALDE
ECR, ID, EGP, EFA, PEL, EDP, ECPM
2019 (parliament)

F

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Falkland Islands Non-partisan democracy; no political parties2021 (general)
 Faroe Islands Multi-party Social Democratic Party, Republic, Progress
Union Party, People's Party, Centre Party
2022 (general)
 Fiji Multi-party People's Alliance, National Federation Party, SODELPA
FijiFirst
2022 (general)
 Finland Multi-party SDP, Centre Party, The Greens, Left Alliance, Swedish People's Party
Finns Party, Kokoomus, KD, Movement Now, Power Belongs to the People
2019 (parliament)
 France Multi-party Renaissance, Democratic Movement, Radical Party, EC
LR, UDI, PS, PRG, La France Insoumise, PCF, National Rally, Debout la France
2022 (presidential)
2022 (legislative)
 French Guiana Multi-party DVG, Péyi Guyane, La France Insoumise, MDES, Socialist Party
DVC, Guiana Rally, The Republicans
2021 (regional)
 French Polynesia Multi-party Tāpura Huiraʻatira
ʻĀmuitahiraʻa o te Nūnaʻa Māʻohi, Tāvini Huiraʻatira, A here ia Porinetia
2018 (legislative)

G

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other Parties
Last election
 Gabon Dominant-party Gabonese Democratic Party
The Democrats, RPM, SDG, RVR, others
2016 (presidential)
2018 (legislative)
 Gambia Multi-party National People's Party, National Reconciliation Party, APRC
United Democratic Party, PDOIS
2021 (presidential)
2022 (parliament)
 Georgia Dominant-party[7][8] Georgian Dream, People's Power
Strength is in Unity (ENM, SK, PdT, EDP), For Georgia, Girchi, European Socialists, Strategy Builder, Lelo, Citizens, SRP, KdS
2020 (parliament)
 Germany Multi-party Social Democratic Party, A90/Greens, Free Democratic Party
CDU/CSU, AfD, The Left
2021 (federal)
 Ghana Two-party New Patriotic Party
National Democratic Congress
2020 (general)
 Gibraltar Two-party GSLP–Liberal Alliance (GSLP, LPG)
Gibraltar Social Democrats, Together Gibraltar
2019 (general)
 Greece Multi-party New Democracy
Syriza (official opposition), PASOK-KINAL (PASOK, KIDISO), KKE, Greek Solution, MeRA25, PATRIDA
2019 (legislative)
 Greenland Multi-party Inuit Ataqatigiit, Naleraq, Atassut
Siumut, Democrats
2021 (general)
 Grenada Two-party National Democratic Congress
New National Party
2022 (general)
 Guadeloupe Multi-party GUSR, DVC
Plural Left
2021 (regional)
 Guatemala Multi-party Vamos, Valor, FCN, Todos, VIVA, Humanist, Citizen Prosperity, BIEN, Unionist, Victory, PAN, Podemos
UNE, Semilla, CREO, BIEN, Winaq, URNG–MAIZ, Victory, MLP
2019 (general)
 Guernsey Multi-party Independents
Guernsey Partnership of Independents, Guernsey Party, Alliance Party Guernsey
2020 (general)
 Guinea Military junta (National Committee of Reconciliation and Development); civilian government suspended See 2021 coup d'état
 Guinea-Bissau Multi-party Madem G15, Party for Social Renewal, APU-PDGB
PAIGC, New Democracy Party, Union for Change
2019 (presidential)
2019 (legislative)
 Guyana Two-party People's Progressive Party
People's National Congress (APNU, AFC) (official opposition), LJP–ANUG–TNM
2020 (legislative)

H

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Haiti Multi-party Non-partisan acting government
Parliament now dissolved, Tèt Kale, Inite, Haiti in Action, OPL, RDNP, Fanmi Lavalas, Renmen, Platfom Pitit Desalin, UNCRH, PFSDH
2016–17 (senate)
Nov 2016 (presidential)
 Honduras Multi-party Liberty and Refoundation, Savior Party of Honduras, PINU, Christian Democratic Party
National Party, Liberal Party, Anti-Corruption Party
2021 (general)
 Hungary Dominant-party Fidesz–KDNP (Fidesz, KDNP), LdU
United for Hungary (DK, Momentum, MSZP, Jobbik, Dialogue, LMP, MMM), Our Homeland Movement
2022 (parliament)

I

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Iceland Multi-party Independence Party, Progressive Party, Left-Green Movement
Samfylkingin, People's Party, Pirate Party, Liberal Reform Party, Centre Party
2021 (parliament)
 India Multi-party NDA (BJP, BSS, AD(S), AJSU, AIADMK, NDPP, NPP, NPF, MNF, SKM)
UPA (INC, DMK, JDU, SS (UBT) NCP, RJD, JKNC, IUML, JMM, RSP, VCK)
Others (AITC, YSRCP, BJD, BSP, BRS, SP, TDP, CPI(M), SAD, CPI, AIMIM, AIUDF, KC(M), JD(S), AAP, RLP)
2019 (general)
 Indonesia Multi-party Onward Indonesia Coalition (PDI-P, Golkar, Gerindra Party, Nasdem Party, PKB, PAN, PPP)
Democratic Party, PKS
2019 (general)
 Iran Dominant-party[lower-alpha 3] Principlists (SHANA, Stability Front)
Reformists (Moderation and Development Party, Executives of Construction Party), independents
2021 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
 Iraq Multi-party Takadum, State of Law, PDK, Fatah, PUK, Azem, Victory Alliance, Babylon Movement
Emtidad, New Generation Movement, Tasmim, National Contract, Ishraq Kanoon, NPI, MDR, others
2021 (parliament)
 Kurdistan Region Multi-party Kurdistan Democratic Party, Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Gorran Movement, New Generation Movement, Kurdistan Justice Group, Kurdistan Islamic Union
2018 (parliament)
 Ireland Multi-party Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael, Green Party
Sinn Féin, Labour Party, Social Democrats, PBP–S, Aontú, Right to Change
2020 (general)
 Isle of Man Two-party[lower-alpha 4] Independents
Labour Party, Liberal Vannin Party
2021 (general)
 Israel Multi-party Likud, Shas, UTJ (Degel HaTorah, Agudat), Religious Zionist Party, Otzma, Noam
Yesh Atid, National Unity Party (Resilience Party, New Hope), Yisrael Beiteinu, Ra'am, Hadash (Maki), Labor, Ta'al
2022 (legislative)
 Italy Multi-party Brothers of Italy, League, Forza Italia, Us Moderates, MAIE
PD–IDP (Democratic Party, Art. 1, DemoS, CD), Five Star Movement, Action – Italia Viva, AVS, +E, SVP, UV
2022 (general)
 Ivory Coast Dominant-party Rally of Houphouëtists for Democracy and Peace (RDR)
PDCI-RDA, Together for Democracy and Sovereignty, UDPCI, FPI
2021 (parliament)

J

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Jamaica Two-party Jamaica Labour Party
People's National Party
2020 (general)
 Japan Dominant-party Liberal Democratic Party, Komeito
Constitutional Democratic Party, Ishin, DPP, Communist Party, Reiwa, SDP, Sanseitō, NHK Party
2021 (general)
2022 (Sangiin)
 Jersey Multi-party[lower-alpha 5] Independents
Reform Jersey, Jersey Liberal Conservatives, Progress Party
2022 (general)
 Jordan Dominant-party[lower-alpha 6] Pro-monarchy independents, Jordanian United Front Party, National Loyalty Party
Islamic Action Front, Islamic Centre Party
2020 (general)

K

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Kazakhstan Dominant-party Amanat, Assembly of People of Kazakhstan
Aq Jol Democratic Party, People's Party
2022 (presidential)
2021 (legislative)
 Kenya Multi-party Kenya Kwanza (UDA, ANC, UDM, FORD–K, PAA, MCC, UPIA, TSP, CCK, DP, MDG, GDDP, NAP, NOPEU)
Azimio la Umoja (ODM, Jubilee, WDM-K, DAP-K, KANU, KUP, UPA, UDP)
2022 (general)
 Kiribati Two-party Tobwaan Kiribati Party
Boutokaan Kiribati Moa Party
2020 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
 Kuwait No political parties2022 (general)
 Kyrgyzstan Multi-party Mekenchil, Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan, Ishenim, Yntymak
Eldik, Alliance, United Kyrgyzstan, Light of Faith, Social Democrats, Afghans' Party
2021 (presidential)
2021 (parliament)
 Kosovo Multi-party Vetëvendosje, Guxo, KDTP, NDS, IRDK, Vakat, LPRK, SDU, PAI
PDK, LDK, Serb List, AAK, JGP, RI
2021 (parliament)

L

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Laos One-party Lao People's Revolutionary Party 2021 (parliament)
 Latvia Multi-party New Unity (Unity), United List (LRA, LZP, LP), National Alliance
Union of Greens and Farmers (LZS, LSDSP, LuV), For Stability!, The Progressives, Latvia First
2022 (parliament)
 Lebanon Multi-party Acting govt: Free Patriotic Movement, Amal, Hezbollah, PSP, Marada, Tashnag, Al-Ahbash, Ba'ath, Union Party, Islamic Group
Lebanese Forces, Kataeb, Taqaddom, Independence Movement, Tahalof Watani, ReLebanon, Khatt Ahmar, Lana, Osos, NDP, PNO
2022 (general)
 Lesotho Multi-party Revolution for Prosperity, Alliance of Democrats, MEC
Democratic Congress, All Basotho Convention, Basotho Action Party, LCD, SR, BNP, PFD, BCM, MPS, NIP, HOPE
2022 (general)
 Liberia Two-party Coalition for Democratic Change (Congress for Democratic Change, NPP)
Unity Party (main opposition), Liberty Party, ANC, PUP, ALP, MEE, MDR, LTP, UPP, VCP, LPP, LINU
2017 (general)
 Libya Provisional government (disputed between Government of National Unity and Government of National Stability);
elected provisional parliament is nonpartisan
2014 (parliament)
See also Peace process
 Liechtenstein Multi-party Patriotic Union, Progressive Citizens' Party
Free List, Democrats for Liechtenstein
2021 (general)
 Lithuania Multi-party Homeland Union, Liberal Movement, Freedom Party
LVŽS, DSVL, LSDP, Labour Party, LLRA–KŠS, LRP, Freedom and Justice, TTS
2020 (parliament)
2019 (presidential)
 Luxembourg Multi-party Democratic Party, LSAP, The Greens
CSV, ADR, Pirate Party, The Left
2018 (general)

M

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Madagascar Multi-party Young Malagasies Determined, Freedom, ADN
Tiako I Madagasikara, independents, RPSD-Vaovao, MTS, GJPS, MDM, MATITA, Malagasy Miara Miainga
2018 (presidential)
2019 (parliament)
 Malawi Multi-party Malawi Congress Party, UTM, independents
DPP, UDF, People's Party, Alliance for Democracy
2020 (presidential)
 Malaysia Multi-party PH (PKR, DAP, AMANAH, UPKO), BN (UMNO, MCA, MIC, PBRS), GPS (PBB, PRS, PDP, SUPP), GRS (PBS, STAR), WARISAN, MUDA, PBM
PN (BERSATU, PAS, GERAKAN) (official opposition), GTA (PEJUANG), PSB
2022 (general)
 Maldives Multi-party Maldivian Democratic Party, Jumhooree Party
PPM, People's National Congress, MDA, DRP
2018 (presidential)
2019 (parliament)
 Mali Military junta; civilian government suspended See 2021 coup d'état
 Malta Two-party Labour Party
Nationalist Party
2022 (general)
 Marshall Islands Two-party Independents (Aelon̄ Kein Ad, United Democratic Party) 2019 (general)
 Mauritania Multi-party Equity Party, Union for Democracy and Progress, El Karama, AND
Tewassoul, UFP, RFD, APP, Sawab-RAG, Sursaut, AJD/MR, Hatem
2019 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)
 Mauritius Multi-party MSM, ML, OPR, MAG, Plateforme Militante
MMM, PMSD, Labour Party
2019 (general)
 Mayotte Multi-party The Republicans, NÉMA, DVD
MDM, Renaissance, DVC
2021 (legislative)
 Mexico Multi-party Morena, Green Party, Labor Party
PAN, PRI, Citizens' Movement, PRD
2018 (general)
2021 (legislative)
 Micronesia Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2021 (parliament)
 Moldova Multi-party Party of Action and Solidarity
Bloc of Communists and Socialists (Socialist Party, Communist Party), Șor Party
2021 (parliament)
 Monaco Multi-party Priorité Monaco
Horizon Monaco, Union Monégasque
2018 (parliament)
 Mongolia Multi-party Mongolian People's Party
Democratic Party, Right Person Electorate Coalition
2021 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
 Montenegro Multi-party Socialist People's Party, CnB (URA, Civis), BS, SDP, FORCA, UDSH, Democratic Party of Socialists, Liberal Party
Democratic Front (NSD, DNP, PZP, RP), Peace is Our Nation (Democrats, DEMOS), SD, Prava, UCG
2020 (legislative)
 Montserrat Two-party Movement for Change and Prosperity
People's Democratic Movement
2019 (general)
 Morocco Multi-party National Rally of Independents, Istiqlal Party, Authenticity and Modernity Party
USFP, Popular Movement, PPS, Constitutional Union, PJD, MDS, FFD, AFG, PSU
2021 (general)
 Mozambique Dominant-party FRELIMO Party
RENAMO, Democratic Movement
2019 (general)
 Myanmar Military junta (State Administration Council); civilian government suspended See 2021 coup d'état

N

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Namibia Dominant-party SWAPO Party of Namibia
PDM, LPM, NUDO, APP, UDF, Republican Party, NEFF, IPC, RDP, CDV, SWANU
2019 (general)
 Nauru Multi-party Independents, Nauru First
Opposition independents
2022 (parliament)
2022 (presidential)
 Nepal Multi-party CPN (UML), CPN (Maoist Centre), RSP, Janamat, Nepali Congress, RPP, PSP-N, NUP
CPN (Unified Socialist), Rastriya Janamorcha, LSP-N, NWPP
2022 (general)
 Netherlands Multi-party VVD, CDA, D66, Christian Union
PVV, PvdA, GL, SP, PvdD, FvD, 50PLUS, SGP, Volt, JA21, DENK, BVNL, BBB, BIJ1
2021 (general)
 New Caledonia Multi-party Caledonian Union, FLNKS, L'EO, UNI, LKS, Labour Party
Future with Confidence, Caledonia Together, Generations NC
2019 (legislative)
 New Zealand Multi-party Labour Party, Green Party
National Party (official opposition), ACT New Zealand, Te Pāti Māori
2020 (general)
 Nicaragua Dominant-party Sandinista National Liberation Front, YATAMA
Constitutionalist Liberal Party, ALN, PLI, Alliance for the Republic, Nicaraguan Christian Path
2021 (general)
 Niger Multi-party PNDS, MPR, MNSD, CPR, ANDP, RDP, RPP, ARD, MDEN, RSD, ADEN
MODEN/FA, RDR, MPN, PJP, AMEN, PSD, ADR, RNDP
2020-21 (general)
 Nigeria Two-party All Progressives Congress
Peoples Democratic Party (official opposition), YPP, APGA, ADC, PRP
2019 (general)
 Niue Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2020 (general)
 North Korea One-party Workers' Party of Korea, other DFRK members (Social Democratic Party, Chondoist Chongu Party, Chongryon) 2019 (parliament)
 North Macedonia Multi-party We Can (SDSM, NSDP, VMRO – People's Party, TDP, THP, POPGM, SSM), DUI, Alternativa, LDP, DPA, DOM, DS
Renewal (VMRO-DPMNE, SPM, DPSM, GROM, ROM), Alliance for Albanians, The Left, Besa
2019 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
 Northern Cyprus Multi-party National Unity Party, Democratic Party, Rebirth Party
Republican Turkish Party, People's Party
2022 (parliament)
 Norway Multi-party Labour Party, Centre Party
Conservative Party, FrP, SV, Liberal Party, Red Party, KrF, Green Party, Patient Focus
2021 (parliament)

O

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalitionLast election
 Oman Political parties outlawed 2019 (general)

P

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Pakistan Multi-party Pakistan Democratic Movement (PML(N), PPP, MMA, MQM-P, BNP-M, BAP, JWP, ANP)
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, PML(Q), GDA, AML
2018 (general)
2022 crisis
 Palau Non-partisan democracy; no political parties2020 (general)
 Palestine Multi-party PLO (Fatah, PFLP, DFLP, PPP), National Initiative, Third Way
Hamas (de facto control of the Gaza Strip)
2006 (legislative)
 Panama Multi-party Democratic Revolutionary Party, MOLIRENA
Democratic Change, Panameñista Party
2019 (general)
 Papua New Guinea Multi-party Pangu, URP, NA, People's, SDP, PFP, PNGP, ULP, Advance, National, AP, Green, Liberal, MAP, NGP, ODP, PLP, PMC, PPP, PRP, Destiny, THE
People's National Congress Party
2022 (general)
 Paraguay Multi-party Colorado Party
PLRA, Guasú Front, PPQ, PDP, UNACE, GANAR, Hagamos Party, PEN, MCN
2018 (general)
 Peru Multi-party Non-partisan government, Popular Force, Popular Action, Popular Renewal, Go on Country, Alliance for Progress, We Are Peru
Free Peru, Magisterial Bloc, Bicentennial Peru, Democratic Peru, Together for Peru, Podemos Perú
2021 (general)
2022 crisis
 Philippines Multi-party UniTeam Alliance (PFP, Lakas–CMD), PDP–Laban, Nacionalista, NUP, NPC, LDP, others
Liberal Party, Makabayan, Reporma, Aksyon, Akbayan, others
2022 (general)
 Pitcairn Islands Non-partisan democracy; no political parties2021 (general)
 Poland Multi-party United Right (PiS, SP, Republican Party, OdNowa RP), Kukiz'15
KO (PO, .N, IPL, PZ), KP (PSL, UED), The Left (NL, Razem), Confederation (KORWiN, RN, KKP), PL2050, PJG, PPS, KWMN
2020 (presidential)
2019 (parliament)
 Portugal Multi-party Socialist Party
Social Democratic Party, Chega, Liberal Initiative, Communist Party, Left Bloc, People Animals Nature, LIVRE
2022 (parliament)
2021 (presidential)
 Puerto Rico Two-party Popular Democratic Party
New Progressive Party (governor's party), MVC, PIP, PD
2020 (general)

Q

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalitionLast election
 Qatar Political parties outlawed2021 (general)

R

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Romania Multi-party National Coalition for Romania (PSD, PNL, UDMR/RMDSZ), Ethnic minority parties
Save Romania Union, Alliance for the Union of Romanians, Force of the Right, REPER, AD, NR, ROASIT
2019 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
 Russia Dominant-party United Russia, LDPR, A Just Russia — For Truth, Rodina, Civic Platform
Communist Party, New People, Party of Growth
2018 (presidential)
2021 (legislative)
 Rwanda Dominant-party Rwandan Patriotic Front
Social Democratic Party, PS-Imberakuri, PL, Democratic Greens
2017 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)

S

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Saint Helena Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2021 (general)
 Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Multi-party Saint Kitts and Nevis Labour Party
Concerned Citizens' Movement, People's Labour Party, People's Action Movement
2022 (general)
 Saint Lucia Two-party Saint Lucia Labour Party
United Workers Party
2021 (general)
 Saint Pierre
and Miquelon
Two-party Archipelago Tomorrow (LR)
Together for the Future (PRG)
2022 (legislative)
 Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines
Two-party Unity Labour Party
New Democratic Party
2020 (general)
 Samoa Two-party Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi, Samoa National Democratic Party
Human Rights Protection Party
2021 (general)
 San Marino Multi-party Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party, RETE Movement, DML, NplR
Libera, Future Republic
2019 (general)
 São Tomé
and Príncipe
Multi-party Independent Democratic Action
MLSTP/PSD, MCI/PS-PUN, Basta
2021 (presidential)
2022 (legislative)
 Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy; no political partiesNo elections
 Senegal Dominant-party United in Hope (APR, AFP, PS), Bokk Gis Gis
Liberate the People (PASTEF, PUR, TS), Wallu Sénégal (PDS), MPR, AAR
2019 (presidential)
2022 (legislative)
 Serbia Dominant-party Together We Can Do Everything (SNS, PSS-BK, SNP, PS, SPO, NSS, USS, BS), IDPS (SPS, ZS), JS, SDPS, PUPS, VMSZ, SPP
Ujedinjeni (SSP, PSG, PZP, Sloga, Fatherland), NADA (New DSS, POKS, NN—IJS), NS, DS, SSZ, Together, Dveri, SDA S–DSHV–ZZV–PVD, NDB, ZKS
2022 (general)
 Seychelles Two-party Linyon Demokratik Seselwa (Seychelles National Party, Seychellois Alliance, SPSJD, SUP)
United Seychelles
2020 (general)
 Sierra Leone Two-party All People's Congress
Sierra Leone People's Party (president's party), C4C, NGC
2018 (general)
 Singapore Dominant-party People's Action Party
Workers' Party, Progress Singapore Party
2020 (general)
 Sint Maarten Multi-party National Alliance, United People's Party
USP, Party for Progress, UD
2020 (general)
 Slovakia Multi-party Ordinary People, Freedom and Solidarity, We Are Family, For the People
Smer–SSD, Hlas–SD, ĽSNS, Republic, Život–NS, Progressive Slovakia, SPOLU
2020 (parliament)
 Slovenia Multi-party Freedom Movement, Social Democrats, The Left
Slovenian Democratic Party, New Slovenia
2022 (parliament)
 Solomon Islands Multi-party Independents, Kadere Party, Democratic Alliance Party, People's Alliance Party
Democratic Party, United Democratic Party, United Party, People First Party, SIPRA
2019 (general)
 Somalia Multi-party Independents, Forum for National Parties (UPD (president's party))
Tayo
2022 (presidential)
 Somaliland Multi-party Waddani, Justice and Welfare Party
Kulmiye Peace, Unity, and Development Party (president's party)
2017 (presidential)
2021 (parliamentary)
 South Africa Dominant-party African National Congress
DA (official opposition), EFF, IFP, FF+, ACDP, UDM, ATM, Good, NFP, AIC, COPE
2019 (general)
 South Korea Two-party People Power Party
Democratic Party, Justice Party, Basic Income Party, Transition Korea
2022 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
 South Ossetia Dominant-party Independents, Nykhaz (president's party)
United Ossetia, People's Party, Unity of the People, Communist Party
2019 (parliament)
 South Sudan Dominant-party Sudan People's Liberation Movement
SPLM-in-Opposition, South Sudan Opposition Alliance
2010 (general)
 Spain Multi-party PSOE, Unidas Podemos (Podemos, IU, ECP), ERC–S, EAJ-PNV, EH Bildu, PDeCAT, Más País, MC, NCa, TE, PRC
People's Party, Vox, Citizens, Junts, Popular Unity Candidacy, NA+, CC, Asturias Forum, BNG
2019 (general)
 Sri Lanka Multi-party SLPFA (Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna, EPDP, MEP, TMVP), UNP
Samagi Jana Balawegaya, FPA (SLFP, ULS, FPC), TNA, NPP, TNPF, TPNA
2022 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
 Sudan Provisional government (Transitional Sovereignty Council); elections suspended[9] See transition to democracy
 Suriname Multi-party VHP, ABOP, National Party of Suriname, Pertjajah Luhur
National Democratic Party, Brotherhood and Unity in Politics
2020 (general)
 Sweden Multi-party Moderate Party, Christian Democrats, Liberals, Sweden Democrats
Social Democratic Party, Left Party, Centre Party, Green Party
2022 (general)
 Switzerland Multi-party Swiss People's Party (Ticino League, EDU-UDF), Social Democratic Party, The Centre (EVP), FDP.The Liberals
Greens (solidaritéS, Party of Labour), Green Liberal Party
2019 (federal)
 Syria Dominant-party National Progressive Front: (Ba'ath Party, SSNP, SUP, SCP (Bakdash), ASU, SCP (Unified), NCP, ADU, DSUP)
No parliamentary opposition, Syrian opposition
2020 (parliament)
2021 (presidential)

T

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Taiwan Two-party Democratic Progressive Party
Kuomintang (official opposition), People's Party, New Power Party
2020 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
 Tajikistan Dominant-party People's Democratic Party, Agrarian Party, Communist Party
Party of Economic Reforms, Democratic Party, Socialist Party
2020 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
 Tanzania Dominant-party Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chadema, Civic United Front, Alliance for Change and Transparency
2020 (general)
 Zanzibar Dominant-party Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Alliance for Democratic Change, Alliance for Tanzania Farmers Party, Tanzania Democratic Alliance
2020 (general)
 Thailand Multi-party Palang Pracharath, BJT, Democrat Party, Chartthaipattana, Chart Pattana, ACT, TLP, NEP, FCP, New Palangdharma, NDP
Pheu Thai, Move Forward, Liberal, Prachachart, Pheu Chat, Palang Puangchon Thai, Thai Civilized Party
2019 (general)
Tigray Region Dominant-party Tigray People's Liberation Front
National Congress of Great Tigray, TIP, SAWET, ADP
2020 (parliament)
 Togo Dominant-party Union for the Republic
Union of Forces for Change, NET, MPDD, PDP, MRC
2020 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)
 Tokelau Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2020 (general)
 Tonga Two-party Independents, Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands, Tongan nobles
Independents, Tonga People's Party
2021 (general)
 Transnistria Dominant-party Republican Party "Obnovlenie"
No parliamentary opposition, Pridnestrovie Communist Party
2021 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
 Trinidad
and Tobago
Two-party People's National Movement
United National Congress
2020 (general)
 Tobago Two-party Progressive Democratic Patriots
Tobago Council of the People's National Movement
2021 (legislative)
 Tunisia Multi-party Non-partisan government, 25th of July Movement
People's Movement
2019 (president)
2022–23 (parliament)
 Turkey Multi-party Justice and Development Party, Nationalist Movement Party, Great Unity Party
Republican People's Party, Peoples' Democratic Party, Good Party, TIP, Homeland Party, DP, ZP, DEVA, DBP, Saadet, YP
2018 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)
 Turkmenistan Dominant-party Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, Agrarian Party, Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs
No parliamentary opposition
2018 (parliament)
2022 (presidential)
Two-party Progressive National Party
People's Democratic Movement
2021 (general)
 Tuvalu Non-partisan democracy; no political parties 2019 (general)

U

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Uganda Dominant-party National Resistance Movement
NUP, FDC, Democratic Party, UPC, JEEMA, PPP
2021 (general)
 Ukraine Multi-party Servant of the People, Platform for Life and Peace, For the Future, Dovira, Restoration of Ukraine
European Solidarity, Batkivshchyna, Holos
2019 (president)
2019 (parliament)
 United Arab Emirates Political parties outlawed2019 (parliament)
 United Kingdom Multi-party Conservative Party
Labour (official opposition), SNP, Lib Dems, DUP, Sinn Féin, Plaid Cymru, SDLP, Alba, Greens, Alliance
2019 (general)
Northern Ireland Multi-party Direct rule
Sinn Féin, DUP, Alliance, UUP, SDLP, TUV, People Before Profit
2022 (parliament)
 Scotland Multi-party Scottish National Party, Scottish Greens
Conservatives, Labour, Liberal Democrats
2021 (parliament)
 Wales Multi-party Labour
Conservatives (official opposition), Plaid Cymru, Lib Dems
2021 (parliament)
 United States Two-party Democratic Party
Republican Party
2020 (general)
 Uruguay Multi-party National Party, Colorado Party, CA, PI, Partido de la Gente
Broad Front, PERI
2019 (general)
 Uzbekistan Multi-party Liberal Democratic Party, National Revival Democratic Party
Justice Social Democratic Party, People's Democratic Party, Ecological Party
2021 (presidential)
2019-20 (parliament)

V

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Vanuatu Multi-party UMP, RMC, LPV, GJP, NUP, PPP, VNDP, Laverwo
Vanua'aku Pati, RDP, Iauko Group, Nagriamel, PUDP, VPDP, UCM, NCM
2022 (general)
 Vatican City Elective absolute monarchy; no political parties 2013 (papal conclave)
 Venezuela Dominant-party GPPSB (PSUV, PPT, Tupamaro, MSV, PODEMOS, APC, MEP, ORA, UPP)
Democratic Alliance (AD, AP, El Cambio, PV, COPEI), APR (PCV)
2020 (parliament)
2018 (presidential)
 Vietnam One-party Communist Party of Vietnam, Fatherland Front2021 (parliament)
 British Virgin Islands Multi-party Virgin Islands Party
NDP, Progressive Virgin Islands Movement, Progressives United
2019 (general)
 U.S. Virgin Islands Multi-party Democratic Party
Republican Party, Independent Citizens Movement
2022 (gubernatorial)

W

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Wallis and Futuna Non-partisan democracy; no political parties2022 (legislative)
 Western Sahara One-party Polisario Front2020 (legislative)

Y

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Yemen Dominant-party General People's Congress
Al-Islah, Yemeni Socialist Party, Nasserist Unionist People's Organisation, Ba'ath Party
2012 (presidential)
2003 (parliament)
See also 2014–2015 takeover

Z

CountryParty systemRuling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
 Zambia Multi-party United Party for National Development
Patriotic Front, Party of National Unity and Progress
2021 (general)
 Zimbabwe Dominant-party Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front
MDC Alliance, Citizens Coalition for Change, MDC–Tsvangirai, NPF
2018 (general)

See also

Notes

  1. The Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus asserts that it is an opposition party, but supports the presidency of Alexander Lukashenko nonetheless.
  2. Small parties exist, but have no power.
  3. Iran's parties must adhere to a religious system of governance.
  4. Independent politicians dominate in Isle of Man's political system.
  5. Independent politicians dominate Jersey's political system.
  6. Independent pro-monarchy politicians dominate Jordan's political system.

References

  1. Jones, Seth G. (December 2020). "Afghanistan's Future Emirate? The Taliban and the Struggle for Afghanistan". CTC Sentinel. Combating Terrorism Center. 13 (11). Retrieved 7 July 2022. an autocratic political system that eschews democracy
  2. "Taliban sources – Afghan Taliban appoint Mansour as leader". Reuters. Peshawar, Pakistan. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2022. The shura held outside Quetta unanimously elected Mullah Mansour as the new emir of the Taliban
  3. Ramachandran, Sudha (10 September 2021). "What Role Will the Taliban's 'Supreme Leader' Play in the New Government?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  4. O'Donnell, Lynne (1 July 2022). "A Modest Proposal to Save Afghanistan—From Itself". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 4 July 2022. One proposal gaining traction with Taliban and Western officials alike, however, comes from an Afghan politician, Amin Karim of the populist Hizb-i-Islami political party.
  5. Graham-Harrison, Emma (1 July 2022). "'It's our system': Taliban leader hits out at foreign demands on Afghan regime". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2022. Akhundzada effectively ruled out any inclusive government, saying that while officials from the former government should not fear reprisals, 'forgiveness does not mean to bring them to the government'.
  6. "Ny regering på Åland | Ålands landskapsregering". www.regeringen.ax. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  7. David Aprasidze, David S. Siroky: Technocratic Populism in Hybrid Regimes: Georgia on My Mind and in My Pocket, Politics Gov., Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020).
  8. Phillip Oravec , Edward C. Holland: The Georgian Dream? Outcomes from the Summer of Protest, 2018, Demokratizatsiya, Vol. 27, No. 2 (2019), pp. 249–256.
  9. Magdy, Samy; Elhennawy, Noha (21 November 2021). "Sudan military leaders reinstate deposed prime minister". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
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