List of political parties in Indonesia

Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In the four legislative elections since the fall of the New Order regime, no political party has won an overall majority of seats, resulting in coalition governments.

Pursuant to the Indonesian political parties act,[1] political parties' ideologies "must not be against Pancasila" and "is an explanation of Pancasila".


An election rally for the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, 1999

The Indonesian political party system is regulated by Act No. 2 of 2008 on Political Parties.[2] The law defines political party as "a national organisation founded by like-minded Indonesian citizens with common goals to fulfill common interests and to defend the unity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia as based on Pancasila and the 1945 State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia".

Political parties must register themselves with the Ministry of Law and Human Rights to be recognised by the authority. The law dictates that political parties' registration criteria shall include a notarial act recognising the party establishment and party constitution; a document describing party symbols; address of party headquarters and prove of distribution of party local offices in provinces, and cities and regencies; and a prove of party bank account.[2][3] The law also dictates minimum membership of new political parties on 50 persons, with the percentage of woman members and allocation of woman members to party offices are set on a minimum of 30%.

The party must undergo another registration process in order to participate in national elections; the registration shall be submitted to the General Elections Commission (KPU).[4] Political parties whose had their registration declined by the electoral commission due to failure to satisfy administrative criteria or other reasons, are able to appeal their rejection to the General Election Supervisory Agency (BAWASLU).[5]

Party principles

Indonesian political party should recognise the superiority of Pancasila, the national philosophy

Indonesian political parties should recognise the superiority of Pancasila and the national constitution, but Indonesian law tolerates the practice of other ideologies not in violation of the Pancasila and the constitution. A 1966 Provisional People's Consultative Assembly resolution still in force today, however, explicitly prohibits establishment of a communist party, and political parties are banned from adopting "Communism/Marxism-Leninism" (sic; explicitly defined in the resolution's corresponding explanatory memorandum to include "the struggle fundaments and tactics taught by ... Stalin, Mao Tse Tung et cetera") as the party ideology.[2]

In essence, Indonesian political parties differs little on party policy and ideology. The only major difference between Indonesian parties is their position as to how major a role Islam, by far the nation's majority religion, should play in public affairs.[6] This tendency resulting in several Indonesian political parties to brand itself as the part of nationalist-religious broad coalition in order to attract potential voters from both Muslim and secular nationalist groups.

The language of the left–right political spectrum is seldom used in Indonesia, in contrast with other countries. This tendency arose as the result of the New Order regime under Suharto which was anathema to left-wing policies after the 1965–66 Indonesian mass killings of members and supporters of the Communist Party of Indonesia.[6] The New Order regime further stigmatised left-wing ideals as those espoused only by communists, discouraging Indonesian political parties from identifying themselves as left-wing movements lest they lose potential voters and be accused as communist. This tendency has survived even after the 1998 Reforms, partly due to the new regime's insistence on keeping anti-communist legislation in force.

Parties represented in legislatures

Parties represented in national and regional legislatures

Party Leader Year Status in the DPR Provincial
DPRD seats
DPRD seats
Est. First
Seats Status
Democratic Party
Partai Demokrat
Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono 2001 2004
54 / 575
219 / 2,232
1,584 / 17,340
Party of Functional Groups
Partai Golongan Karya
Golkar Airlangga Hartarto 1964 1971
85 / 575
309 / 2,232
2,412 / 17,340
Great Indonesia Movement Party
Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya
Gerindra Prabowo Subianto 2008 2009
78 / 575
288 / 2,232
1,970 / 17,340
National Democratic Party
Partai Nasional Demokrat
NasDem Surya Paloh 2011 2014
59 / 575
186 / 2,232
1,628 / 17,340
National Mandate Party
Partai Amanat Nasional
PAN Zulkifli Hasan 1998 1999
44 / 575
165 / 2,232
1,302 / 17,340
Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle
Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan
PDI-P Megawati Sukarnoputri 1999 1999
128 / 575
418 / 2,232
2,803 / 17,340
National Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa
PKB Muhaimin Iskandar 1998 1999
58 / 575
180 / 2,232
1,553 / 17,340
Prosperous Justice Party
Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
PKS Ahmad Syaikhu 1999[lower-alpha 1] 1999
50 / 575
191 / 2,232
1,229 / 17,340
United Development Party
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
PPP Muhamad Mardiono 1973 1977
19 / 575
92 / 2,232
954 / 17,340
  1. as Partai Keadilan

Parties represented only in regional legislatures

These parties participates on national elections - the last was in 2019 - yet failed to attain a single seat in the DPR due to failing to pass 4% parliamentary threshold.[7] Notable failure was of Hanura, that was failed to return to DPR despite winning seats in 2014 election. Despite electoral failure in the DPR, these parties successfully gain seat in regional parliaments (DPRD). Although, these political parties, alongside with other extra-parliamentary parties, are sometimes referred as partai gurem (see below).

Aceh special autonomy statutes allowed formation of local political parties to compete only in the People's Representative Council of Aceh. Although the party number is serialised from the national list, Aceh local parties only appeared in ballot paper circulating in Aceh province.[8]

Name Leader Year Provincial
DPRD seats
DPRD seats
Founded First election
Berkarya Party
Partai Berkarya
Berkarya Muchdi Purwopranjono 2016 2019
10 / 2,232
131 / 17,340
Crescent Star Party
Partai Bulan Bintang
PBB Yusril Ihza Mahendra 1998 1999
7 / 2,232
214 / 17,340
Garuda Party
Partai Gerakan Perubahan Indonesia
Garuda Ahmad Ridha Sabana 2015 2019
2 / 2,232
33 / 17,340
People's Conscience Party
Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat
Hanura Oesman Sapta Odang 2006 2009
66 / 2,232
746 / 17,340
Justice and Unity Party
Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan
PKP Yussuf Solichien 1999 1999
4 / 2,232
155 / 17,340
Indonesian Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Indonesia
PSI Giring Ganesha 2014 2019
13 / 2,232
60 / 17,340
Perindo Party
Partai Persatuan Indonesia
Perindo Hary Tanoesoedibjo 2015 2019
29 / 2,232
379 / 17,340
Parties represented only in Aceh DPRD
Aceh Party
Partai Aceh
PA Muzakir Manaf 2007 2009
18 / 2,232
120 / 17,340
Aceh Regional Party
Partai Daerah Aceh
PDA Muhibbussabri A. Wahab 2011 2014
3 / 2,232
17 / 17,340
Independent Voice of the Acehnese Party
Partai Suara Independen Rakyat Aceh
SIRA Muhammad Nazar 2007 2009
1 / 2,232
4 / 17,340
Nanggroe Aceh Party
Partai Nanggroe Aceh
PNA Irwandi Yusuf 2011 2014
6 / 2,232
46 / 17,340

Extra-parliamentary parties

These political parties have no representation in either national or regional parliaments.

The term "partai gurem" (minor party, literally "tropical fowl mite party" referring to the small size) is commonly used by Indonesian media to refer to these political parties. The term initially referred to political parties that won a very small number of parliamentary seat, but after the 2004 election, to political parties that have no chance of surpassing the parliamentary threshold (currently 4%) necessary to gain representation on the People's Representative Council.[9] These political parties are often perceived to be lacking in organisational structure, their leaders seemingly interested solely in attracting media attention.[9]

These parties often have their attempts at registering for elections turned down by the KPU due to the parties' failure to satisfy registration criteria set by the commission, which includes completeness of party documents, a permanent physical party headquarters, minimum membership and minimum percentage of woman members.[10][11] Parties that had their registration rejected often resort to appealing their rejection to the BAWASLU, with varied success.[12]

Name[nb 1] Leader Established Contested
Republican Party
Partai Republik
Republik Suharno Prawiro 1998[13] 1999
Indonesian Bhinneka Party
Partai Bhinneka Indonesia
PBI Nurdin Purnomo 1998[nb 2][14] 1999
Reform Party
Partai Reformasi
Syamsahril Kamal 2000
National Unity Party
Partai Pemersatu Bangsa
PPB Eggi Sudjana 2001
Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan
Ibrahim Basrah 2006
Indonesian Green Party
Partai Hijau Indonesia
PHI Collective leadership 2012 [nb 3]
Republican Functional Party
Partai Karya Republik
Pakar Ari Sigit 2012
Indonesian People's Voice Party
Partai Swara Rakyat Indonesia
Parsindo M Jusuf Rizal 2013
People's Party
Partai Rakyat
Arvindo Noviar 2014
Indonesian People's Democracy Party
Partai Demokrasi Rakyat Indonesia
PDRI Ambarwati Santoso 2015[nb 4][15]
Indonesian People's Wave Party
Partai Gelombang Rakyat Indonesia
Gelora Anis Matta 2019 2024
Indonesian Sovereign Nation Party
Partai Negeri Daulat Indonesia
Pandai Farhat Abbas 2020
Masyumi Party
Partai Masyumi
Ahmad Yani 2020
Indonesian Sovereign Nation Party
Partai Negeri Daulat Indonesia
Pandai Farhat Abbas 2020
Nusantara Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Nusantara
PKN I Gede Pasek Suardika 2021[16] 2024
Labour Party
Partai Buruh
PB Said Iqbal 2021 2024
Ummah Party
Partai Ummat
Ummat Ridho Rahmadi 2021 2024
Just and Prosperous People's Party
Partai Rakyat Adil dan Makmur
Prima Agus Jabo Priyono 2021
National Scout Party
Partai Pandu Bangsa
PPB Widyanto Kurniawan 2021
Village Awakening Movement Party
Partai Pergerakan Kebangkitan Desa
Perkasa Eko Santjojo 2021[nb 5]
People's Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan Rakyat
PKR Tuntas Subagyo 2021
Indonesian Students Party
Partai Mahasiswa Indonesia
PMI Eko Pratama 2021
Awaken and United Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Bangkit Bersatu
Partai IBU Zulki Zulkifli Noor 2021
Partai Damai Sejahtera Pembaharuan
Prosperous Peace Party of Renewal
PDSP Hendrik RE Assa 2021[nb 6]
Indonesian People's Da'wah Party
Partai Dakwah Rakyat Indonesia
PDRI Farid Okbah 2021
Pelita Party
Partai Pelita
Beni Pramula 2022
National Peace and Love Party
Partai Damai Kasih Bangsa
PDKB Apri Hananto Sukandar 2022
Indonesian Republiku Party
Partai Republiku Indonesia
Republiku Ramses David Simandjuntak
One Republic Party
Partai Republik Satu
PRS D Yusad Siregar
Congress Party
Partai Kongres
Zakariani Santoso

Historical political parties

Political parties participating in 1955 and 1971 elections

Logo Name[17][18] Established Dissolved Contested elections
1955 1971
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Serikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1923
Nadhatul Ulama NU 1952[19] 1973
Still active as religious organisation
Indonesian National Party
Partai Nasional Indonesia
PNI 1946[20] 1973
Communist Party of Indonesia
Partai Komunis Indonesia
PKI 1929[21] 1966[22]
Islamic Education Movement
Pergerakan Tarbijah Islamijah
Perti 1930[23] 1973
Masyumi Party
Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia
Masyumi 1943[24] 1960[25]Banned
Revived in 2020[26]
Indonesian Christian Party
Partai Kristen Indonesia
Parkindo 1945[27] 1973
Catholic Party
Partai Katolik
1945 1973
Socialist Party of Indonesia
Partai Sosialis Indonesia
PSI 1945[27] 1960
Indonesian Marhaen People's Union
Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia
Permai 1945[27]
Popular Consultative Party
Partai Musyawarah Rakyat Banyak
Murba 1948 1973
Revived in 1998[28]
Labour Party
Partai Buruh
National People's Party
Partai Rakyat Nasional
PRN 1950
Indonesian People's Party
Partai Rakyat Indonesia
PRI 1950[29]
League of Supporters of Indonesian Independence
Ikatan Pendukung Kemerdekaan Indonesia
IPKI 1954[30] 1973
Revived in 1998[31]
Pancasila Defender Movement
Gerakan Pembela Pantja Sila
GPPS 1955
Police Employee Association of the Republic of Indonesia
Persatuan Pegawai Polisi Republik Indonesia
Indonesian Citizenship Consultative Assembly
Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia
Baperki 1954
Great Indonesia Unity Party
Partai Indonesia Raya
Indonesian Movement
Gerakan Indonesia
GI 1955
Dayak Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Dayak
PPD 1946 1959
Islamic Tharikah Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Tharikah Islam
Islamic Victory Force
Angkatan Kemenangan Umat Islam
Village People's Union
Persatuan Rakjat Desa
Party of the People of Free Indonesia
Partai Rakjat Indonesia Merdeka
Young Communist Force
Angkatan Communis Muda
Acoma 1952 1965
Muslim Party of Indonesia
Partai Muslimin Indonesia
Parmusi 1967[32] 1973

Political parties of the New Order

After his rise into power, President Suharto expressed his discontent regarding multiple political parties, arguing that the failure of Konstituante in 1955-1959 was caused by party deadlock - unacceptable his regime.[33] He proposed that existing political parties unite based on their ideological essence – either spiritual (religious) or materialist (secular nationalist) - in order to cripple the resulting umbrella parties with infighting. Political parties' reaction to Suharto's propositions was generally positive, with Islamic parties claiming that party fusion was in line with their last National Islamic Congress resolution agreed in 1969. A political alliance dubbed the "Democratic Development Group" was formed by the PNI, the IPKI, Parkindo, the Murba Party, and the Catholic Party to compete in 1971 election.[34]

After 1971 election, New Order regime reiterated its call for political parties to fuse, and a MPR ordinance regulating political parties grouping issued in 1973 further pressured political parties to merge.[35]

All Islamic political parties merged to form the United Development Party (PPP) on 5 January 1973, and the remaining nationalist and non-Islamic political parties united to form the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) on 10 January 1973.[35] Golkar, officially a "federation of public organisations" but effectively a political party, remained dominant for the entirety of the New Order.

The parties participated for the last time in the 1997 election, and the three-party system survived until the collapse of the New Order in 1998 Reformasi. Ensuing political liberalisation allowed establishment of multitudes of new political parties, with the number of political parties participating in 1999 election jumping substantially to 48 parties.

After the Reform, the PPP survived and continues to participate in all following elections after 1999, albeit with much of its membership having broken off from it and founded their own parties. Golkar too was made a proper party and exists to this day. The PDI failed to imitate the post-Suharto successes of the PPP and Golkar after the government intervened and unseated Chairman Megawati Soekarnoputri, causing PDI support to collapse in the 1997 election. PDI votes further eroded as support instead went to its breakaway Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P), led by Megawati in the post-Suharto 1999 election, resulting in the party winning only two seats in contrast to the PDI-P's 153 seats. After poor electoral performance and failure to register for the 2004 election, PDI rebranded itself as the Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (PPDI) in 2003.[36]

Logo Name Established Fate
Party of the Functional Groups
Partai Golongan Karya
Golkar 1964 Active
Indonesian Democratic Party
Partai Demokrasi Indonesia
PDI 1973[37] Disbanded in 2003
succeeded by PPDI[36]
United Development Party
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
PPP 1973[38] Active

Political parties in post-reform era

Name[39][40][41][42] Established Dissolved Contested elections
2004 2009
Labour Party
Partai Buruh
PB 1998
As "National Labour Party"[43]
Reformed into Labour Party
People's Democratic Party
Partai Rakyat Demokratik
PRD 1996[44] 2021
Merged to form Just and Prosperous People's Party
Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion
Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia
PKDI 1998 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Patriot Party
Partai Patriot
1998 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Ulema National Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama
PKNU 2000s 2022
Merged into People's Sovereignty Party (PKR)[46]
Archipelago Republic Party
Partai Republika Nusantara
RepublikaN 2001 2013
Merged into Hanura[47]
Prosperous Peace Party
Partai Damai Sejahtera
PDS 2001 2013
Merged into Hanura[47]
Pioneers' Party
Partai Pelopor
PP 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Reform Star Party
Partai Bintang Reformasi
PBR 2002 2011
Merged into Gerindra[48]
Regional Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Daerah
PPD 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Concern for the Nation Functional Party
Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa
PKPB 2002
Democratic Nationhood Party
Partai Demokrasi Kebangsaan
PDK 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Freedom Party
Partai Merdeka
PM 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Indonesian Unity Party
Partai Sarikat Indonesia
PSI 2002 2005
Merged into PAN[49]
Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party
Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia
PPNUI 2003
Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party
Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia
PPDI 2003 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Democratic Renewal Party
Partai Demokrasi Pembaruan
PDP 2005 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan
PK 2006 2013
Merged into Hanura[47]
National People's Concern Party
Partai Rakyat Peduli Nasional
PPRN 2006 2013
Merged into Hanura[47]
National Sun Party
Partai Matahari Bangsa
PMB 2006 2014[50]
Functional Party of Struggle
Partai Karya Perjuangan
Pakar Pangan 2007 2012
Merged into Democratic Party[51]
Indonesian Youth Party
Partai Pemuda Indonesia
PPI 2007 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
National Front Party
Partai Barisan Nasional
PBN 2007
Prosperous Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Sejahtera
PIS 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Peace and Safe Islamic Party
Partai Islam Damai Aman
Idaman 2015 2018
Merged into PAN[52]
Not yet established

Parties participating only in 1999 elections

Following political liberalisation after the collapse of the New Order regime in 1998 Reformasi, registration for new political parties jumped significantly. As the result, the following 1999 election had 48 political parties competing for DPR seats, compared to the previous 1997 election that saw only 2 political parties plus Golkar.

Several parties claimed inheritance from former political parties existing prior to the New Order era, resulting in parties sharing similar political party names, with faction names as the only characteristics that made those parties distinct from each other. Example on this case was on claimants to the heritage of the former Indonesian National Party (PNI) and Masyumi Party.[53]

Most of the parties failed to gain even a single seat due to lack of votes. After the new electoral law authorised the use of a parliamentary threshold to determine the division of DPR seats, those parties were forced to reorganise themselves in order to be able to register for the next 2004 election.[54]

Below is the list of political parties participating only in the 1999 election which failed to participate in the next 2004 election.

Name Established
Aceh Orphans' Foundation Party
Partai Abul Yatama
PAY 1999[55]
All-Indonesia Workers' Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia
PSPSI 1998[56]
Democratic Catholic Party
Partai Katolik Demokrat
PKD 1998[57]
Democratic Islamic Party
Partai Islam Demokrat
PID 1998[58]
Democratic National Party
Partai Nasional Demokrat
PND 1998[59]
Familial Consultative Party of Mutual Assistance
Partai Musyawarah Kekeluargaan Gotong Royong
MKGR 1998[60]
Indonesian Democratic Alliance Party
Partai Aliansi Demokrat Indonesia
PADI 1998[61]
Indonesian Democratic Union Party
Partai Uni Demokrasi Indonesia
PUDI 1996[62]
Indonesian Islamic Political Party "Masyumi"
Partai Politik Islam Indonesia "Masyumi"
1998[53][nb 7]
Indonesian Islamic Ummah Party
Partai Umat Muslimin Indonesia
PUMI 1998[63]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1998[64][nb 8]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party - 1905
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia - 1905
PSII 1905 1998[65][nb 8]
Indonesian Muslim Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Muslim Indonesia
KAMI 1998[66]
Indonesian National Christian Party
Partai Kristen Nasional Indonesia
Krisna 1998[67]
Indonesian National Party – Marhaenist Front
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Front Marhaenis
PNI–Front Marhaenis 1999[68][nb 9]
Indonesian National Party – Marhaen Masses
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Massa Marhaen
PNI–Massa Marhaen 1998[69][nb 9]
Indonesian National Party - Supeni
Partai Nasional Indonesia - Supeni
PNI–Supeni 1995[70][nb 9]
Indonesian National Union Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Uni Nasional Indonesia
SUNI 1998[71]
Indonesian People's Party
Partai Rakyat Indonesia
Pari 1998[72]
Indonesian Workers' Party
Partai Pekerja Indonesia
PPI 1998[73]
Islamic Ummah Party
Partai Ummat Islam
PUI 1998[74]
Love and Peace Party
Partai Cinta Damai
PCD 1998[75]
National Freedom Party
Partai Kebangsaan Merdeka
PKM 1998[76]
National Love Democratic Party
Partai Demokrasi Kasih Bangsa
PDKB 1998[77]
National Party of the Indonesian Nation
Partai Nasional Bangsa Indonesia
PNBI 1998[78]
New Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Baru
PIB 1999[79]
New Masyumi Party
Partai Masyumi Baru
People's Choice Party
Partai Pilihan Rakyat
Pilar 1998[81]
People's Sovereignty Party
Partai Daulat Rakyat
PDR 1999[82]
Justice Party
Partai Keadilan
PK 1998
United Party
Partai Persatuan
PP 1999[83]
Ummah Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Umat
PKU 1998[84]
Workers' Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Pekerja
PSP 1999[85]

Pre-independence organisations

Name Established Dissolved Notes
Budi Utomo
Prime Philosophy
1908 1935 First native political movement on the Dutch East Indies; its founding initiated the Indonesian National Awakening.
Chung Hwa Hui
Chinese Association
CHH 1928 1942 Advocated Chinese rights in the Dutch East Indies.
Partai Indonesia Raya
Great Indonesian Party
Parindra 1935 1939
Indies Social Democratic Association
Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging
ISDV 1914 1924 Forerunner of the Communist Party of Indonesia.
Indische Partij
Indies Party
IP 1912 1913
Indo Europeesch Verbond
Indo-European Alliance
IEV 1919 1962 Advocated Indo people rights in the Dutch East Indies and after the independence of Indonesia.
Partai Nasional Indonesia
Indonesian National Party
PNI 1927 1931 Advocated Indonesian independence.
Insulinde 1907 1919
Partai Tionghoa Indonesia
Indonesian Chinese Party
PTI 1932 1942 Advocated closer ties between Chinese and native Indonesians.
Partai Indonesia
Indonesian Party
Partindo 1931 1936 Advocated Indonesian independence.
Persatuan Arab Indonesia
Arab-Indonesian Union
PAI 1934 Advocated Indonesian allegiance to Arab-Indonesians.[86]
Sarekat Islam
Islamic Union
SI 1905 Active as religious organisation Founded as a trade union, reformed as a political movement after the Indonesian National Awakening.


Name Established Dissolved Notes
Partai Kemerdekaan Indonesia Irian
Indonesian Irian Independence Party
PKII 1946 1962 Founded in Netherlands New Guinea, advocated integration of Western New Guinea into Indonesia.

See also


  • Feith, Herbert (2007) The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3780-45-2
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4480-5


  1. Political parties registered at the KPU RI Political Party Registration System (SIPOL) for the 2024 general elections.
  2. As "Indonesian Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Party"
  3. Not seeking registration for 2024 general elections
  4. Reformed from Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (PPDI)
  5. Reformed from Pioneers' Party
  6. Reformed from Prosperous Peace Party
  7. Claimed inheritance from the original Masyumi
  8. Claimed inheritance from the original PSII
  9. Claimed inheritance from the original PNI


  1. "UU 2 tahun 2008 tentang Partai Politik | Jogloabang". Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  2. "Undang-undang No. 2 Tahun 2008 tentang Partai Politik" (PDF), People's Representative Council (in Indonesian), 4 January 2008, archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2015
  3. Dimas Hutomo (3 January 2019), Pendaftaran Partai Politik untuk Menjadi Badan Hukum (in Indonesian),
  4. Putra Ananda (27 September 2017), Ini 10 Syarat Partai Politik Peserta Pemilu 2019 (in Indonesian), Media Indonesia
  5. Moh. Nadlir (25 December 2017), Tidak Lolos Administrasi, 7 Parpol Bisa Ajukan Gugatan ke Bawaslu RI (in Indonesian),
  6. Muhtadi, Burhanuddin; et al. (24 April 2018), Mapping the Indonesian political spectrum,
  7. Suprapto (18 April 2019). "UPDATE TERBARU: 9 Parpol Lolos Ambang Batas Parlemen dan 7 Parpol Tak Lolos Parliamentary Threshold" (in Indonesian).
  8. Warsidi, Adi (9 April 2019). "Mengenal Partai Lokal di Pemilu 2019, dari Eks GAM sampai Santri" (in Indonesian). "Acehkini" on
  9. Petrik Matanasi (25 January 2017). "Nasib Suram Partai Gurem dalam Sejarah Politik Tanah Air" (in Indonesian).
  10. "Inilah Daftar 13 Partai Gagal Penuhi Syarat Berkas" (in Indonesian). Media Indonesia. 19 October 2017.
  11. Putra Ananda (27 September 2017). "Ini 10 Syarat Partai Politik Peserta Pemilu 2019" (in Indonesian). Media Indonesia.
  12. Ramadhan Rizki Saputra (8 March 2018). "Bawaslu Tolak Gugatan Tiga Parpol untuk Jadi Peserta Pemilu" (in Indonesian). CNN Indonesia.
  14. "KOMPAS-44: Partai Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Indonesia (PBI)".
  15. Wiryono, Singgih (6 August 202). Maullana, Irfan (ed.). "PDRI, Partai Pecahan PDI Resmi Mendaftar sebagai Calon Peserta Pemilu 2024". (in Indonesian).
  16. Rochman, Fathur (1 November 2021). Bagas Ramadhan, Azhar (ed.). "Partai Kebangkitan Nusantara Resmi Didaftarkan ke Kemenkumham". (in Indonesian).
  17. "Pemilu 1955". 30 September 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  18. "Pemilu 1971". 20 June 2003. Archived from the original on 20 June 2003.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  19. "Nahdlatul Ulama Didirikan untuk Membendung Puritanisme Agama". 31 January 2018.
  20. Rocamora, J. Eliseo (October 1970). "The Partai Nasional Indonesia, 1963 - 1965" (PDF). Indonesia. Cornell Modern Indonesia Project. 10 (10): 143. doi:10.2307/3350638. hdl:1813/53493. JSTOR 3350638. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2020.
  21. "Aidit: Lahirnya PKI dan Perkembangannya (1955)".
  22. Media, Kompas Cyber. "12 Maret 1966, Soeharto Bubarkan PKI -".
  23. "Tarbiyah Perti Menyelesaikan Munas dan Muktamar Islah".
  24. Ricklefs (1991) p194
  25. Hutari, Fandy. "Saat Masyumi Bubar". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  26. ID, Republika. "Masyumi Reborn | Republika ID". Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  27. Seri Ips SEJARAH. Yudhistira Ghalia Indonesia. ISBN 9789797468026 via Google Books.
  28. "KOMPAS-31: Partai Musyawarah Rakyat Banyak (Murba)".
  29. "Kisah Partai Pohon Kelapa".
  30. Feith (2007) p405
  32. "Sejarah Persaudaraan Muslimin Indonesia (PARMUSI)". 29 January 2015.
  33. Fadillah, Ramadhian (15 October 2019). "Ini Penyebab Cuma Boleh Ada 3 Partai Politik di Era Presiden Soeharto" (in Indonesian).
  34. Abdulsalam, Husein (10 January 2019). "Cara Soeharto Menciptakan Partai Demokrasi Indonesia" (in Indonesian).
  35. Ardanareswari, Indira (13 April 2019). "Sejarah Pemilu 1977: Taktik Fusi Parpol ala Soeharto & Orde Baru" (in Indonesian).
  36. Bambang Setiawan & Bestian Nainggolan (Eds) (2004) Partai-Partai Politik Indonesia: Ideologi dan Program 2004-2009 (Indonesian Political Parties: Ideologies and Programs 2004-2009) Kompas ISBN 979-709-121-X. p213
  37. Ujianto, Catur. "Profil Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (PDIP) - Pemilu Presiden 2014 ANTARA News".
  38. "PPP - Partai Persatuan Pembangunan". Archived from the original on 2 December 2016.
  39. "Pemilu 1999". 20 June 2003. Archived from the original on 20 June 2003.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  40. "Komisi Pemilihan". 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 6 April 2005.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  41. Media, Kompas Cyber. "Inilah Hasil Akhir Perolehan Suara Nasional Pemilu -".
  42. Media, Kompas Cyber. "Disahkan KPU, Ini Perolehan Suara Pemilu Legislatif 2014 -".
  43. "KOMPAS-37: Partai Buruh Nasional (PBN)".
  44. "Tentang PRD". PRD.
  45. Ajeng Ritzki Pitakasari (14 April 2011). "Tersingkir di Pemilu 2009, Sepuluh Partai Dirikan Partai Persatuan Nasional (Sidelined from the election, 10 parties establish the National Unity Party)". (in Indonesian). Republika online. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  46. Putu Indah Savitri (15 June 2022). "PKNU melebur ke dalam Partai Kedaulatan Rakyat" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  47. Dian Maharani (14 April 2011). "Sepuluh Parpol Tak Lolos Verifikasi Gabung ke Hanura (Ten Paties that Failed the Verification Join Hanura)" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  48. "Bintang Reformasi melebur ke Gerindra". Berita Satu. 18 February 2011.
  49. (6 April 2005). "PSI Masuk PAN (PSI Joins PAN)". (in Indonesian). Tempo online. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  50. "Amien Rais Mau Bikin Partai Baru, Mumtaz Rais: Kalau Mati Malu-maluin". (in Indonesian). 31 March 2020.
  51. Anang Purwanto (31 August 2011). "Pakar Pangan resmi berbaju Demokrat (Pakar Pangan officially joins the Democrat [Party])". Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  52. Abi Sarwanto (12 May 2018). "Partai Idaman Gabung PAN, Zulkifli Sebut Rhoma Tetap Ketum" (in Indonesian). CNN Indonesia.
  54. "Partai-partai Mulai Berganti Nama" (in Indonesian). 25 July 2003.
  56. "KOMPAS-23/Deplu 42: Partai Solidaritas Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia (PSPSI)".
  58. "KOMPAS-29: Partai Islam Demokrat (PID)".
  59. "KOMPAS-46: Partai Nasional Demokrat (PND)".
  60. "KOMPAS-38:Partai Musyawarah Kekeluaargaan Gotong Royong (Partai MKGR)".
  62. "KOMPAS-36:Partai Uni Demokrasi Indonesia (PUDI)".
  63. "KOMPAS-47: Partai Ummat Muslimin Indonesia (PUMI)".
  66. "KOMPAS -5: Partai Kebangkitan Muslim Indonesia (Kami)".
  69. "KOMPAS-29: Partai Nasional Indonesia - Massa Marhaen (PNI-MASSA MARHAEN)".
  70. "KOMPAS - 3 - Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI-SUPENI)".
  71. "KOMPAS-45: Partai Solidaritas Uni Nasional Indonesia (SUNI)".
  73. "KOMPAS-48: Partai Pekerja Indonesia".
  75. "KOMPAS-40: Partai Cinta Damai".
  78. "KOMPAS-43: Partai Nasional Bangsa Indonesia (PNRI)".
  79. "KOMPAS - 1 - Partai Indonesia Baru (PIB)".
  80. Henry, Patricia. "Kompas-8: Partai Masyumi Baru".
  82. "KOMPAS-39: Partai Daulat Rakyat".
  83. "KOMPAS-34: Partai Persatuan (PP)".
  85. "KOMPAS-42/Deplu 23: Partai Solidaritas Pekerja (PSP)".
  86. Kahin, Audrey (2015). Historical Dictionary of Indonesia (3 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 724. ISBN 978-0-810874565.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.