Hadhrami people

The Hadhrami (Arabic: حضرمي, romanized: ḥaḍramī, singular) or Hadharem (Arabic: حضارم, romanized: ḥaḍāram, plural) are an Arab ethnic group indigenous to the Hadhramaut region in South Arabia around Eastern Yemen, western Oman, and southern Saudi Arabia and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic, an Arabic dialect with heavy influence from the extinct South Semitic Hadramautic language.

Hadhrami people
الحضارم
Hadramaut Region in Yemen
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Hadhrami Arabic, Swahili (Kenya), Somali (Somalia).
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Arabs, other Afro-Asiatic people
Flag proposed by the 'Hadhrami League' in May 2013 to represent Hadramawt Region as part of the federalization of Yemen.

Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are about 1,300 distinct tribes.

History and diaspora

The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition that predates Semitic cultures, the Semitic Hadramites diaspora was historically the Mofarite & Gurage mercantile Semitic pioneers in East Africa, Hadramite influence was later over shadowed by the rise of the temple of the Moon governing Sabaean Semites that saw the concentration of power switch to a governing ruling class. With Governing pressure in the South Semitic regions Hadhrami seamen navigated in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the some part around the Horn of Africa, to the Swahili Coast to the Malabar Coast and Hyderabad in South India, Sri Lanka to Maritime Southeast Asia.[1] They were involved in many places as organizers of the Haj.

There are Hadharem communities in western Yemen and in the trading ports of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. The money changers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia have usually been of Hadhrami origin.[2]

Hadhrami East Africans

South Semitic Kingdom of Hadramawt in 400 BC

The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the African Horn region (Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia). Descendants of Hadhramis make up a notable part of the Harari population. Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province of Somalia, in particular.[3] During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somali towns.[4] They were also frequently recruited into the armies of the Somali Sultanates.[5]

Some Hadhrami communities also reportedly exist in Mozambique, Comoros, and Madagascar.[6]

Hadhrami Jews

The vast majority of the Hadhrami Jews now live in Israel.[7]

Language

The Hadhrami speak Hadhrami Arabic, a variety of Arabic, while the diaspora populations that have acculturated mainly speak the local language of the region they live in.

Diaspora communities

Hadhrami immigrants in Surabaya (Indonesia), 1920

Hadhrami people

Swahili Coast

  • Awadh Saleh Sherman, Kenya, businessman
  • Najib Balala, Kenya, Minister of Tourism
  • Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi, President of Comoros
  • Habib Salih, Lamu, Kenya, religious scholar
  • Khadija Abdalla Bajaber, Mombasa, Kenya, poet and novelist
  • Mohamed Saleh Bawazir, businessman and philanthropist
  • Taiba Ali Bajaber, former Mayor Mombasa

North Africa

  • Artega tribe, Babkeer, Sudan

Horn of Africa

Indonesia

  • Abdurrahman Baswedan, Journalist
  • Abdurrahman Shihab, Academican and Politician
  • Najwa Shihab, Journalist and tv presenter
  • Abu Bakar Bashir, founder of Jamaah Islamiyah
  • Ali Alatas, former Foreign Minister
  • Alwi Shihab, former Foreign Minister, special envoy to Middle East and OIC[11]
  • Anies Baswedan, scholar, former Education Minister, Governor of Jakarta (2017-)
  • Nadiem Anwar Makarim, Minister of Education and Culture
  • Fadel Muhammad al-Haddar, former Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
  • Fuad Hassan, Minister of Education and Culture
  • Hamid Algadri, a figure in Indonesian National Revolution and member of parliament
  • Sultan Hamid II, Pontianak Sultanate
  • Habib Abdoe'r Rahman Alzahier, religious leader
  • Habib Ali al-Habshi of Kwitang, religious leader
  • Habib Munzir Al-Musawa, Islamic cleric
  • Habib Rizieq Shihab, founder of FPI
  • Habib Usman bin Yahya, Mufti of Batavia
  • Jafar Umar Thalib, founder of Laskar Jihad
  • Sultan Badaruddin II, Sultan of Palembang
  • Munir Said Thalib Al-Kathiri, human rights activist
  • Nuruddin ar-Raniri, Islamic scholar
  • Quraish Shihab, Islamic scholar
  • Raden Saleh, Artist/painter
  • Said Naum, a philanthropist
  • Sayyid Abdullah Al-Aidarus, religious leader
  • Andi Soraya, Actress
  • Ahmad Albar, Musician

East Timor

Malaysia

Singapore

  • Alsagoff family
  • Syed Abdul Rahman Alsagoff, merchant
  • Syed Mohamed Alsagoff, military leader
  • Syed Sharif Omar bin Ali Al Junied, merchant and namesake of Aljunied Road[12]

South Asia

  • General El Edroos
  • Shaik Salman Bin Abdul Jabbar Bawazeer, A.C Guards, Hyderabad, India
  • Sulaiman Areeb, Hyderabad, India, poet
  • Awaz Sayeed, Hyderabad, India, Urdu writer and poet
  • Ahmed Abdullah Masdoosi, Pakistan
  • Nuruddin ar-Raniri, Islamic scholar
  • Shah Jalal, Bangladesh, Sufi saint
  • Shah Paran, Bangladesh, Sufi saint
  • Subhani ba Yunus, Pakistan, actor
  • Bin Gursain Family hyderabad,India.
  • Abdul rahman Ballesharam alsharam al nomani hyderabad india.
  • Abubaker bin salam bahardan hyderabad india.

Qatar

  • Bawazir family
  • Bayazid family
  • Bin Hilabi family
  • Bahantoush Al-Kindi family
  • Belgaith family
  • Bakhamees family
  • Al Attas family
  • Al Kathiri family
  • Al Baharoon family
  • Bin Shahbal family

Saudi Arabia

Yemen

  • Mohammed A. Al-Hadhrami, the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Yemen and other people from North Yemen are not Hadhrami. On the other hand Al-Hadhrami tribe in South Yemen are descendants of the Yafai Hadhrami tribes that were part of the Quaiti Kingdom
  • Waleed salam Bills wad Bin Hilabi
  • Abd Al-Rahman Ali Al-Jifri, politician
  • Abdulaziz Al-Saqqaf, human-rights activist
  • Faisal Bin Shamlan, politician
  • Habib Ali al-Jifri, Islamic scholar
  • Habib Umar bin Hafiz, Islamic scholar
  • Habib Abdullah bin Alwi al-Haddad, Sufi saint
  • Imam Muhammad al-Faqih Muqaddam, founder of Ba'alawi Sufi order
  • Sayyid Abu Bakr Al-Aidarus (saint)
  • Syed Alwi Jamalullail, wali

See also

References

  1. Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim: Genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520244535. OCLC 123768411.
  2. Seznec, Jean-François (1987). The financial markets of the Arabian Gulf. Croom Helm. ISBN 9780709954040. OCLC 18558231.
  3. Cassanelli, Lee V. (1973). The Benaadir Past: Essays in Southern Somali History. University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 24.
  4. Gavin, R. J. (1975). Aden under British rule, 1839–1967. London, UK: Hurst. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-903983-14-3.
  5. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1993). Somalia: A country study (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: The Division. pp. 10. ISBN 9780844407753. LCCN 93016246. OCLC 27642849.
  6. Le Guennec, Francoise (1997). "Changing Patterns of Hadrahmi Migration and Social Integration in East Africa". In Freitag, Ulrike; Clarence-Smith, William G. (eds.). Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s. BRILL. p. 165. ISBN 978-9004107717.
  7. Katz, Joseph. "The Jewish Kingdoms of Arabia". www.eretzyisroel.org. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  8. "WWW Virtual Library: From where did the Moors come?". www.lankalibrary.com. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  9. Khalidi, Omar (1996). "The Arabs of Hadramawt in Hyderabad". In Kulkarni; Naeem; De Souza (eds.). Mediaeval Deccan History. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-8-1715-4579-7.
  10. Wink, André (1991). Al-hind: The Making of the Indo-islamic World. Brill. p. 68. ISBN 978-9-0040-9249-5.
  11. "IDBG President Receives Indonesia's Special Envoy". Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  12. "Arab trader's role in Singapore landmark". The Straits Times. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016.

Further reading

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