Questions tagged [analysis]

Mathematical analysis. Consider a more specific tag instead: (real-analysis), (complex-analysis), (functional-analysis), (fourier-analysis), (measure-theory), (calculus-of-variations), etc. For data analysis, use (data-analysis).

Mathematical analysis is the rigorous version of calculus. In fact, it investigates the theorems in calculus with enough care and deals with them more deeply, trying to generalize the ideas in calculus. You can consider a more specific tag instead: , , , , , , etc. For data analysis, use .

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On the Constant Rank Theorem and the Frobenius Theorem for differential equations.

Recently I was reading chapter $4$ (p. $60$) of The Implicit Function Theorem: History, Theorem, and Applications (By Steven George Krantz, Harold R. Parks) on proof's of the equivalence of the Implicit Function Theorem (finite-dimensional vector…
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Factorial and exponential dual identities

There are two identities that have a seemingly dual correspondence: $$e^x = \sum_{n\ge0} {x^n\over n!}$$ and $$n! = \int_0^{\infty} {x^n\over e^x}\ dx.$$ Is there anything to this comparison? (I vaguely remember a generating function/integration…
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Pointwise vs. Uniform Convergence

This is a pretty basic question. I just don't understand the definition of uniform convergence. Here are my given definitions for pointwise and uniform convergence: Pointwise convergence: Let $X$ be a set, and let $F$ be the real or complex numbers.…
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How to evaluate $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{-\mathfrak{i}a}}{x^2+bx+1} \,\mathrm{d}x$ using complex analysis?

We were told today by our teacher (I suppose to scare us) that in certain schools for physics in Soviet Russia there was as an entry examination the following integral given $$\int\limits_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{-\mathfrak{i}a}}{x^2+bx+1}…
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Why are gauge integrals not more popular?

A recent answer reminded me of the gauge integral, which you can read about here. It seems like the gauge integral is more general than the Lebesgue integral, e.g. if a function is Lebesgue integrable, it is gauge integrable. (EDIT - as Qiaochu Yuan…
Chris Brooks
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A continuous, nowhere differentiable but invertible function?

I am aware of a few example of continuous, nowhere differentiable functions. The most famous is perhaps the Weierstrass functions $$W(t)=\sum_k^{\infty} a^k\cos\left(b^k t\right)$$ but there are other examples, like the van der Waerden functions, or…
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Proof of $\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 \mathrm dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$

I am looking for a short proof that $$\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 \mathrm dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$$ What do you think? It is kind of amazing that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{x} \mathrm dx$$ is also $\frac{\pi}{2}.$ Many proofs of this…
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Why is the construction of the real numbers important?

There are a lot of books, specially in Real Analysis and set theory, which define the real numbers by Cauchy sequences or Dedekind cuts. So my question is why don't we simply define the Real numbers as a complete ordered field? What's the importance…
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What is integration by parts, really?

Integration by parts comes up a lot - for instance, it appears in the definition of a weak derivative / distributional derivative, or as a tool that one can use to turn information about higher derivatives of a function into information about an…
Elle Najt
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The Intuition behind l'Hopitals Rule

I understand perfectly well how to apply l'Hopital's rule, and how to prove it, but I've never grokked the theorem. Why is it that we should expect that $$\lim_{x\to a}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}=\lim_{x \to a}\frac{f'(x)}{g'(x)},$$ but only when specific…
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Does every Cauchy sequence converge to *something*, just possibly in a different space?

Question. If I attempt to prove that space $X$ is complete by pursuing the strategy, “Assume $x_n \rightarrow x$; the space $X$ is complete if $x \in X$,” then why is that wrong? Context. I know the definition of Cauchy sequences and convergent…
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Why is $\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=\sqrt{\pi}$?

It seems as if no one has asked this here before, unless I don't know how to search. The Gamma function is $$ \Gamma(\alpha)=\int_0^\infty x^{\alpha-1} e^{-x}\,dx. $$ Why is $$ \Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=\sqrt{\pi}\text{ ?} $$ (I'll post my own…
Michael Hardy
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Let, $A\subset\mathbb{R}^2$. Show that $A$ can contain at most one point $p$ such that $A$ is isometric to $A \setminus \{p\}$.

A challenge problem from Sally's Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis. Problem reads: Suppose $A$ is a subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Show that $A$ can contain at most one point $p$ such that $A$ is isometric to $A \setminus \{p\}$ with the usual…
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Continuity and the Axiom of Choice

In my introductory Analysis course, we learned two definitions of continuity. $(1)$ A function $f:E \to \mathbb{C}$ is continuous at $a$ if every sequence $(z_n) \in E$ such that $z_n \to a$ satisfies $f(z_n) \to f(a)$. $(2)$ A function $f:E \to…
John Gowers
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What is the limit of $n \sin (2 \pi \cdot e \cdot n!)$ as $n$ goes to infinity?

I tried and got this $$e=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{1}{k!}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}$$ $$n!\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}=\frac{n!}{0!}+\frac{n!}{1!}+\cdots+\frac{n!}{n!}=m$$ where $m$ is an integer. $$\lim_{n\to\infty}n\sin(2\pi…