Questions tagged [complex-analysis]

For questions mainly about theory of complex analytic/holomorphic functions of one complex variable. Use [tag:complex-numbers] instead for questions about complex numbers. Use [tag:several-complex-variables] instead for questions about holomorphic functions of more than one complex variables.

Complex analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of one or several complex variables. Typical topics include Cauchy's integral formula, singularities, poles, holomorphic and meromorphic functions, Laurent and Taylor series, maximum modulus principle, isolated zeros principle, etc.

Independent variable and dependent variable of complex functions are both complex numbers, and may be separated into real (denoted by $\Re$) and imaginary parts (denoted by $\Im$) : $z = x +iy$ and $w = f(z) =u(x,y)+iv(x,y)$ where $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$, $u(x,y)$ and $v(x,y)$ being real-valued functions.

A fundamental result of complex analysis is the Cauchy-Riemann equations, which give the conditions for a function to have a complex derivative, which is a complex generalization of the (real) derivative. If the complex derivative is defined at each point in an open connected subset of $\mathbb C$, the function is called analytic, or holomorphic. If the complex derivative is defined at each point in $\mathbb C$, the function is called entire.

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"The Egg:" Bizarre behavior of the roots of a family of polynomials.

In this MO post, I ran into the following family of polynomials: $$f_n(x)=\sum_{m=0}^{n}\prod_{k=0}^{m-1}\frac{x^n-x^k}{x^m-x^k}.$$ In the context of the post, $x$ was a prime number, and $f_n(x)$ counted the number of subspaces of an…
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Why does $1+2+3+\cdots = -\frac{1}{12}$?

$\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s) > 1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ give the right answer?
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Evaluating the integral $\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x} x \,\mathrm dx = \frac \pi 2$?

A famous exercise which one encounters while doing Complex Analysis (Residue theory) is to prove that the given integral: $$\int\limits_0^\infty \frac{\sin x} x \,\mathrm dx = \frac \pi 2$$ Well, can anyone prove this without using Residue theory? …
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The Integral that Stumped Feynman?

In "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!," Nobel-prize winning Physicist Richard Feynman said that he challenged his colleagues to give him an integral that they could evaluate with only complex methods that he could not do with real…
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What do modern-day analysts actually do?

In an abstract algebra class, one learns about groups, rings, and fields, and (perhaps naively) conceives of a modern-day algebraist as someone who studies these sorts of structures. One learns about the classification of finite simple groups, and…
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What is a good complex analysis textbook, barring Ahlfors's?

I'm out of college, and trying to self-learn complex analysis. I'm finding Ahlfors' text difficult. Any recommendations? I'm probably at an intermediate sophistication level for an undergrad. (Bonus points if the text has a section on the Riemann…
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How to prove Euler's formula: $e^{i\varphi}=\cos(\varphi) +i\sin(\varphi)$?

Could you provide a proof of Euler's formula: $e^{i\varphi}=\cos(\varphi) +i\sin(\varphi)$?
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What is the Riemann-Zeta function?

In laymen's terms, as much as possible: What is the Riemann-Zeta function, and why does it come up so often with relation to prime numbers?
17 answers

Nice proofs of $\zeta(4) = \frac{\pi^4}{90}$?

I know some nice ways to prove that $\zeta(2) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^2} = \pi^2/6$. For example, see Robin Chapman's list or the answers to the question "Different methods to compute $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^2}$?" Are there any…
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$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{-x^2} dx$ with complex analysis

Inspired by this recently closed question, I'm curious whether there's a way to do the Gaussian integral using techniques in complex analysis such as contour integrals. I am aware of the calculation using polar coordinates and have seen other…
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Intuitive explanation of Cauchy's Integral Formula in Complex Analysis

There is a theorem that states that if $f$ is analytic in a domain $D$, and the closed disc {$ z:|z-\alpha|\leq r$} contained in $D$, and $C$ denotes the disc's boundary followed in the positive direction, then for every $z$ in the disc we can…
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How to evaluate $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{-\mathfrak{i}a}}{x^2+bx+1} \,\mathrm{d}x$ using complex analysis?

We were told today by our teacher (I suppose to scare us) that in certain schools for physics in Soviet Russia there was as an entry examination the following integral given $$\int\limits_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{-\mathfrak{i}a}}{x^2+bx+1}…
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What's the difference between $\mathbb{R}^2$ and the complex plane?

I haven't taken any complex analysis course yet, but now I have this question that relates to it. Let's have a look at a very simple example. Suppose $x,y$ and $z$ are the Cartesian coordinates and we have a function $z=f(x,y)=\cos(x)+\sin(y)$.…
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How to prove that $\frac{\zeta(2) }{2}+\frac{\zeta (4)}{2^3}+\frac{\zeta (6)}{2^5}+\frac{\zeta (8)}{2^7}+\cdots=1$?

How can one prove this identity? $$\frac{\zeta(2) }{2}+\frac{\zeta (4)}{2^3}+\frac{\zeta (6)}{2^5}+\frac{\zeta (8)}{2^7}+\cdots=1$$ There is a formula for $\zeta$ values at even integers, but it involves Bernoulli numbers; simply plugging it in…
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Terence Tao–type books in other fields?

I have looked at Tao's book on Measure Theory, and they are perhaps the best math books I have ever seen. Besides the extremely clear and motivated presentation, the main feature of the book is that there is no big list of exercises at the end of…
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