Vegetarianism by country

Vegetarian and vegan dietary practices vary among countries. Differences include food standards, laws, and general cultural attitudes toward vegetarian diets.

A vegetarian thali from Rajasthan, India. Indian cuisine offers a wide variety of vegetarian delicacies.
Buddhist-influenced Korean vegetarian side dishes

In some instances, vegetarians that choose to abstain from dairy may be labeled as vegan. However, veganism typically refers to abstaining from any act that may directly or indirectly injure any sentient being.[1]

The concept of vegetarianism to indicate 'vegetarian diet' is first mentioned by the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras of Samos around 500 BCE. Followers of several religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism also advocated vegetarianism, and believed that humans should not inflict pain on other animals.[2]

Some countries have strong cultural or religious traditions that promote vegetarianism, such as India, while other countries have secular ethical concerns, including animal rights, environmental protection, and health concerns. In many countries, food labeling laws make it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets.[3]

In January 2022, Google revealed that searches for "vegan food near me" have dramatically increased in 2021 and attributed it to "breakthrough status", meaning it increased by 5,000 percent or more indicating the rising popularity of vegan diets.[4][5]


Vegetarians by country
Vegans by country

The percentages in the following table estimates prevalence of dietary vegetarianism and dietary veganism. The distinction is important between dietary vegans and other vegans. Dietary vegans may use leather or other non-food animal products, while other vegans (sometimes called lifestyle or ethical vegans) use no animal products of any type.[6][7]

CountryVegetarians (% of population)[note 1] Approx. no. of individuals Data set year Vegans (% of population) Approx. no. of individuals Data set year Note
 Australia12.1%2,500,0002018[9] 2% 518,000 2020[10]
 Austria11%993,0002022[11] 2% 180,000 2022[11]
 Belgium7%800,0002018[12] 1% 110,000 2018[13]
 Brazil14%29,260,0002018[14] 3% 6,330,660 2018[14][15] Vegan percentage derived from vegan and vegetarian respondents only,[15] due to access bias, and calculated on top of IBOPE's survey[14]
 Canada7.6%2,888,0002020[16] 4.6% 1,768,000 2020[16]
 China4–5%50,000,000 – 70,000,0002013[18] 2014[19]
 Colombia4%2,000,0002016[20] 2% 1,000,000 2016[20]
 Czech Republic 5% 500,000 2019[21] 1% 100,000 2019[21]
 Denmark10%580,0002020[22] 4% 230,000 2020[22]
 Estonia6%80,0002020[22] 1% 11,000 2020[22]
 Finland12%660,0002021[23] 2% 120,000 2021[23]
 France5.2%[note 2]3,400,0002018[24][25] 1.1% 726,000 2018[24]
 Germany10%8,300,0002021[26] 2% 1,660,000 2021[26]
 Greece4%400,0002022[27] 2% 200,000 2022[27]
 Hungary5%450,0002022[28] 1% 90,000 2022[28]
 India20–39% 276,000,0002019–2020[29][30][31]


9% 121,500,000 2021[33][34] There are various estimates of the percentage of vegetarians in India, (see § India, below)
 Ireland4.3–8.4% 153,500 2018[35][36] 2.0–4.1% 146,500 2018[35][37]
 Israel13%1,046,0002015[38] 5% 421,000 2014[38][39]
 Italy8.9% 5,340,0002020[40] 2.2% 1,326,600 2020[40]
 Jamaica 10% 280,000 2015[41] Most of these vegetarians are Rastafarians
 Japan9%11,160,0002019[42] 2.7% 3,500,000 2016[43]
 Latvia 5% 95,000 2020[22] 1% 19,000 2020[22]
 Lithuania 6% 166,000 2020[22] 1% 27,000 2020[22]
 Mexico19%23,750,0002016[44] 9% 11,250,000 2016[44]
 Netherlands 5% 850,000


1% 150,000 2020[46]
 New Zealand10%500,0002019[47]
 Norway9%485,0002020[22] 4% 215,000 2020[22]
 Philippines5%5,000,0002014[48] 2% 2,000,000 2014
 Poland8.4%2,500,0002017[49] 7% 2,688,000 2016[50] Survey conducted by marketing research firm Mintel. No rough data or method shown; these statistics are based on a report Plant Powered Perspectives which is not publicly available
 Portugal1.2%120,0002017[51] 0.6% 60,000 2018[52] Survey conducted by marketing research firm Nielsen Holdings
 Singapore 7% 380,000 2020[54]
 Slovenia 1.4–1.6% 28,922 – 33,054 2007/2008[55] 0.3–0.5% 6,197 – 10,329 2007/2008[55]
 South Korea3%1,500,0002017[56]
 Spain1.4%664,0002021[57] 0.8% 380,000 2021[57]
 Sweden12%1,248,0002020[22] 4% 415,000 2020[22]
 Switzerland5%425,0002020[58] 1% 85,000 2020[58]

2015[59] 2016[60] 2017[61] 2019[62]


2015[59] 2016[60]

 Ukraine5.2% 2,000,000 2017[63]
 United Kingdom10% 6,220,000 2021[64] 2% 1,344,000 2021[64]
 United States5% 16,000,000 2018[65] 3% 7,588,000 2018[65]
 Vietnam 10%9,000,0002011[66]


According to a Nielsen survey, the Africa/Middle East region (of which Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, United Arab Emirates were surveyed), has 16% vegetarians and 6% vegans, making it the second-most vegetarian region after Asia.[67]


Vegan dishes are commonplace in Ethiopian cuisine due to mandates by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Egyptian Coptic Christianity that require weekly fasting days (fasting in this context is abstaining from all meat products).[68][69]

As the majority of the population of Mauritius is Hindu, vegetarianism is common and vegetarian cuisine is widely available in restaurants.[70]


Countries in North Africa have a tradition of cooking in a vegetarian style, with Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Tunisia being particularly connected with this type of cooking which includes couscous and spiced vegetables.[71]


Hindu and Jain immigrants from India brought vegetarianism with them. This trend has been documented as far back as 1895 in Natal Province.[72]


Of five world regions, the Asia-Pacific region has the highest share of vegetarians (19%) and vegans (9%).[67]


In China, a small but growing number of young people is getting to become vegan in the large cities.[18] An estimated 4 to 5 percent of Chinese are vegetarian.[18]

Chinese folk religion, which is distinct from Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, and New Religious Movements is similar to Shintoism in Japan insofar as while the killing and eating of animals is not forbidden, it is considered impure and not ideal for practicing. Tofu, soy milk, and seitan, which are popular among vegetarians in the world, originated in China.

Classical Chinese texts pointed to a period of abstinence from meat before undertaking matters of great importance or of religious significance. People typically abstain from meat periodically, particularly the day before Chinese New Year. Although it is more common among adherents of Chinese folk religions, many secular people also do this.

Vinaya which is mentioning about the importance of veganism

Ancient China was once known for having profound veganism in its food culture. Its widespread vegetarianism originally comes from the Buddhist code (Vinaya) transferred from ancient India which valued not killing animals.[73] With the influx of Buddhist influences, vegetarianism became more popular, but there is a distinction—Taoist vegetarianism is based on a perception of purity, while Buddhist vegetarianism is based on the dual bases of refraining from killing and subduing one's own subservience to the senses. Because of this, two types of "vegetarianism" came to be—one where one refrained from eating meat, the other being refraining from eating meat as well as garlic, onions, and other such strongly flavored foods. This Buddhism-influenced vegetarianism has been known and practiced by some since at least the 7th century. People who are Buddhist may also avoid eating eggs.

The early 20th century saw some intellectuals espousing vegetarianism as part of their program for reforming China culturally, not just politically. The anarchist thinker Li Shizeng, for instance, argued that tofu and soy products were healthier and could be a profitable export. Liang Shuming, a philosopher and reform activist, adopted a basically vegetarian diet, but did not promote one for others. In recent years, it has seen a resurgence in the cities among the emerging middle class.[74]


In Japan, it was considered normal to have meat in daily diet. But after Buddhism arrived to the country, the emperor at that time made a law in 675 AC to restrict people from eating cows, horses, dogs, monkeys and chickens.[75] This change is assumed to be a contributor to the spread of 精進料理 (Shôjin Ryôri), a type of meals that is still eaten at contemporary Buddhist temples.[75]

Even though shôjin ryôrii is often assumed the same as vegetarian, it has its roots in religion, and the word shôjin ryôrii refers to the different ways of cooking and table manners that differ by religious branches, not only it being vegetarian meals.[75] Some of the differences between vegetarian foods and shôjin ryôrii is that the usage of onions, garlics, or herbs and vegetables that have strong smells is avoided in addition to the avoidance of meat, and this is because consumption of those foods is believed to prevent one from focusing in Buddhist practices.[75]

精進料理(Shôjin Ryôri) served in a temple in Kyoto

South Korea

According to The Food and Beverage News, vegetarianism grew from over 7,000 in 2015 to nearly 30,000 in 2019, and many converted due to health reasons. Some of the popular reasons for changing their diet are ethical concerns, environmental protection concerns, and to lose weight. [76]

A study by the Korean Agro-Fisheries and Food Trade Corporation found that from a study of 5,510 respondents, 418 people followed a diet that refrained from eating meat. From the statistic, 79.7% of them identified as flexitarians (those who eat meat rarely), 11% of them identified as pollotarians and pescatarians  (those who still eat poultry but no other meats, and those who still eat fish but no meats), and 6% of them are vegetarians. [77]

With the addition of Beyond Meat and other plant-based meat alternatives hit the shelves of the world. Lotte Mart, a Korean grocery store, noticed the growth in the popularity of meat alternatives. They then produced an alternative to meat called Gogi Dasein, which translates to “instead of meat.” [78]


A vegetarian buffet restaurant in Taipei, Taiwan

There are more than 6,000 vegetarian eating establishments in Taiwan.[79] The country's food labelling laws for vegetarian food are the world's strictest, because it has been estimated that more than 3 million Taiwanese people eat vegetarian food, which accounts for approximately 13% of the national population.[80][81] A popular movement of "one day vegetarian every week" has been advocated on a national level.[82] Also, on a local level, even government bodies are involved, such as the Taipei City Board of Education.[83] Vegetarian food can be found in meals served on the Taiwan High Speed Rail, Taiwan Railways Administration, major Taiwanese airlines, as well as highway stops.


Vegetarianism in ancient India
Throughout the whole country the people do not kill any living creature, nor drink intoxicating liquor, nor eat onions or garlic. The only exception is that of the Chandalas. That is the name for those who are (held to be) wicked men, and live apart from others. ... In that country they do not keep pigs and fowls, and do not sell live cattle; in the markets there are no butchers’ shops and no dealers in intoxicating drink. In buying and selling commodities they use cowries. Only the Chandalas are fishermen and hunters, and sell flesh meat.

Faxian, Chinese pilgrim to India (4th/5th century CE), A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (translated by James Legge)[84][85]

Prevalence of vegetarianism

In 2007, UN FAO statistics indicated that Indians had the lowest rate of meat consumption in the world.[86] Some vegetarians in India have been demanding meat-free supermarkets.[87] In Indian cuisine, vegetarianism is usually synonymous with lacto vegetarianism. Most restaurants in India clearly distinguish themselves as being either "non-vegetarian", "vegetarian", or "pure vegetarian" or "Jain vegetarian" depending upon location, chef/staff, ingredients used and items served. With non-vegetarian and vegetarian being self-explanatory, pure vegetarian refers to hotels run by vegetarian staff, owners subscribing to lacto-vegetarianism including avoidance of indirect animal ingredients like rennet, collagen[88] while Jain vegetarian refers to food subscribing to Jain standards. Some restaurants cater to Eggetarians who are lacto-ovo-vegetarians.[89][90][91][92] Vegetarian restaurants abound, and many vegetarian options are usually available.

Animal-based ingredients (other than milk and honey) such as lard, gelatin, and meat stock are not used in their traditional cuisine. India has devised a system of marking edible products made from only vegetarian ingredients, with a green dot in a square with a green outline. A new mark of a red triangle in a square with a red outline conveys that some animal-based ingredients (meat, egg, etc.) were used, since 2021. Earlier a mark of a red circle in a square with a red outline used to be used. This was replaced due to issues faced by people with colour blindness in distinguishing between the marks. Products like honey, milk, or its direct derivatives are categorized under the green mark.[93][94]

Vegetarian mark: Mandatory labeling in India to distinguish vegetarian products from non-vegetarian products

It is noted that, in states where vegetarianism is more common, milk consumption is higher and is associated with lactase persistence. This allows people to continue consuming milk into adulthood and obtain proteins that are substituted for meat, fish and eggs in other areas.[95][96]

Connection of vegetarianism and Hinduism

Vegetarianism and Hinduism share a deep connection with each other. Hinduism regards eight-six transmigration for a soul to rise devil to a cow, which is a sacred animal in Hinduism, and one more migration the soul becomes a human form. However, people can easily get back to changing their forms of a cow if they fail to free their desires. Cow worship and vegetarianism both result in the idea of transmigration and rebirth in Hinduism. In addition, Hinduism believes that the soul has no beginning and an end, but it is a perpetual cycle through endless rebirth and deaths until the soul can reach the Brahman, the One God. However, only people can attain this status who disconnect from any worldly objects and become free of all cravings and desires. From this aspect of Hinduism, vegetarianism was naturally and smoothly rooted in the cultural cuisine and modest vegetarian diet in India.[97]

CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey, 2008

According to a 2006 Hindu-CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey, 31% of Indians are vegetarian, while another 9% also consume eggs (ovo-vegetarian).[98] Among the various communities, vegetarianism was most common among the Swaminarayan community, Brahmins, Arya Samaj community, Lingayats, Vaishnavites, Jains, Sikhs and, less frequent among Muslims (3%) and residents of coastal states. However, other surveys cited by FAO[99] and USDA[100][101] estimate 40% of the Indian population as being vegetarian. These surveys indicate that even Indians who do eat meat, do so infrequently, with less than 30% consuming it regularly, although the reasons are mainly cultural.[101]

Economic and Political Weekly, 2018

Vegetarianism and social status in modern India

The term non-vegetarian is a good case in point.
It signals the social power of vegetarian classes,
including their power to classify foods, to create
a 'food hierarchy' wherein vegetarian food is the
default and is having a higher status than meat.
Thus it is akin to the term 'non-whites' coined by
'whites' to capture an incredibly diverse population
who they colonised.

—Balmurli Natrajan, anthropologist, and
Suraj Jacob, economist, 2018[31]

A 2018 study from Economic and Political Weekly by US-based anthropologist Balmurli Natrajan and India-based economist Suraj Jacob suggests that these numbers could be inflated by social reluctance to admit to meat consumption and estimates that the percentage of vegetarians is likely closer to 20% than 30% overall, with the percentage varying by household income and caste.[102][103][104] The study argues that meat-eating behavior is underreported because consumption of meat, especially beef, is "caught in cultural, political, and group identity struggles in India".[102]

According to a 2018 survey released by the registrar general of India, Rajasthan (74.9%), Haryana (69.25%), Punjab (66.75%), and Gujarat (60.95%) have the highest percentage of vegetarians, followed by Madhya Pradesh (50.6%), Uttar Pradesh (47.1%), Maharashtra (40.2%), Delhi (39.5%), Uttarakhand (27.35%), Karnataka (21.1%), Assam (20.6%), Chhattisgarh (17.95%), Bihar (7.55%), Jharkhand (3.25%), Kerala (3.0%), Odisha (2.65%), Tamil Nadu (2.35%), Andhra Pradesh (1.75%), West Bengal (1.4%), and Telangana (1.3%).[105]

Various studies conducted by the Government of India

An official survey conducted by the Government of India, with a sample size of 8858 and the census frame as 2011, indicated India's vegetarian population to be 28–29% of the total population.[106] Compared to a similar survey done in 2004, India's vegetarian population has increased,[107] although according to conflicting data from the National Family Health Survey in 2015–2016 (NFHS), the share of vegetarianism has declined compared to data from 2005 to 2006.[108] Increases in meat consumption in India have been attributed to urbanisation, increasing disposable income, consumerism and cross-cultural influences.[109]

In 2022, the National Health and Family Survey (NHFS) released its fifth survey results (2019–2021) which reiterated the hypothesis of a sizeable section of nutrition scholars that the number of Indians who are non-vegetarian has been increasing steadily.[110] It also found significant gender disparities in the consumption of solely vegetarian food.

Pew Research Center, 2021

In 2021, Pew Research Center released the results of a survey of over 29,999 Indians throughout the country which included questions on dietary preferences. According to this study, around 39% of the overall Indian population identifies as vegetarian (the survey did not specify a type of vegetarianism and left the definition of the term up to the respondent).[30] In terms of religion, Jains were found to be the most vegetarian at 92%, followed by Sikhs (59%), Hindus (44%), Buddhists (25%), Christians (10%), and finally Muslims (8%).[30] Among Hindus, however, there are wide regional variations with regard to the percentage of people identifying as vegetarian, with 71% of North Indian Hindus identifying as vegetarian, followed by 61% of Central Indians, 57% of West Indians, 30% of South Indians, 19% of Northeast Indians, and 18% of East Indians identifying as vegetarian.[30] There are also caste differences in rates of vegetarianism, with 40% of lower caste Hindus identifying as vegetarian compared to 53% for general category Hindus.[30] Hindus who considered religion very important in their lives identified as vegetarian 46% of the time compared to 33% for those who said it was less important.[30]


A vegetarian restaurant in Johor, Malaysia

Vegetarian diets are categorized as lacto vegetarianism, ovo-lacto vegetarianism, and veganism in general. The reasons for being vegetarian include influence from friends and family members, concern about global warming, health issues and weight management, religion and mercy for animals, in descending order of significance.[111]


Rice, mushrooms, vegetables are some of the dietary staples, mixed with a rich variety of spices, coconut, lime and tamarind. Buddhist Chinese monastics are vegetarians or vegans. Singapore is also the headquarters of the world's first international, vegetarian, fast food chain, VeganBurg.[112] The bigger communities of vegetarians and vegans in Singapore are Vegetarian Society (VSS) and SgVeganCommunity. Vegetarian and vegan places have an active role in the gastronomy of Singapore.


There are more than 908 vegetarian eating establishments in Thailand.


A study by the Israeli Ministry of Health in 2001 found that 7.2% of men and 9.8% of women were vegetarian. Although vegetarianism is quite common, the actual percentage of vegetarians in Israel may be lower—the Israeli food industry estimated it at 5%.[113] In 2010, one study found that 2.6% of Israelis were vegetarians or vegans.[114]

According to a 2015 poll by the newspaper Globes and Channel 2, 8% of the Israeli population were vegetarians and 5% were vegans. 13% consider turning vegan or vegetarian. Tel Aviv beat out Berlin, New York and Chennai as U.S. food website The Daily Meal's top destination for vegan travelers.[114][115]

Jewish vegan and vegetarian population has contributed to promotion of meat-free and animal-product-free cultures within Israel through various platforms.[116]

Some argue that the practicing and learning Judaism would lead a person to adopt vegetarianism or veganism.[117]


The definition of vegetarianism throughout Europe is not uniform, creating the potential for products to be labelled inaccurately.[3] Throughout Europe the use of non-vegetarian ingredients are found in products such as beer (isinglass among others), wine (gelatine and crustacean shells among others) and cheese (rennet).


Since May 2009, Belgium has had the first city in the world (Ghent) with a weekly "veggie day".[118]

A study that surveyed 2,436 Belgian individuals found that "21.8% of the respondents believed that meat consumption is unhealthy, and 45.6% of the respondents believed that they should eat less meat." The major reasons persons expressed interest in a more plant-based diet was for taste and health-related reasons. The majority of vegetarians polled think that the meat industry is harmful to the planet, while more than half of the non-vegetarians surveyed disagree with this statement.[119]


In some cities' schools in Finland, the students are offered two options, a vegetarian and a non-vegetarian meal, on four school days a week, and one day a week they have a choice between two vegetarian meals, for grades 1 to 12. In secondary schools and universities, from 10 to 40 percent of the students preferred vegetarian food in 2013.[120][121] Vegetarianism is most popular in secondary art schools where in some schools over half of the students were vegetarians in 2013.[122]


In France lunches at public schools must contain a "minimum of 20% of meals containing meat and 20% containing fish, and the remainder containing egg, cheese, or offal. However, under a law called "loi Egalim", which passed in 2018 and came into effect in November 2019, all French schools are required to serve at least one meat-free meal a week. In September 2020, 73% of French nurseries and elementary schools offer at least one meat-free meal a week, according to a recent investigation by Greenpeace.[123][124]

An Appetite study found that French women were more accepting of vegetarianism than French men.[125]

There has been conflict between vegans and farmers in southern France. A farmers' union known as "Coordination Rurale" advocated for the French to continue eating meat through the slogan "To save a peasant farmer, eat a vegan."[126]


In 1889, the first "International Veg Congress" met in Cologne, Germany.

In 2016, Germany was found to have the highest percentage of vegetarians (7.8 million, 10%) and vegans (900,000, 1.1%) in the modern West. A survey from "Forsa" also revealed that approximately 42 million people in Germany identify as flexitarians aka "part time vegetarians". Professionals at the German Official Agencies estimate that by 2020 over 20% of Germans will eat mostly vegetarian. The reason vegetarianism is so prevalent in Germany is not agreed upon, but the movement seems to have experienced much growth from promotion in media and the offering of more non-meat options.[127]


The recorded history of vegetarianism in the country began with the Hungarian Vegetarian Society (HVS), formed in 1883. During this time, vegetarianism was popular because New Age ideas and counter belief systems were favored. In 1911, the first Hungarian vegetarian restaurant opened up in Vámház körút. In the 1950s, the HVS ceased operations and vegetarianism in popular culture diminished. Hungarian vegetarianism was later revived in 1989 with the fall of socialism. The "Ahimsa Hungarian Vegetarian Society of Veszprém" was founded in the late 90s.[128]


According to Iceland Monitor in 2016, Iceland had more vegetarian restaurants registered on HappyCow per capita than any other country in Europe.[129]


While meat and dairy products have traditionally featured prominently Irish diet, vegetarianism and veganism have experienced rapid growth in recent decades. In 2018, a study by Bord Bia, a state agency which seeks to support and promote the country's agriculture industry, found that as many as 5.1% of the Irish population are now vegetarian, and up to 3.5% are vegan.[130] A further 10% were described as some form of flexitarian, meaning that they still consumed some meat and dairy products but sought to minimize the amount of animal products in their diet. Participants identified a range of motivators for their dietary choices, but personal health and wellness and environmental concerns were among the most common factors cited.[130]


It was reported in 2006 that sales of meat substitutes had an annual growth of around 25%, which made it one of the fastest-growing markets in the Netherlands.[131] In supermarkets and stores, it is sometimes necessary to read the fine print on products in order to make sure that there are no animal-originated ingredients. Increasingly, however, vegetarian products are labeled with the international "V-label", overseen by the Dutch vegetarian association Vegetarisch Keurmerk.[132]

In a late 2019 study published by the environmental organization Stichting Natuur en Milieu ("Stichting Nature and Environment"), 59% of Dutch adults (age 16 and up) described themselves as a "meat eater" while 37% responded that they were flexitarians. 43% of respondents claimed that they ate less meat than they did four years earlier. Furthermore, almost half (47%) agreed with or agreed strongly with the statement that eating meat is an outdated practice. In their surveys, 2% identified as vegetarian, 2% as pescetarian and <1% as vegan.[133]

In a March 2020 factsheet published by the Nederlandse Vegetariërsbond ("Dutch Union of Vegetarians"), calculations were made to document the different types of vegetarians. 4–6% of Dutch people (an average of about 860,000) reported they never ate meat. Of this number, 2% called themselves "vegetarian" while some 1% labeled themselves as vegan. The remaining 1–3% was pescetarian.[134]

In July 2020 the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme estimated the number of vegans in the Netherlands at 150,000. That is approximately 0.9% of the Dutch population.[135]


The capital of Poland, Warsaw, was listed 6th on the list of Top Vegan Cities in the World published by HappyCow in 2019.[136]


In 2007, the number of vegetarians in Portugal was estimated at 30,000; which is equal to less than 0.3% of the population. In 2014, the number was estimated to be 200,000 people.[137] Vegan and vegetarian products like soy milk, soy yogurts, rice milk and tofu are widely available in major retailers, and sold across the country. According to HappyCow, Lisbon is the 6th city in the world for number of vegan restaurants per capita, more than any other European city.[138]


Followers of the Romanian Orthodox Church keep fasts during several periods in the ecclesiastical calendar amounting to a majority of the year. In the Romanian Orthodox tradition, devotees keep to a diet without any animal products during these times. As a result, vegan foods are abundant in stores and restaurants; however, Romanians may not be familiar with a vegan or vegetarian diet as a full-time lifestyle choice.[139]


Vegetarianism in Russia first gained prominence in 1901 with the opening of the first vegetarian society in St. Petersburg. Vegetarianism began to largely grow after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Russian vegetarians were found to be mainly those who were wealthy and educated.[140]


The number of restaurants and food stores catering exclusively, or partially, to vegetarians and vegans has more than doubled since 2011; with a total of 800 on record by the end of 2016, The Green Revolution claims.[141]


According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Switzerland has the second highest rate of vegetarianism in the European Union (though in fact Switzerland is not in the EU). Older governmental data from 1997 suggest that 2.3% of the population never eat meat and the observed trend seemed to point towards less meat consumption.[142] Newer studies suggest that the percentage of vegetarians has risen to 5% by 2007.[142] According to a 2020 survey by Swissveg, there were 5.1% vegetarians and 1% vegans.[58]

United Kingdom

The Vegetarian Society was formed in Britain in 1847. In 1944, a faction split from the group to form The Vegan Society.[143]

A 2018 study by found that approximately 7% of British people were vegan, while 14% were vegetarian.[144] The results of this study however are questioned by the UK Vegan Society who found that the sample was based on only 2,000 people.[145] According to The Vegan Society's larger survey, the number of vegans quadrupled from 2014 to 2018; in 2018 there were approximately 600,000 vegans in the UK, equivalent to 1.16% of the British population as a whole. As well as this, 31% are eating less meat—either for health or ethical reasons, and 19% are eating fewer dairy products.

A 2021 YouGov survey found 8% of respondents said they followed a plant-based diet, and over a third are interested in becoming vegan.[64]

Participation in Veganuary has become increasingly popular, with the number of people signing up rising each year.

North America


In Canada, vegetarianism is on the rise. A 2018 survey conducted by Dalhousie University researcher Sylvain Charlebois found that 9.4% of Canadian adults considered themselves either vegetarian or vegan. This included 2.3 million vegetarians (7.1% of Canada's population), up from 900,000 15 years prior, and 850,000 vegans (2.3% of Canada's population). As the majority of Canada's vegetarians are under 35, the rate of vegetarianism is expected to continue to rise.[146][147]

United States

In 1971, 1% of U.S. citizens described themselves as vegetarians. In 2009 Harris Interactive found that 3.4% are vegetarian and 0.8% vegan.[148] U.S. vegetarian food sales (dairy replacements such as soy milk and meat replacements such as textured vegetable protein) doubled between 1998 and 2003, reaching $1.6 billion in 2003.[149] In 2015, a Harris Poll National Survey of 2,017 adults aged 18 and over found that eight million Americans, or 3.4%, ate a solely vegetarian diet, and that one million, or 0.4%, ate a strictly vegan diet.[150] A 2018 Gallup poll estimated that 5% of U.S. adults consider themselves to be vegetarians.[151][152] Older Americans were less likely to be vegetarian with just 2% of adults aged 55 and older saying they follow a vegetarian diet.[151] Younger generations of Americans are more likely to be vegetarian with 7% of 35- to 54-year-olds and 8% of 18- to 34-year-olds following a vegetarian diet.[151]

Many American children whose parents follow vegetarian diets follow them because of religious, environmental or other reasons.[153] In the government's first estimate[153] of how many children avoid meat, the number is about 1 in 200.[154][155] The CDC survey included children ages 0 to 17 years.

By U.S. law, food packaging is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and generally must be labeled with a list of all its ingredients.[156][157] However, there are exceptions. For example, certain trace ingredients that are "ingredients of ingredients" do not need to be listed.[158]



In Australia, some manufacturers who target the vegetarian market label their foods with the statement "suitable for vegetarians"; however, for foods intended for export to the UK, this labelling can be inconsistent because flavourings in ingredients lists do not need to specify if they come from animal origin. As such, "natural flavour" could be derived from either plant or animal sources.

Animal rights organisations such as Animal Liberation promote vegan and vegetarian diets. "Vegetarian Week" runs from 1–7 October every year,[159] and food companies are taking advantage of the growing number of vegetarians by producing meat-free alternatives of popular dishes, including sausages and mash and spaghetti Bolognese.[160]

A 2000 Newspoll survey (commissioned by Sanitarium) shows 44% of Australians report eating at least one meat-free evening meal a week, while 18% said they prefer plant-based meals.

New Zealand

Similar to Australia, in New Zealand the term "vegetarian" refers to individuals who eat no animal meat such as pork, chicken, and fish; they may consume animal products such as milk and eggs. In contrast, the term "vegan" is used to describe those who do not eat or use any by-products of animals.[161] In 2002 New Zealand's vegetarians made up a minority of 1–2% of the country's 4.5 million people.[162] By 2011 Roy Morgan Research claimed the number of New Zealanders eating an "all or almost all" vegetarian diet to be 8.1%, growing to 10.3% in 2015 (with men providing the most growth, up 63% from 5.7% to 9.3%).[163] In New Zealand there is a strong enough movement for vegetarianism that it has created significant enough demand for a number of vegetarian and vegan retailers to set up.[164]

As New Zealand and Australia work together to form common food standards (as seen in the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code), there is also a lot of ambiguity surrounding the "natural flavour" ingredients.[165]

Latin America

According to a Nielsen survey on food preferences from 2016, vegetarians make up 8% and vegans 4% of the population across Latin America, with the highest numbers of both in Mexico.[166]


In 2004, Marly Winckler, President of the Brazilian Vegetarian Society, claimed that 5% of the population was vegetarian.[167] According to a 2012 survey undertaken by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics, 8% of the population, or 15.2 million people, identified themselves as vegetarian.[168] The city of São Paulo had the most vegetarians in absolute terms (792,120 people), while Fortaleza had the highest percentage, at 14% of the total population.[169] A new survey undertaken by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics in 2018 showed that the proportion of the population identifying as vegetarian grew to 14% (a 75% increase relative to 2012), representing 29 million people.[170] According to the New York Times,[171] the number of vegetarians in Brazil, the world's largest meat exporter, has nearly doubled in just six years.

Marly Winckler claims that the central reasons for the deforestation of the Amazon are expansive livestock raising (mainly cattle) and soybean crops, most of it for use as animal feed, and a minor percentage for edible oil processing (being direct human consumption for use as food nearly negligible),[172] claims that are widely known to have a basis.[173][174][175][176]

Vegetarianismo (Portuguese pronunciation: [veʒiˌtaɾjɐ̃ˈnizmu]) is usually synonymous with lacto-ovo-vegetarianism, and vegetarians are sometimes wrongly assumed to be pescetarians and/or pollotarians who tolerate the flesh of fish or poultry, respectively. Nevertheless, veganism, and freeganism, have now become mainstream in the country, being present in nearly every family.[177] Brazilian vegetarians reportedly tend to be urban, of middle or upper class[167] and live in the Central-Southern half of the country. Since the 1990s, and especially since the 2010s, hundreds of vegan and vegetarian restaurants have appeared in the major cities of the country.[178]


In Argentina, it is estimated that around 1% to 2% of the population practice vegetarianism.[179]

See also


  1. Includes pescetarians and vegans, unless otherwise stated
  2. Includes vegans, but excludes pescetarians


  1. Saini, Anshul (13 December 2021). Veganism: Applications on Food Choices, Morals, Health, Environment, and Economy. IndraStra Whitepapers. ISBN 9798781686629.
  2. "A Brief History of Veganism". Time. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  3. "Guidance on vegetarian and vegan labelling". UK Government Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  4. Starostinetskaya, Anna. "Google Searches for "Vegan Food Near Me" Spike by More than 5,000 Percent in 2021". Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  5. ""Vegan Food Near Me": Breakthrough Google Search Spikes 5,000 Percent in 2021". Green Queen. 6 January 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  6. Joshua Frye; Michael S. Bruner (2012). The rhetoric of food : discourse, materiality, and power. New York. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-136-28699-5. OCLC 813005346. A vegetarian is a person who abstains from eating NHA [non-human animal] flesh of any kind. A vegan goes further, abstaining from eating anything made from NHA. Thus, a vegan does not consume eggs and dairy foods. Going beyond dietary veganism, 'lifestyle' vegans also refrain from using leather, wool or any NHA-derived ingredient.
  7. Francione, Gary Lawrence; Garner, Robert (2010). "The Abolition of Animal Exploitation". The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition Or Regulation? (Paperback). Critical Perspectives on Animals: Theory, Culture, Science, and Law. New York: Columbia University Press (published 26 October 2010). ISBN 9780231149556. OCLC 705765194. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. Although veganism may represent a matter of diet or lifestyle for some, ethical veganism is a profound moral and political commitment to abolition on the individual level and extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or using of animal products.
  8. "¿Cuántos Veganos y vegetarianos hay en Argentina?". (in Spanish). 5 November 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  9. "Surge in Aussies eating vegetarian continues". October 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  10. "Vegan FAQ". Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  11. "Statistiken zu Vegetarismus und Veganismus in Österreich". Statista (in German). 17 June 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  12. "Bijna helft van de Belgen eet minder vlees dan een jaar geleden". (in Dutch). 13 February 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  13. "Share of vegans and vegetarians in Belgium in 2018, by region". February 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  14. "IBOPE 2018: Pesquisa do IBOPE aponta crescimento histórico no número de vegetarianos no Brasil". IBOPE/Sociedade Brasileira Vegetariana. May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  15. "Mapa Veg – Censo Vegetariano e Vegano Brasileiro: Estatísticas". Mapa Veg (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  16. Cudmore, Dale (24 July 2021). "How Many Vegans Are There in Canada? [2020 Survey]". Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  17. "Un 6% de la población chilena es vegetariana". (in Spanish). 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  18. Magistad, Mary Kay. Public Radio International, 27 June 2013, "Vegan lunch: Going meatless in Beijing". Accessed 26 January 2014.
  19. "Chinese vegetarian: China's vegetarian population touches 50 million: Report - Times of India". The Times of India.
  20. "EL 14% De los Colombianos es flexitariano, vegano o vegetariano". lavozdeyopal (in Spanish). 29 May 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  21. "Bezmasou stravu preferuje desetina mladých". Ipsos (in Czech). 19 April 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  22. Motrøen, Mads (2020). "The Orkla Sustainable Life Barometer" (PDF). Orkla. p. 41.
  23. "The Orkla Sustainable Life Barometer (Finnish Edition)" (PDF). 2021. p. 38. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  24. "Combien de végétariens en Europe ?" (PDF). France AgriMer. 2019. p. 12. Les réponses ont été collectées du 30 juillet au 10 août 2018
  25. "Combien de végétariens en Europe ?" (PDF). France AgriMer. p. 4. Cette étude se focalise sur 4 courants principaux, définis de manière suivante (y compris dans le questionnaire administré dans l'enquête quantitative online) : - végétarien - abstention de la viande, du poisson, mais consommation des œufs, du fromage, du lait ;
  26. "Anzahl der Veganer und Vegetarier in Deutschlandforsa-Umfrage zum "BMEL-Ernährungsreport 2021, Deutschland, wie es isst"". BMEL (in German). p. 24. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  27. "ΙΕΛΚΑ: Οι πέντε διατροφικές τάσεις του καταναλωτή του μέλλοντος". (in Greek). 3 January 2022. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  28. "Csabai: The current state of vegetarianism in Hungary, its possible effects on the agricultural structure and the food system" (PDF). 5 July 2022. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  29. population aged 15-49 years
  30. "Views of religion and food in India". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 29 June 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  31. Natrajan, Balmurli; Jacob, Suraj (2018). "'Provincialising' Vegetarianism Putting Indian Food Habits in Their Place". Economic and Political Weekly. Sameeksha Trust. 53 (9): 54–64.
  32. "Share of vegetarians worldwide by select country 2021". Statista. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  33. "Share of vegans worldwide by select country 2021". Statista. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  34. cycles, This text provides general information Statista assumes no liability for the information given being complete or correct Due to varying update; Text, Statistics Can Display More up-to-Date Data Than Referenced in the. "Topic: Veganism and vegetarianism worldwide". Statista. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  35. "The Irish food board wants to know how to 'win back' vegetarians and vegans".
  36. "Bord Bia report dietary lifestyles" (PDF). Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  37. "Bord Bia report dietary lifestyles" (PDF). Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  38. "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan". 21 July 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  39. טלשיר, רחל (17 September 2014). גדל מספר הצמחונים – אבל מהסוג הגמיש. הארץ (in Hebrew). Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  40. "Eurispes 2020, aumentano i vegani: mai un dato così alto". (in Italian). 30 January 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  41. "3 of the Best Countries for Vegetarians". 21 October 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  42. "Vegetarians in Japan". 10 October 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  43. "日本と世界のヴィーガン率・ベジタリアン率" (in Japanese). 9 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  44. "8 de cada 10 mexicanos afirma seguir algún tipo de dieta restrictiva". NielsenIQ (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  45. "Hoeveel vegetariërs zijn er?". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  46. "Hoeveel veganisten zijn er?". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  47. "The rise of vegetarians: 1 in 10 New Zealanders mostly, or completely, meat-free". 12 February 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  48. "Vegan communities growing, along with research on health benefits". The Manilla Times. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  49. Sosin; Motylińska; Otrębski (2019). "Podsumowanie badań opinii publicznej odnośnie postaw konsumenckich Polaków wobec produktów i dań roślinnych" (PDF). RoślinnieJemy. p. 9. Dane zebrane wśród ankietowanych odzwierciedlają tendencje widoczne w badaniu Mintel z czwartego kwartału 2017 roku (...) że całą Polskę zamieszkuje obecnie ok. 2,5 mln wegetarian i wegan. (...) 8,4% dorosłych Polaków i Polek, w ciągu miesiąca poprzedzającego badanie, było na diecie wegetariańskiej (6,6%) lub wegańskiej (1,8%), a kolejne 3,8% ograniczyło spożycie produktów mięsnych do ryb.
  50. "Mintel: Diety roślinne jednym z wiodących światowych trendów 2017 roku". Retrieved 7 July 2018.; based on "Power to the Plants: the rise of plant-based eating". Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  51. "120 000 vegetarianos – Número quadruplica em 10 anos". Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  52. "Number of vegetarians in Portugal rises by 400 percent in 10 years". Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  53. "1% of people in Russia are vegetarians". 29 August 2018.
  54. "The future is flexitarian". YouGov. 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  55. Gabrijelčič Blenkuš; et al. (2009). Prehrambene navade odraslih prebivalcev Slovenije z vidika varovanja zdravja (in Slovenian). Ljubljana, Slovenia: Inštitut za varovanje zdravja Republike Slovenije. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-961-253-042-6.
  56. "[Weekender] Korea turns corner on going meat-free". The Korea Herald. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  57. "El número de veganos, vegetarianos y flexitarianos crece 65 % en 4 años en España". (in Spanish). 29 September 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  58. "Veggie survey 2020". Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  59. "From radical to trendy for Mainers living without meat". 14 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  60. "The New Vegan Movement in Taiwan". 20 June 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  61. "Countries with the Highest Rates of Vegetarianism". Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  62. "Meatless Dining – for Religion or Lifestyle". 8 January 2019.
  63. "Vegetarian? Try out these places in Kyiv". Kyiv Post. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  64. "Dietary choices of Brits (e.g. vegeterian, flexitarian, meat-eater etc)?". YouGov. 30 December 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  65. "Snapshot: Few Americans Vegetarian or Vegan". Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  66. "ĂN CHAY – XU HƯỚNG MỚI CỦA LỐI SỐNG HIỆN ĐẠI (PHẦN 1)". (in Vietnamese). 26 January 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  67. "What's in our food and on our mind" (PDF). Nielsen. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  68. "The vegetable will set you free – embracing vegetarianism and flexitarianism in Africa". Mail & Guardian Africa. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  69. "The best countries to be vegetarian". The Guardian. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  70. "Vegan Restaurants in Mauritius". Restaurants.MU. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  71. "The Vegetarian Table: North Africa". Global Gourmet. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  72. "A Band of Vegetarian Missionaries". International Vegetarian Union. The Vegetarian (London). Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  73. GREENE, ERIC M. (2016). "A Reassessment of the Early History of Chinese Buddhist Vegetarianism". Asia Major. 29 (1): 1–43. ISSN 0004-4482. JSTOR 44873386.
  74. "Vegetarianism now a popular diet". China Daily. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  75. 尚之, 柳原 (2021). "日本料理における精進料理について". 日本調理科学会誌. 54 (1): 66–69. doi:10.11402/cookeryscience.54.66.
  76. Gibson, Jenna. "More and More South Koreans Are Going Vegetarian". Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  77. Ju-hee, Ahn (14 March 2022). "Only 0.2% of Koreans avoid meat, vegans even rarer, study finds". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  78. "Beyond Meat's plant-based patty becomes hit in S. Korea - Pulse by Maeil Business News Korea". (in Korean). Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  79. Blogger: Aanmelden om te lezen. Retrieved on 6 January 2011.
  80. Taiwan to enact world's strictest law on veggie food labeling|Earth Times News. (8 June 2009). Retrieved on 6 January 2011.
  81. Taiwan’s Vegetarian Population Exceeds 3 Million, and Taipei is Vegetarian-Friendly City|Merxwire. Retrieved on 3 January 2021.
  82. 台灣周一無肉日 救己救地球 – 日常保健 – 中時健康網 – 健康萬花筒 Archived 10 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 6 January 2011.
  83. 台湾教育部提倡学校每周一素!. Retrieved on 6 January 2011.
  84. Faxian (1886). "On To Mathura Or Muttra. Condition And Customs Of Central India; Of The Monks, Viharas, And Monasteries.". A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms. Translated by Legge, James.
  85. Bodhipaksa (2016). Vegetarianism. Windhorse. ISBN 978-19093-14-740.
  86. "Meat Consumption Per Person". Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  87. "Bloodless coup as Indian vegetarians flex muscle". The Age. 14 July 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  88. "Hindu Council's Definition of a Pure Vegetarian Diet". Hindu Council of Australia. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  89. "Eggetarian".
  90. "eggetarian".
  91. Sula, Mike (12 January 2019). "Egg-O-Holic puts together Gujarat's vast eggetarian street food". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  92. "Indulge in some Ande ka Funda at The Nest?". Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  93. "MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE (DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH) NOTIFICATION New Delhi, 4 April 2001" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  94. "FSSAI's Labeling Updates: What's New, What's Changed and What's Next [2022 Edition] | Artwork Flow". Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  95. Harish Damodaran (12 June 2015). "In India, to be veg is to drink a lot of milk". The Indian Express.
  96. Martin W. Lewis (8 March 2016). "Mapping the Consumption of Milk and Meat in India". The Wire. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  97. Spencer, Colin (2016). Vegetarianism : a History. Havertown: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-911621-50-8. OCLC 1020639750.
  98. "The food habits of a nation". 14 August 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  99. "2.3 Growth and Concentration in India[6]". Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  100. "Passage to India" (PDF). USDA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  101. "The Elephant Is Jogging: New Pressures for Agricultural Reform in India". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  102. "The myth of the Indian vegetarian nation". BBC News. 3 April 2018.
  103. "From meat and fish to vegetables: These 9 charts show how India eats". Hindustan Times. 19 February 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  104. Natrajan, Balmurli; Jacob, Suraj (2018). "'Provincialising' Vegetarianism Putting Indian Food Habits in Their Place". Economic and Political Weekly. Sameeksha Trust. 53 (9): 54–64.
  105. "Indians love meat of all kinds: That's what an RGI survey says". The Indian Express. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  106. "SAMPLE REGISTRATION SYSTEM BASELINE SURVEY 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  107. "Sample Registration System Baseline Survey Report 2004" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  108. Srinivas, Arjun (9 October 2018). "No, vegetarianism is not growing in India". Mint. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  109. Tani Khara, The myth of a vegetarian India, The Conversation, 11.09.18, recovered 16.10.20
  110. "More men eating non-veg than before: Health survey data". Indian Express.
  111. "Vegetarianism among Young Adults in the Klang Valley" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  112. "More choices for vegetarians". 5 April 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  113. "צמחונות להמונים (Hebrew)". Mako. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  114. "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan". Reuters. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  115. Augustin, Kersten. "Warum in Israel die meisten Veganer der ganzen Welt leben". FAZ. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  116. Labendz, Jacob Ari; Yanklowitz, Shmuly (25 March 2019). Jewish Veganism and Vegetarianism: Studies and New Directions. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-7361-1.
  117. Labendz, Jacob Ari; Yanklowitz, Shmuly (25 March 2019). Jewish Veganism and Vegetarianism: Studies and New Directions. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-7361-1.
  118. "Belgian city plans 'veggie' days", Chris Mason, BBC, 12 May 2009
  119. Mullee, Amy; Vermeire, Leen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Mullie, Patrick; Deriemaeker, Peter; Leenaert, Tobias; De Henauw, Stefaan; Dunne, Aoibheann; Gunter, Marc J.; Clarys, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge (July 2017). "Vegetarianism and meat consumption: A comparison of attitudes and beliefs between vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous subjects in Belgium". Appetite. 114: 299–305. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.052. PMID 28392424. S2CID 3848112.
  120. Vornanen, Ismo (2 March 2013). "Kolmannes opiskelijoista on kasvissyöjiä" (PDF). Kuopion kaupunkilehti. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  121. Gråsten, Hanna. "Kasvissyönti ei ole enää vain tyttöjen juttu". (in Finnish). Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  122. "Kasvissyönti yleistyy – joissain lukioissa jo yli puolet opiskelijoista kasvissyöjiä". 16 August 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  123. 73% Of French Elementary Schools Offer Meat-Free Meals At Least Once A Week, Plantbasednews, September 23, 2020
  124. Menus végétariens : du mieux à la cantine ?,
  125. Ruby, Matthew B.; Alvarenga, Marle S.; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A.; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina (January 2016). "Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA". Appetite. 96: 546–554. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2015.10.018. PMID 26494521. S2CID 2756010.
  126. Paris, Adam Sage (9 October 2017). "Violent clashes amid the growing beef between vegans and farmers". The Times.
  127. O'Riordan, Tim; Stoll-Kleemann, Susanne (3 September 2015). "The Challenges of Changing Dietary Behavior Toward More Sustainable Consumption". Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development. 57 (5): 4–13. doi:10.1080/00139157.2015.1069093.
  128. Holzer, David (27 January 2017). "Vegetarian Hungary". Budapest Business Journal. 25 (2): 29.
  129. "Is Iceland the most veggie-friendly country in Europe?".
  130. Bord Bia Insight Centre (November 2018). "Dietary Lifestyles Report" (PDF). Bord Bia.
  131. "Antonie kamerling en marly van der velden meest sexy vegetariërs" (in Dutch). Wakker Dier. 20 March 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  132. " Keurmerk". Archived from the original on 21 February 2009.
  133. Vegamonitor 2019 - Natuur & Milieu, Stichting Natuur en Milieu
  134. Factsheet 1: Consumptiecijfers en aantallen vegetariërs (in Dutch), De Nederlandse Vegetariërsbond
  135. Hoeveel veganisten zijn er (in Dutch), Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme
  136. "Top Vegan Cities In The World 2019". Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  137. "Projeto de lei n.º 111/XIII/1ª Inclusão de opção vegetariana em todas as cantinas públicas" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  138. "Most Vegan Friendly Cities in the World in 2022". 17 December 2021.
  139. "What Vegan Travelers Need to Know about Dining in Romania". Huffington Post. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  140. Srivastava, Jake (Summer 2006). "Russian Vegetarianism?". Hinduism Today. 28 (3): 62–63.
  141. Vegetarian 'revolution': Fast-growing trend sees fewer meat-eaters than ever
  142. "Wie viele Vegetarier gibt es in der Schweiz?". 2001. Archived from the original on 28 August 2001. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
  143. Leneman, Leah (1999). "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944". Society and Animals. 7 (3): 219–228. doi:10.1163/156853099X00095.
  144. "TheVOU… How many vegans are in the world?". Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  145. "Other estimates on the number of vegans in the UK in 2018". The Vegan Society. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  146. Thomson, Aly (3 September 2022). "Most vegans, vegetarians in Canada are under 35: survey - The Globe and Mail". The Globe and Mail.
  147. "More than 3 million Canadians vegetarian or vegan: study". CTV News. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  148. "The War on Meat - How Low-Meat and No-Meat Diets are Impacting Consumer Markets". Euromonitor. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  149. Tatge, Mark, "Vegetarian foods plant stronger sales: No signs of slowing down for growing industry", NBC News, 17 September 2004
  150. "The Vegetarian Resource Group Asks in a 2016 National Poll Conducted by Harris Poll". The Vegetarian Resource Group. The Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  151. "What Percentage of Americans Are Vegetarian?". 27 September 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  152. "Nutrition and Food". 9 August 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  153. Mangels, Reed (2009). "Nutrition Hotline" (PDF). Vegetarian Journal. Vegetarian Resource Group. 28 (3): 2, 24.
  154. Erbe, Bonnie (14 January 2009). "More Children Refuse To Eat Meat Than You'd Think, And For The Right Reasons". CBS News.
  155. "Pass the tofu: 1 in 200 kids is vegetarian". NBC News. The Associated Press. 12 January 2009.
  156. International Food Information Council (IFIC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (April 2010) [November 2004]. "Food Ingredients and Colors". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
  157. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Food Labeling Guide". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  158. "Food Labeling Guide". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  159. Archived 23 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  160. " – 100% Meat Free, 100% Vegan Friendly. Great tasting, fresh, healthy and convenient plant-based foods".
  161. The New Zealand Vegetarian Society (NZVS)"What Is a Vegetarian" Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  162. "Living a Good Life : To be a vegetarian in New Zealand" P. Bidwell, New Zealand Vegetarian Society.
  163. "Vegetarianism on the rise in New Zealand". Roy Morgan Research. Roy Morgan Research. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  164. "New Zealand Vegetarian and Vegan Retailers". Vegetarians. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  165. Australia-New Zealand Co-operation. "Food safety: food regulations". Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  166. "Infografía: ingredientes y tendencias de comida fuera de casa en Latam". Nielsen Corporation. 27 September 2016. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017.
  167. "IVU Online News". International Vegetarian Union. November 2004. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  168. IBOPE (May 2018). "IBOPE 2018: 14% da população se declara vegetariana". IBOPE.
  169. "Dia Mundial do Vegetarianismo: 8% da população brasileira afirma ser adepta do estilo" [World Vegetarian Day: 8% of the Brazilian population claims to be adept of this lifestyle] (in Portuguese). Ibope. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  170. "14% da população se declara vegetariana". Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  171. Londoño, Ernesto (26 December 2020). "Brazil is Famous for Its Meat. But Vegetarianism is Soaring". The New York Times.
  172. (in Portuguese) Vegetarianism: an ethical and philosophical position – interview with Marly Winkler
  173. Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2004)
  174. Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, T. D.; Castel, Vincent (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-105571-7. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  175. Margulis, Sergio (2004). Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon (PDF). World Bank Working Paper No. 22. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. ISBN 978-0-8213-5691-3. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
  176. Barreto, P.; Souza Jr. C.; Noguerón, R.; Anderson, A. & Salomão, R. 2006. Human Pressure on the Brazilian Amazon Forests . Imazon. Retrieved 28 September 2006. (The Imazon web site contains many resources relating to the Brazilian Amazon.)
  177. Guilherme. "Pesquisa do IBOPE aponta crescimento histórico no número de vegetarianos no Brasil". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  178. "Vegetarian Restaurants in Brazil". Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  179. Ruby, Matthew B.; Alvarenga, Marle S.; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A.; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina (1 January 2016). "Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA". Appetite. 96: 546–554. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2015.10.018. ISSN 0195-6663.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.