Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation,[lower-alpha 4] is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, with its internationally recognised territory covering 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and shares land boundaries with fourteen countries.[16][lower-alpha 5] It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country, with a population of over 147 million people. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan.

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Russia on the globe, with claimed territory shown in light green[lower-alpha 2]
and largest city
55°45′21″N 37°37′02″E
and national language
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
  • 38.2% No religion
  • 6.5% Islam[lower-alpha 3]
  • 2.4% Others
  • 5.5% Unanswered
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic under an authoritarian dictatorship[6][7][8]
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
 Speaker of the
Federation Council
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
 Chief Justice
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
 Declaration of State
12 June 1990
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
8 December 1999
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[9] (within internationally recognised borders) 17,234,028 km2 (6,654,095 sq mi) (including claimed territories) (1st)
 Water (%)
13[10] (including swamps)
 2022 estimate
  • 147,182,123 (2021 Census)[11]
  • (including Crimea)[12]
  • 144,699,673
  • (excluding Crimea)[12]
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$4.650 trillion[13] (6th)
 Per capita
$31,967[13] (59th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$2.133 trillion[13] (9th)
 Per capita
$14,665[13] (65th)
Gini (2020) 36.0[14]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019) 0.824[15]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian rouble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries CE. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th century, and in 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Rus' ultimately disintegrated, with the Grand Duchy of Moscow growing to become the Tsardom of Russia. By the early 18th century, Russia had vastly expanded through conquest, annexation, and the efforts of Russian explorers, developing into the Russian Empire, which remains the third-largest empire in history. However, with the Russian Revolution in 1917, Russia's monarchic rule was abolished and replaced by the Russian SFSR—the world's first constitutionally socialist state. Following the Russian Civil War, the Russian SFSR established the Soviet Union (with three other Soviet republics), within which it was the largest and principal constituent. At the expense of millions of lives, the Soviet Union underwent rapid industrialization in the 1930s, and later played a decisive role for the Allies of World War II by leading large-scale efforts on the Eastern Front. With the onset of the Cold War, it competed with the United States for global ideological influence; the Soviet era of the 20th century saw some of the most significant Russian technological achievements, including the first human-made satellite and the first human expedition into outer space.

In 1991, the Russian SFSR emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as the independent Russian Federation. A new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Since the turn of the century, Russia's political system has been dominated by Vladimir Putin, under whom the country has experienced democratic backsliding and a shift towards authoritarianism. Russia has been involved militarily in a number of post-Soviet conflicts, which has included the internationally unrecognised annexations of Crimea in 2014 from neighbouring Ukraine and four other regions in 2022 during an ongoing invasion. International rankings of Russia place it low in measurements of human rights and freedom of the press; the country also has high levels of perceived corruption.

Ranked worldwide, the Russian economy stands at the ninth-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by GDP (PPP). Its mineral and energy sources are the world's largest, and its figures for oil production and natural gas production rank high globally. Russia possesses the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, and has the fifth-highest military expenditure. The country is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council; a member state of the G20, the SCO, BRICS, the APEC, the OSCE, and the WTO; and is the leading member state of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU. Russia is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


The name Russia comes from a Medieval Latin name for Rus', a medieval state populated primarily by the East Slavs.[17][18] In modern historiography, this state is usually denoted as Kievan Rus' after its capital city.[19] The name Rus' itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, who were orginally a group of Norse merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and first settled in the northern region of Novgorod, and later founded a state centred on Kiev.[20] Another Medieval Latin name for Rus' was Ruthenia.[21]

In Russian, the current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Byzantine Greek name for Rus', Ρωσσία (Rossía)  spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek.[22] It came into use in the 15th century, though the country was still often referred to by its inhabitants as Rus' or the Russian land until the end of the 17th century.[23][24] There are two words in Russian which translate to "Russians" in English  русские (russkiye), which refers to ethnic Russians, and россияне (rossiyane), which refers to Russian citizens, regardless of ethnicity.[24][25]


Early history

The first human settlement on Russia dates back to the Oldowan period in the early Lower Paleolithic. About 2 million years ago, representatives of Homo erectus migrated to the Taman Peninsula in southern Russia.[26] Flint tools, some 1.5 million years old, have been discovered in the North Caucasus.[27] Radiocarbon dated specimens from Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains estimate the oldest Denisovan specimen lived 195–122,700 years ago.[28] Fossils of Denny, an archaic human hybrid that was half Neanderthal and half Denisovan, and lived some 90,000 years ago, was also found within the latter cave.[29] Russia was home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals, from about 45,000 years ago, found in Mezmaiskaya cave.[30]

The first trace of an early modern human in Russia dates back to 45,000 years, in Western Siberia.[31] The discovery of high concentration cultural remains of anatomically modern humans, from at least 40,000 years ago, was found at Kostyonki–Borshchyovo,[32] and at Sungir, dating back to 34,600 years ago—both in western Russia.[33] Humans reached Arctic Russia at least 40,000 years ago, in Mamontovaya Kurya.[34]

Bronze Age spread of Yamnaya Steppe pastoralist ancestry.[35]

The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.[36] Early Indo-European migrations from the Pontic–Caspian steppe of Ukraine and Russia spread Yamnaya ancestry and Indo-European languages across large parts of Eurasia.[37][38] Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic–Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic.[39] Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in places such as Ipatovo,[39] Sintashta,[40] Arkaim,[41] and Pazyryk,[42] which bear the earliest known traces of horses in warfare.[40] The genetic makeup of speakers of the Uralic language family in northern Europe was shaped by migration from Siberia that began at least 3,500 years ago.[43] In classical antiquity, the Pontic-Caspian Steppe was known as Scythia.[44] In late 8th century BCE, Ancient Greek traders brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria.[45]

In the 3rd to 4th centuries CE, the Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in southern Russia, which was later overrun by Huns.[46] Between the 3rd and 6th centuries CE, the Bosporan Kingdom, which was a Hellenistic polity that succeeded the Greek colonies,[47] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.[48] The Khazars, who were of Turkic origin, ruled the steppes between the Caucasus in the south, to the east past the Volga river basin, and west as far as Kyiv on the Dnieper river until the 10th century.[49] After them came the Pechenegs who created a large confederacy, which was subsequently taken over by the Cumans and the Kipchaks.[50]

The ancestors of Russians are among the Slavic tribes that separated from the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who appeared in the northeastern part of Europe c.1500 years ago.[51] The East Slavs gradually settled western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towards Novgorod and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in western Russia,[52] and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finnic peoples.[46]

Kievan Rus'

The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the Vikings who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[53] According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from the Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862. In 882, his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev, which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars.[46] Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar Khaganate,[54] and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.[55][56]

In the 10th to 11th centuries, Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe. The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.[46] The age of feudalism and decentralisation had come, marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, the Novgorod Republic in the north, and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.[46] By the 12th century, Kiev lost its pre-eminence and Kievan Rus' had fragmented into different principalities.[57] Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky sacked Kiev in 1169 and made Vladimir his base,[57] leading to political power being shifted to the north-east.[46]

Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240,[58] as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle on the Ice in 1242.[59]

Kievan Rus' finally fell to the Mongol invasion of 1237–1240, which resulted in the sacking of Kiev and other cities, as well as the death of a major part of the population.[46] The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which ruled over Russia for the next two centuries.[60] Only the Novgorod Republic escaped Mongol occupation after it agreed to pay tribute.[46] Galicia-Volhynia would later be absorbed by Lithuania and Poland, while the Novgorod Republic continued to prosper in the north. In the northeast, the Byzantine-Slavic traditions of Kievan Rus' were adapted to form the Russian autocratic state.[46]

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner

The destruction of Kievan Rus' saw the eventual rise of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal.[61]:11–20 While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the region in the early 14th century,[62] gradually becoming the leading force in the "gathering of the Russian lands".[63] When the seat of the Metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church moved to Moscow in 1325, its influence increased.[64] Moscow's last rival, the Novgorod Republic, prospered as the chief fur trade centre and the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League.[65]

Led by Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.[46] Moscow gradually absorbed its parent duchy and surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod.[63]

Ivan III ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde and consolidated the whole of northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion, and was the first Russian ruler to take the title "Grand Duke of all Rus'". After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms.[63] Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by annexing the last few independent Russian states in the early 16th century.[66]

Tsardom of Russia

Ivan IV was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of Russia until his death in 1584

In development of the Third Rome ideas, the grand duke Ivan IV ("the Terrible") was officially crowned the first tsar of Russia in 1547. The tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (the Zemsky Sobor), revamped the military, curbed the influence of the clergy, and reorganised local government.[63] During his long reign, Ivan nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates: Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga,[67] and the Khanate of Sibir in southwestern Siberia. Ultimately, by the end of the 16th century, Russia expanded east of the Ural Mountains.[68] However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), the Kingdom of Sweden, and Denmark–Norway for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.[69] In 1572, an invading army of Crimean Tatars were thoroughly defeated in the crucial Battle of Molodi.[70]

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the disastrous famine of 1601–1603, led to a civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century.[71] The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, taking advantage, occupied parts of Russia, extending into the capital Moscow.[72] In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by merchant Kuzma Minin and prince Dmitry Pozharsky.[73] The Romanov dynasty acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of the Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis.[74]

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of the Cossacks.[75] In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian tsar, Alexis; whose acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Ultimately, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper, leaving the eastern part, (Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev) under Russian rule.[76] In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of vast Siberia continued, hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century, there were Russian settlements in eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.[75] In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov became the first European to navigate through the Bering Strait.[77]

Imperial Russia

Expansion and territorial evolution of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire between the 14th and 20th centuries.

Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an empire in 1721, and established itself as one of the European great powers. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War (1700–1721), securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. In 1703, on the Baltic Sea, Peter founded Saint Petersburg as Russia's new capital. Throughout his rule, sweeping reforms were made, which brought significant Western European cultural influences to Russia.[78] The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–1762 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). During the conflict, Russian troops overran East Prussia, reaching Berlin.[79] However, upon Elizabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to the Kingdom of Prussia by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia.[80]

Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–1796, presided over the Russian Age of Enlightenment. She extended Russian political control over the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and annexed most of its territories into Russia, making it the most populous country in Europe.[81] In the south, after the successful Russo-Turkish Wars against the Ottoman Empire, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, by dissolving the Crimean Khanate, and annexing Crimea.[82] As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century, Russia also conquered the Caucasus.[83] Catherine's successor, her son Paul, was unstable and focused predominantly on domestic issues.[84] Following his short reign, Catherine's strategy was continued with Alexander I's (1801–1825) wresting of Finland from the weakened Sweden in 1809,[85] and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812.[86] In North America, the Russians became the first Europeans to reach and colonise Alaska.[87] In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made.[88] In 1820, a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica.[89]

During the Napoleonic Wars, Russia joined alliances with various European powers, and fought against France. The French invasion of Russia at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 reached Moscow, but eventually failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which the pan-European Grande Armée faced utter destruction. Led by Mikhail Kutuzov and Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, the Imperial Russian Army ousted Napoleon and drove throughout Europe in the War of the Sixth Coalition, ultimately entering Paris.[90] Alexander I controlled Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna, which defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe.[91]

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).

The officers who pursued Napoleon into Western Europe brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia, and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825.[92] At the end of the conservative reign of Nicholas I (1825–1855), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe, was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War.[93] Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–1881) enacted significant changes throughout the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861.[94] These reforms spurred industrialisation, and modernised the Imperial Russian Army, which liberated much of the Balkans from Ottoman rule in the aftermath of the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War.[95] During most of the 19th and early 20th century, Russia and Britain colluded over Afghanistan and its neighboring territories in Central and South Asia; the rivalry between the two major European empires came to be known as the Great Game.[96]

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists.[97] The reign of his son Alexander III (1881–1894) was less liberal but more peaceful.[98] Under last Russian emperor, Nicholas II (1894–1917), the Revolution of 1905 was triggered by the failure of the humiliating Russo-Japanese War.[99] The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms (Russian Constitution of 1906), including granting freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalisation of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma.[100]

Revolution and civil war

Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and the Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

In 1914, Russia entered World War I in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia,[101] and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies.[102] In 1916, the Brusilov Offensive of the Imperial Russian Army almost completely destroyed the Austro-Hungarian Army.[103] However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution of 1917, carried out in two major acts.[104] In early 1917, Nicholas II was forced to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed in Yekaterinburg during the Russian Civil War.[105] The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government.[106] The Provisional Government proclaimed the Russian Republic in September. On 19 January [O.S. 6 January], 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly declared Russia a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision). The next day the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.[104]

An alternative socialist establishment co-existed, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called soviets. The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country instead of resolving it, and eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state.[104] The Russian Civil War broke out between the anti-communist White movement and the Bolsheviks with its Red Army.[107] In the aftermath of signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that concluded hostilities with the Central Powers of World War I; Bolshevist Russia surrendered most of its western territories, which hosted 34% of its population, 54% of its industries, 32% of its agricultural land, and roughly 90% of its coal mines.[108]

Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky during a 1920 speech in Moscow

The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-communist forces.[109] In the meantime, both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror.[110] By the end of the violent civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged, and as many as 10 million perished during the war, mostly civilians.[111] Millions became White émigrés,[112] and the Russian famine of 1921–1922 claimed up to five million victims.[113]

Soviet Union

Location of the Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union in 1936

On 30 December 1922, Lenin and his aides formed the Soviet Union, by joining the Russian SFSR into a single state with the Byelorussian, Transcaucasian, and Ukrainian republics.[114] Eventually internal border changes and annexations during World War II created a union of 15 republics; the largest in size and population being the Russian SFSR, which dominated the union for its entire history politically, culturally, and economically.[115] Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to take charge. Eventually Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to suppress all opposition factions and consolidate power in his hands to become the country's dictator by the 1930s.[116] Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929,[117] and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the official line.[118] The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the Great Purge.[119]

Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivisation of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps, including many political convicts for their suspected or real opposition to Stalin's rule;[120] and millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[121] The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought,[122] led to the Soviet famine of 1932–1933; which killed up to 8.7 million, 3.3 million of them in the Russian SFSR.[123] The Soviet Union, ultimately, made the costly transformation from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse within a short span of time.[124]

World War II

The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German army.

The Soviet Union entered World War II on 17 September 1939 with its invasion of Poland,[125] in accordance with a secret protocol within the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany.[126] The Soviet Union later invaded Finland,[127] and occupied and annexed the Baltic states,[128] as well as parts of Romania.[129]:91–95 On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union,[130] opening the Eastern Front, the largest theater of World War II.[131]:7

Eventually, some 5 million Red Army troops were captured by the Nazis;[132]:272 the latter deliberately starved to death or otherwise killed 3.3 million Soviet POWs, and a vast number of civilians, as the "Hunger Plan" sought to fulfill Generalplan Ost.[133]:175–186 Although the Wehrmacht had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow.[134] Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–1943,[135] and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943.[136] Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941 and 1944 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.[137] Soviet forces steamrolled through Eastern and Central Europe in 1944–1945 and captured Berlin in May 1945.[138] In August 1945, the Red Army invaded Manchuria and ousted the Japanese from Northeast Asia, contributing to the Allied victory over Japan.[139]

The 1941–1945 period of World War II is known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War.[140] The Soviet Union, along with the United States, the United Kingdom and China were considered the Big Four of Allied powers in World War II, and later became the Four Policemen, which was the foundation of the United Nations Security Council.[141]:27 During the war, Soviet civilian and military death were about 26–27 million,[142] accounting for about half of all World War II casualties.[143]:295 The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation, which caused the Soviet famine of 1946–1947.[144] However, at the expense of a large sacrifice, the Soviet Union emerged as a global superpower.[145]

Cold War

After World War II, parts of Eastern and Central Europe, including East Germany and eastern parts of Austria were occupied by Red Army according to the Potsdam Conference.[146] Dependent communist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states.[147] After becoming the world's second nuclear power,[148] the Soviet Union established the Warsaw Pact alliance,[149] and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the rivaling United States and NATO.[150] After Stalin's death in 1953 and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization, releasing many political prisoners from the Gulag labor camps.[151] The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev Thaw.[152] At the same time, Cold War tensions reached its peak when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.[153]

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age.[154] Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, aboard the Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961.[155] Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation. The 1965 Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralisation of the Soviet economy.[156] In 1979, after a communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces invaded the country, ultimately starting the Soviet–Afghan War.[157] In May 1988, the Soviets started to withdraw from Afghanistan, due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.[158]

Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.

From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government.[159] This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements across the country.[160] Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the world's second-largest, but during its final years, it went into a crisis.[161]

By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over as the Baltic states chose to secede from the Soviet Union.[162] On 17 March, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation.[163] In June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first directly elected president in Russian history when he was elected president of the Russian SFSR.[164] In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[165] On 25 December 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, along with contemporary Russia, fourteen other post-Soviet states emerged.[166]

Post-Soviet Russia (1991–present)

Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.

The economic and political collapse of the Soviet Union led Russia into a deep and prolonged depression. During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalisation were undertaken, including radical changes along the lines of "shock therapy".[167] The privatisation largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government, which led to the rise of the infamous Russian oligarchs.[168] Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight.[169] The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services—the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed,[170][171] and millions plunged into poverty;[172] while extreme corruption,[173] as well as criminal gangs and organised crime rose significantly.[174]

In late 1993, tensions between Yeltsin and the Russian parliament culminated in a constitutional crisis which ended violently through military force. During the crisis, Yeltsin was backed by Western governments, and over 100 people were killed.[175] In December, a referendum was held and approved, which introduced a new constitution, giving the president enormous powers.[176] The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections.[177] From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war was fought between the rebel groups and Russian forces.[178] Terrorist attacks against civilians were carried out by Chechen separatists, claiming the lives of thousands of Russian civilians.[lower-alpha 6][179]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed responsibility for settling the latter's external debts.[180] In 1992, most consumer price controls were eliminated, causing extreme inflation and significantly devaluing the rouble.[181] High budget deficits coupled with increasing capital flight and inability to pay back debts, caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis, which resulted in a further GDP decline.[182]

Map showing Russian political and military influence or interference in Post-Soviet conflicts as of 2021

In 1999, president Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed prime minister and his chosen successor, Vladimir Putin.[183] Putin then won the 2000 presidential election,[184] and defeated the Chechen insurgency in the Second Chechen War.[185] Putin won a second presidential term in 2004.[186] High oil prices and a rise in foreign investment saw the Russian economy and living standards improve significantly.[187] Putin's rule increased stability, while transforming Russia into an authoritarian state.[188] In 2008, Putin took the post of prime minister, while Dmitry Medvedev was elected president for one term, to hold onto power despite legal term limits;[189] this period has been described as a "tandemocracy."[190]

Following a diplomatic crisis with neighboring Georgia, the Russo-Georgian War took place during 1–12 August 2008, resulting in Russia recognising two separatist states in the territories that it occupies in Georgia.[191] It was the first European war of the 21st century.[192]

In 2014, following a revolution in Ukraine, Russia invaded and annexed the neighboring country's Crimean peninsula,[193] and contributed to the outbreak of war in eastern Ukraine with direct intervention by Russian troops.[194] Russia steeply escalated the war by launching a full-scale invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022.[195] The invasion marked the largest conventional war in Europe since World War II,[196] and was met with widespread international condemnation,[197] as well as expanded sanctions against Russia.[198] As a result, Russia was expelled from the Council of Europe in March,[199] and was suspended from the United Nations Human Rights Council in April.[200] In September 2022, Putin proclaimed the annexation of 15% of Ukraine's landmass in its Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhzhia regions, the largest seizure attempted in Europe since World War II.[201] Putin and Russian-installed leaders signed treaties of accession, internationally unrecognized and widely denounced as illegal, despite the fact that Russian forces have been unable to fully occupy any of the four regions.[201]

The European Parliament designated Russia as a state sponsor of terrorism and as a state that "uses means of terrorism" in November 2022, citing attacks against civilians, war crimes, and atrocities.[202] The NATO Parliamentary Assembly designated "the Russian state under the current regime [as] a terrorist one" and called for the establishment of "an international tribunal to prosecute the crime of aggression committed by Russia with its war against Ukraine."[203] The European Commission announced its support for the efforts to create an international criminal tribunal to prosecute Russia's crimes in the same month and permanently seize all assets held by Russia and its oligarchs to compensate Ukraine.[204][205][206][207][208][209] The Council of Europe also called for an international criminal tribunal to prosecute Russian crimes.[210]


Topographic map of Russia

Russia's vast landmass stretches over the easternmost part of Europe and the northernmost part of Asia.[211] It spans the northernmost edge of Eurasia; and has the world's fourth-longest coastline, of over 37,653 km (23,396 mi).[lower-alpha 7][213] Russia lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W, extending some 9,000 km (5,600 mi) east to west, and 2,500 to 4,000 km (1,600 to 2,500 mi) north to south.[214] Russia, by landmass, is larger than three continents,[lower-alpha 8] and has the same surface area as Pluto.[215]

Russia has nine major mountain ranges, and they are found along the southernmost regions, which share a significant portion of the Caucasus Mountains (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest peak in Russia and Europe);[7] the Altai and Sayan Mountains in Siberia; and in the East Siberian Mountains and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia).[216][217] The Ural Mountains, running north to south through the country's west, are rich in mineral resources, and form the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia.[218] The lowest point in Russia and Europe, is situated at the head of the Caspian Sea, where the Caspian Depression reaches some 29 metres (95.1 ft) below sea level.[219]

Russia, as one of the world's only three countries bordering three oceans,[211] has links with a great number of seas.[lower-alpha 9][220] Its major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands (four of which are disputed with Japan), and Sakhalin.[221][222] The Diomede Islands, administered by Russia and the United States, are just 3.8 km (2.4 mi) apart;[223] and Kunashir Island of the Kuril Islands is merely 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan.[2]

Russia, home of over 100,000 rivers,[211] has one of the world's largest surface water resources, with its lakes containing approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.[217] Lake Baikal, the largest and most prominent among Russia's fresh water bodies, is the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake, containing over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water.[224] Ladoga and Onega in northwestern Russia are two of the largest lakes in Europe.[211] Russia is second only to Brazil by total renewable water resources.[225] The Volga in western Russia, widely regarded as Russia's national river, is the longest river in Europe; and forms the Volga Delta, the largest river delta in the continent.[226] The Siberian rivers of Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Amur are among the world's longest rivers.[227]


The size of Russia and the remoteness of many of its areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate throughout most of the country, except for the tundra and the extreme southwest. Mountain ranges in the south and east obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian and Pacific oceans, while the European Plain spanning its west and north opens it to influence from the Atlantic and Arctic oceans.[228] Most of northwest Russia and Siberia have a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of northeast Siberia (mostly Sakha, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F),[221] and more moderate winters elsewhere. Russia's vast coastline along the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.[228]

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably Sochi, and some coastal and interior strips of the North Caucasus possess a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters.[228] In many regions of East Siberia and the Russian Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The westernmost parts of Kaliningrad Oblast and some parts in the south of Krasnodar Krai and the North Caucasus have an oceanic climate.[228] The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some southernmost slivers of Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate.[229]

Throughout much of the territory, there are only two distinct seasons, winter and summer; as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.[228] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.[230] Climate change in Russia is causing more frequent wildfires,[231] and thawing the country's large expanse of permafrost.[232]


Russia, owing to its gigantic size, has diverse ecosystems, including polar deserts, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broadleaf forest, forest steppe, steppe, semi-desert, and subtropics.[233] About half of Russia's territory is forested,[7] and it has the world's largest area of forest,[234] which sequester some of the world's highest amounts of carbon dioxide.[234][235]

Russian biodiversity includes 12,500 species of vascular plants, 2,200 species of bryophytes, about 3,000 species of lichens, 7,000–9,000 species of algae, and 20,000–25,000 species of fungi. Russian fauna is composed of 320 species of mammals, over 732 species of birds, 75 species of reptiles, about 30 species of amphibians, 343 species of freshwater fish (high endemism), approximately 1,500 species of saltwater fishes, 9 species of cyclostomata, and approximately 100–150,000 invertebrates (high endemism).[233][236] Approximately 1,100 rare and endangered plant and animal species are included in the Russian Red Data Book.[233]

Russia's entirely natural ecosystems are conserved in nearly 15,000 specially protected natural territories of various statuses, occupying more than 10% of the country's total area.[233] They include 45 biosphere reserves,[237] 64 national parks, and 101 nature reserves.[238] Although in decline, the country still has many ecosystems which are still onsidered intact forest; mainly in the northern taiga areas, and the subarctic tundra of Siberia.[239] Russia had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 9.02 in 2019, ranking 10th out of 172 countries; and the first ranked major nation globally.[240]

Government and politics

A chart of the Russian political system

Russia, by constitution, is an asymmetric federal republic,[241] with a semi-presidential system, wherein the president is the head of state,[242] and the prime minister is the head of government.[7] It is structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:[243]

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term and may be elected no more than twice.[247][lower-alpha 10] Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). United Russia is the dominant political party in Russia, and has been described as "big tent" and the "party of power".[249][250] Under the administrations of Vladimir Putin, Russia has experienced democratic backsliding,[251][252] and has become an authoritarian state[8] under a dictatorship,[6][253] with Putin's policies being referred to as Putinism.[254]

Political divisions

According to the constitution, the Russian Federation is composed of 89 federal subjects.[lower-alpha 11] In 1993, when the new constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed, but some were later merged. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly.[255] They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.[256] The federal districts of Russia were established by Putin in 2000 to facilitate central government control of the federal subjects.[257] Originally seven, currently there are eight federal districts, each headed by an envoy appointed by the president.[258]

Federal subjects Governance
  46 oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.[259]
  22 republics
Each is nominally autonomous—home to a specific ethnic minority, and has its own constitution, language, and legislature, but is represented by the federal government in international affairs.[260]
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.[261]
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.[262]
Major cities that function as separate regions (Moscow and Saint Petersburg, as well as Sevastopol in Russian-occupied Ukraine).[263]
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[264]

Foreign relations

Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.

Russia had the world's fifth-largest diplomatic network in 2019. It maintains diplomatic relations with 190 United Nations member states, four partially-recognised states, and three United Nations observer states; along with 144 embassies.[265] Russia is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It has historically been a great power,[266] and a former superpower as the leading constituent of the former Soviet Union.[145] Russia is a member of the G20, the OSCE, and the APEC. Russia also takes a leading role in organisations such as the CIS,[267] the EAEU,[268] the CSTO,[269] the SCO,[270] and BRICS.[271]

Russia maintains close relations with neighbouring Belarus, which is a part of the Union State, a supranational confederation of the two states.[272] Serbia has been a historically close ally of Russia, as both countries share a strong mutual cultural, ethnic, and religious affinity.[273] India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment, and the two countries share a strong strategic and diplomatic relationship since the Soviet era.[274] Russia wields influence across the geopolitically important South Caucasus and Central Asia; and the two regions have been described as Russia's "backyard".[275][276]

In the 21st century Russia has pursued an aggressive foreign policy aimed at securing regional dominance and international influence, as well as increasing domestic support for the government. Military intervention in the post-soviet states include a war with Georgia in 2008, and the invasion and destablisation of Ukraine beginning in 2014. Russia has also sought to increase its influence in the Middle East, most significantly through military intervention in the Syrian civil war. Cyberwarfare and airspace violations, along with electoral interference, have been used to increase perceptions of Russian power.[277] Russia's relations with neighboring Ukraine and the Western world—especially the United States, the European Union, and NATO—have collapsed; especially following the start of the Russo-Ukrainian War in 2014 and the consequent escalation in 2022.[278][279] Relations between Russia and China have significantly strengthened bilaterally and economically; due to shared political interests.[280] Turkey and Russia share a complex strategic, energy, and defense relationship.[281] Russia maintains cordial relations with Iran, as it is a strategic and economic ally.[282] Russia has also increasingly pushed to expand its influence across the Arctic,[283] Asia-Pacific,[284] Africa,[285] the Middle East,[286] and Latin America.[287]


The Russian Armed Forces are divided into the Ground Forces, the Navy, and the Aerospace Forces—and there are also two independent arms of service: the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops.[7] As of 2021, the military have around a million active-duty personnel, which is the world's fifth-largest, and about 2–20 million reserve personnel.[289][290] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in the Armed Forces.[7]

Russia is among the five recognised nuclear-weapons states, with the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons; over half of the world's nuclear weapons are owned by Russia.[291] Russia possesses the second-largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines,[292] and is one of the only three countries operating strategic bombers.[293] Russia maintains the world's fourth-highest military expenditure, spending $61.7 billion in 2020.[294] In 2021 it was the world's second-largest arms exporter, and had a large and entirely indigenous defence industry, producing most of its own military equipment.[295]

Human rights and corruption

Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, anti-war protests broke out across Russia. The protests have been met with widespread repression, leading to about 15,000 people being arrested.[296]

Human rights in Russia have been increasingly criticised by leading democracy and human rights groups. In particular, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch say that Russia is not democratic and allows few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.[297][298]

Since 2004, Freedom House has ranked Russia as "not free" in its Freedom in the World survey.[299] Since 2011, the Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked Russia as an "authoritarian regime" in its Democracy Index, ranking it 124th out of 167 countries for 2021.[300] In regards to media freedom, Russia was ranked 155th out of 180 countries in Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index for 2022.[301] The Russian government has been widely criticised by political dissidents and human rights activists for unfair elections,[302] crackdowns on opposition political parties and protests,[303][304] persecution of non-governmental organisations and enforced suppression and killings of independent journalists,[305][306][307] and censorship of mass media and internet.[308]

Russia's autocratic[309] political system has been variously described as a kleptocracy,[310] an oligarchy,[311] and a plutocracy.[312] It was the lowest rated European country in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2021, ranking 136th out of 180 countries.[313] Russia has a long history of corruption, which is seen as a significant problem.[314] It impacts various sectors, including the economy,[315] business,[316] public administration,[317] law enforcement,[318] healthcare,[319][320] education,[321] and the military.[322]

Muslims, especially Salafis, have faced persecution in Russia.[323][324] To quash the insurgency in the North Caucasus, Russian authorities have been accused of indiscriminate killings,[325] arrests, forced disappearances, and torture of civilians.[326][327] In Dagestan, some Salafis along with facing government harassment based on their appearance, have had their homes blown up in counterinsurgency operations.[328][329] Chechens and Ingush in Russian prisons reportedly take more abuse than other ethnic groups.[330] During the 2022 invasion of Ukraine, Russia has set up filtration camps where many Ukrainians are subjected to abuses and forcibly sent to Russia; the camps have been compared to those used in the Chechen Wars.[331][332]


The Moscow International Business Centre in Moscow. The city has one of the world's largest urban economies.[333]

Russia has a mixed economy,[334] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.[335] It has the world's ninth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. The large service sector accounts for 62% of total GDP, followed by the industrial sector (32%), while the agricultural sector is the smallest, making up only 5% of total GDP.[7] Russia has a low official unemployment rate of 4.1%.[336] Its foreign exchange reserves are the world's fifth-largest, worth $540 billion.[337] It has a labour force of roughly 70 million, which is the world's sixth-largest.[338]

Russia is the world's thirteenth-largest exporter and the 21st-largest importer.[339][340] It relies heavily on revenues from oil and gas-related taxes and export tariffs, which accounted for 45% of Russia's federal budget revenues in January 2022,[341] and up to 60% of its exports in 2019.[342] In 2019, the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry estimated the value of natural resources to be 60% of the country's GDP.[343] Russia has one of the lowest levels of external debt among major economies,[344] although its inequality of household income and wealth is one of the highest among developed countries.[345] High regional disparity is also an issue.[346][347]

After over a decade of post-Soviet rapid economic growth, backed by high oil-prices and a surge in foreign exchange reserves and investment,[187] Russia's economy was damaged following the start of the Russo-Ukrainian War and the annexation of Crimea in 2014, due to the first wave of Western sanctions being imposed.[348] In the aftermath of the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, the country has faced revamped sanctions and corporate boycotts,[349] becoming the most sanctioned country in the world,[350] in a move described as an "all-out economic and financial war" to isolate the Russian economy from the Western financial system.[198] Due to the impact, the Russian government has stopped publishing a raft of economic data since April 2022.[351] Economists suggest the sanctions will have a long-term effect over the Russian economy.[352]

Transport and energy

The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.[353]

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways. The total length of common-used railway tracks is the world's third-longest, and exceeds 87,000 km (54,100 mi).[354] As of 2016, Russia has the world's fifth-largest road network, with 1.5 million km of roads,[355] while its road density is among the world's lowest.[356] Russia's inland waterways are the world's longest, and total 102,000 km (63,380 mi).[357] Among Russia's 1,218 airports,[358] the busiest is Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow. Russia's largest port is the Port of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai along the Black Sea.[359]

Russia was widely described as an energy superpower.[360] It has the world's largest proven gas reserves,[361] the second-largest coal reserves,[362] the eighth-largest oil reserves,[363] and the largest oil shale reserves in Europe.[364] Russia is also the world's leading natural gas exporter,[365] the second-largest natural gas producer,[366] and the second-largest oil producer and exporter.[367][368] Russia's oil and gas production led to deep economic relationships with the European Union, China, and former Soviet and Eastern Bloc states.[369][370] For example, over the last decade, Russia's share of supplies to total European Union (including the United Kingdom) gas demand increased from 25% in 2009 to 32% in the weeks before the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022.[370]

Russia ratified the Paris Agreement in 2019.[371] Greenhouse gas emissions by Russia are the world's fourth-largest.[372] Russia is the world's fourth-largest electricity producer.[373] It was also the world's first country to develop civilian nuclear power, and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant.[374] Russia was also the world's fourth-largest nuclear energy producer in 2019,[375] and was the fifth-largest hydroelectric producer in 2021.[376]

Agriculture and fishery

Wheat in Tomsk Oblast, Siberia

Russia's agriculture sector contributes about 5% of the country's total GDP, although the sector employs about one-eighth of the total labour force.[377] It has the world's third-largest cultivated area, at 1,265,267 square kilometres (488,522 sq mi). However, due to the harshness of its environment, about 13.1% of its land is agricultural,[7] and only 7.4% of its land is arable.[378] The country's agricultural land is considered part of the "breadbasket" of Europe.[379] More than one-third of the sown area is devoted to fodder crops, and the remaining farmland is devoted to industrial crops, vegetables, and fruits.[377] The main product of Russian farming has always been grain, which occupies considerably more than half of the cropland.[377] Russia is the world's largest exporter of wheat,[380][381] the largest producer of barley and buckwheat, among the largest exporters of maize and sunflower oil, and the leading producer of fertilizer.[382]

Various analysts of climate change adaptation foresee large opportunities for Russian agriculture during the rest of the 21st century as arability increases in Siberia, which would lead to both internal and external migration to the region.[383] Owing to its large coastline along three oceans and twelve marginal seas, Russia maintains the world's sixth-largest fishing industry; capturing nearly 5 million tons of fish in 2018.[384] It is home to the world's finest caviar, the beluga; and produces about one-third of all canned fish, and some one-fourth of the world's total fresh and frozen fish.[377]

Science and technology

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist

Russia spent about 1% of its GDP on research and development in 2019, with the world's tenth-highest budget.[385] It also ranked tenth worldwide in the number of scientific publications in 2020, with roughly 1.3 million papers.[386] Since 1904, Nobel Prize were awarded to 26 Soviets and Russians in physics, chemistry, medicine, economy, literature and peace.[387] Russia ranked 45th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.[388]

Mikhail Lomonosov proposed the conservation of mass in chemical reactions, discovered the atmosphere of Venus, and founded modern geology.[389] Since the times of Nikolay Lobachevsky, who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry, and Pafnuty Chebyshev, a prominent tutor; Russian mathematicians became among the world's most influential.[390] Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, the main framework of modern chemistry.[391] Sofya Kovalevskaya was a pioneer among women in mathematics in the 19th century.[392] Nine Soviet and Russian mathematicians have been awarded with the Fields Medal. Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002, as well as the Fields Medal in 2006.[393]

Alexander Popov was among the inventors of radio,[394] while Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of laser and maser.[395] Zhores Alferov contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.[396] Oleg Losev made crucial contributions in the field of semiconductor junctions, and discovered light-emitting diodes.[397] Vladimir Vernadsky is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology.[398] Élie Metchnikoff is known for his groundbreaking research in immunology.[399] Ivan Pavlov is known chiefly for his work in classical conditioning.[400] Lev Landau made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.[401]

Nikolai Vavilov was best known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants.[402] Trofim Lysenko was known mainly for Lysenkoism.[403] Many famous Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés. Igor Sikorsky was an aviation pioneer.[404] Vladimir Zworykin was the inventor of the iconoscope and kinescope television systems.[405] Theodosius Dobzhansky was the central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.[406] George Gamow was one of the foremost advocates of the Big Bang theory.[407] Many foreign scientists lived and worked in Russia for a long period, such as Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel.[408][409]

Space exploration

Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.[410]

Roscosmos is Russia's national space agency. The country's achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration can be traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics, whose works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond.[411]:6–7,333

In 1957, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. In 1961, the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin. Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued. In 1963, Valentina Tereshkova became the first and youngest woman in space, having flown a solo mission on Vostok 6.[412] In 1965, Alexei Leonov became the first human to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the space capsule during Voskhod 2.[413]

In 1957, Laika, a Soviet space dog, became the first animal to orbit the Earth, aboard Sputnik 2.[414] In 1966, Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to achieve a survivable landing on a celestial body, the Moon.[415] In 1968, Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon.[416] In 1970, Venera 7 became the first spacecraft to land on another planet, Venus.[417] In 1971, Mars 3 became the first spacecraft to land on Mars.[418]:34–60 During the same period, Lunokhod 1 became the first space exploration rover,[419] while Salyut 1 became the world's first space station.[420] Russia had 172 active satellites in space in April 2022, the world's third-highest.[421]


According to the World Tourism Organization, Russia was the sixteenth-most visited country in the world, and the tenth-most visited country in Europe, in 2018, with over 24.6 million visits.[422] According to Federal Agency for Tourism, the number of inbound trips of foreign citizens to Russia amounted to 24.4 million in 2019.[423] Russia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to $11.6 billion.[422] In 2019, travel and tourism accounted for about 4.8% of country's total GDP.[424]

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of Russia, a theme route of ancient Russian cities, cruises on large rivers such as the Volga, hikes on mountain ranges such as the Caucasus Mountains,[425] and journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.[426] Russia's most visited and popular landmarks include Red Square, the Peterhof Palace, the Kazan Kremlin, the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius and Lake Baikal.[427]

Moscow, the nation's cosmopolitan capital and historic core, is a bustling megacity. It retains its classical and Soviet-era architecture; while boasting high art, world class ballet, and modern skyscrapers.[428] Saint Petersburg, the Imperial capital, is famous for its classical architecture, cathedrals, museums and theatres, white nights, criss-crossing rivers and numerous canals.[429] Russia is famed worldwide for its rich museums, such as the State Russian, the State Hermitage, and the Tretyakov Gallery; and for theatres such as the Bolshoi and the Mariinsky. The Moscow Kremlin and the Saint Basil's Cathedral are among the cultural landmarks of Russia.[430]


Ethnic groups across Russia
Ethnic groups in Russia with a population of over 1 million according to the 2010 census.
Percentage of ethnic Russians by region according to the 2010 census.

Russia is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanised countries,[7] with the vast majority of its population concentrated within its western part.[431] It had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census,[432] which rose to roughly 145.5 million as of 2022.[12] Russia is the most populous country in Europe, and the world's ninth most populous country, with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile).[433]

Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which some analysts have called a demographic crisis.[434] In 2019, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.5 children born per woman,[435] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and is one of the world's lowest fertility rates.[436] Subsequently, the nation has one of the world's oldest populations, with a median age of 40.3 years.[7] In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[437] However, since 2020, due to excessive deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's population has undergone its largest peacetime decline in history.[438] Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, the demographic crisis in the country has deepened,[439] as the country has faced a renewed brain drain and human capital flight caused by Western mass-sanctions and boycotts.[440]

Russia is a multinational state with many subnational entities associated with different minorities.[441] There are over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2010 census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities;[442] while over four-fifths of Russia's population was of European descent—of which the vast majority were Slavs,[443] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[444][445] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million;[446] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.[447]

Largest cities or towns in Russia
2021 Census[448]
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.


Saint Petersburg
1MoscowMoscow13,010,11211Rostov-na-DonuRostov Oblast1,142,162

2Saint PetersburgSaint Petersburg5,601,91112OmskOmsk Oblast1,125,695
3NovosibirskNovosibirsk Oblast1,633,59513KrasnodarKrasnodar Krai1,099,344
4YekaterinburgSverdlovsk Oblast1,544,37614VoronezhVoronezh Oblast1,057,681
5KazanTatarstan1,308,66015PermPerm Krai1,034,002
6Nizhny NovgorodNizhny Novgorod Oblast1,228,19916VolgogradVolgograd Oblast1,028,036
7ChelyabinskChelyabinsk Oblast1,189,52517SaratovSaratov Oblast901,361
8KrasnoyarskKrasnoyarsk Krai1,187,77118TyumenTyumen Oblast847,488
9SamaraSamara Oblast1,173,29919TolyattiSamara Oblast684,709
10UfaBashkortostan1,144,80920BarnaulAltai Krai630,877


Minority languages across Russia
Altaic and Uralic languages spoken across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia.[3] It is the most spoken native language in Europe, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[450] Russian is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[451] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[450]

Russia is a multilingual nation; approximately 100–150 minority languages are spoken across the country.[452][453] According to the Russian Census of 2010, 137.5 million across the country spoke Russian, 4.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.1 million spoke Ukrainian.[454] The constitution gives the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[455] However, various experts have claimed Russia's linguistic diversity is rapidly declining due to many languages becoming endangered.[456][457]


Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is the most iconic religious architecture of Russia.

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, chiefly represented by the Russian Orthodox Church.[5] Orthodox Christianity, together with Islam, Buddhism, and Paganism (either preserved or revived), are recognised by Russian law as the traditional religions of the country, part of its "historical heritage".[458][459] The amendments of 2020 to the constitution added, in the Article 67, the continuity of the Russian state in history based on preserving "the memory of the ancestors" and general "ideals and belief in God" which the ancestors conveyed.[460]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, there was a renewal of religions in Russia, with the revival of the traditional faiths and the emergence of new forms within the traditional faiths as well as many new religious movements.[461][462] Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and is the traditional religion among the majority of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and among some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[5] Large populations of Buddhists are found in Kalmykia, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, and they are the vast majority of the population in Tuva.[5] Many Russians practise other religions, including Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism),[463] Assianism (Scythian Neopaganism),[464] other ethnic Paganisms, and inter-Pagan movements such as Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism,[465] various movements of Hinduism,[466] Siberian shamanism[467] and Tengrism, various Neo-Theosophical movements such as Roerichism, and other faiths.[468][469] Some religious minorities have faced oppression and some have been banned in the country;[470] notably, in 2017 the Jehovah's Witnesses were outlawed in Russia, facing persecution ever since, after having been declared an "extremist" and "nontraditional" faith.[471]

In 2012, the research organisation Sreda, in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, published the Arena Atlas, an adjunct to the 2010 census, enumerating in detail the religious populations and nationalities of Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey. The results showed that 47.3% of Russians declared themselves Christians — including 41% Russian Orthodox, 1.5% simply Orthodox or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 4.1% unaffiliated Christians, and less than 1% Old Believers, Catholics or Protestants — 25% were believers without affiliation to any specific religion, 13% were atheists, 6.5% were Muslims,[lower-alpha 3] 1.2% were followers of "traditional religions honouring gods and ancestors" (Rodnovery, other Paganisms, Siberian shamanism and Tengrism), 0.5% were Buddhists, 0.1% were religious Jews and 0.1% were Hindus.[5]


Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[472]

Russia has an adult literacy rate of 100%,[473] and has compulsory education for a duration of 11 years, exclusively for children aged 7 to 17–18.[474] It grants free education to its citizens by constitution.[475] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, as well as vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[474] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia is among the world's most educated countries, and has the sixth-highest proportion of tertiary-level graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 62.1%.[476] It spent roughly 4.7% of its GDP on education in 2018.[477]

Russia's pre-school education system is highly developed and optional,[478] some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Primary school is compulsory for eleven years, starting from age 6 to 7, and leads to a basic general education certificate.[474] An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russians continue their education past this level.[479]

Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive:[475] first-degree courses usually take five years.[479] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[480] There are ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. Russia was the world's fifth-leading destination for international students in 2019, hosting roughly 300 thousand.[481]


Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.[482]

Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens, through a compulsory state health insurance program.[483] The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[484]

Russia spent 5.65% of its GDP on healthcare in 2019.[485] Its healthcare expenditure is notably lower than other developed nations.[486] Russia has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female,[7] due to its high male mortality rate.[487] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth was 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[488] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[489]

The principle cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[490] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia; most adults are overweight or obese.[491] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[492] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[493] Smoking is another health issue in the country.[494] The country's high suicide rate, although on the decline,[495] remains a significant social issue.[496]


The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night

Russian culture has been formed by the nation's history, its geographical location and its vast expanse, religious and social traditions, and Western influence.[497] Russian writers and philosophers have played an important role in the development of European literature and thought.[498][499] The Russians have also greatly influenced classical music,[500] ballet,[501] sport,[502] painting,[503] and cinema.[504] The nation has also made pioneering contributions to science and technology and space exploration.[505][506]

Russia is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 19 out of which are cultural; while 27 more sites lie on the tentative list.[507] The large global Russian diaspora has also played a major role in spreading Russian culture throughout the world. Russia's national symbol, the double-headed eagle, dates back to the Tsardom period, and is featured in its coat of arms and heraldry.[63] The Russian Bear and Mother Russia are often used as national personifications of the country.[508][509] Matryoshka dolls are considered a cultural icon of Russia.[510]


The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg

Russia has eight—public, patriotic, and religious—official holidays.[511] The year starts with New Year's Day on 1 January, soon followed by Russian Orthodox Christmas on 7 January; the two are the country's most popular holidays.[512] Defender of the Fatherland Day, dedicated to men, is celebrated on 23 February.[513] International Women's Day on 8 March, gained momentum in Russia during the Soviet era. The annual celebration of women has become so popular, especially among Russian men, that Moscow's flower vendors often see profits of "15 times" more than other holidays.[514] Spring and Labor Day, originally a Soviet era holiday dedicated to workers, is celebrated on 1 May.[515]

Victory Day, which honors Soviet victory over Nazi Germany and the End of World War II in Europe, is celebrated as an annual large parade in Moscow's Red Square;[516] and marks the famous Immortal Regiment civil event.[517] Other patriotic holidays include Russia Day on 12 June, celebrated to commemorate Russia's declaration of sovereignty from the collapsing Soviet Union;[518] and Unity Day on 4 November, commemorating the 1612 uprising which marked the end of the Polish occupation of Moscow.[519]

There are many popular non-public holidays. Old New Year is celebrated on 14 January.[520] Maslenitsa is an ancient and popular East Slavic folk holiday.[521] Cosmonautics Day on 12 April, in tribute to the first human trip into space.[522] Two major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday.[523]

Art and architecture

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos. In the early 15th-century, the master icon painter Andrei Rublev created some of Russia's most treasured religious art.[524] The Russian Academy of Arts, which was established in 1757, to train Russian artists, brought Western techniques of secular painting to Russia.[78] In the 18th century, academicians Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky became influential.[525] The early 19th century saw many prominent paintings by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov, both of whom were known for Romantic historical canvases.[526][527] Ivan Aivazovsky, another Romantic painter, is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.[528]

In the 1860s, a group of critical realists (Peredvizhniki), led by Ivan Kramskoy, Ilya Repin and Vasiliy Perov broke with the academy, and portrayed the many-sided aspects of social life in paintings.[529] The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolism; represented by Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich.[530][531] The Russian avant-garde flourished from approximately 1890 to 1930; and globally influential artists from this era were El Lissitzky,[532] Kazimir Malevich, Natalia Goncharova, Wassily Kandinsky, and Marc Chagall.[533]

The history of Russian architecture begins with early woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs, and the church architecture of Kievan Rus'.[534] Following the Christianization of Kievan Rus', for several centuries it was influenced predominantly by Byzantine architecture.[535] Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia.[536] The 16th-century saw the development of the unique tent-like churches; and the onion dome design, which is a distinctive feature of Russian architecture.[537] In the 17th-century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1680s.[538]

After the reforms of Peter the Great, Russia's architecture became influenced by Western European styles. The 18th-century taste for Rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. The most influential Russian architects of the eighteenth century; Vasily Bazhenov, Matvey Kazakov, and Ivan Starov, created lasting monuments in Moscow and Saint Petersburg and established a base for the more Russian forms that followed.[524] During the reign of Catherine the Great, Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture.[539] Under Alexander I, Empire style became the de facto architectural style.[540] The second half of the 19th-century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival style.[541] In early 20th-century, Russian neoclassical revival became a trend.[542] Prevalent styles of the late 20th-century were Art Nouveau,[543] Constructivism,[544] and Socialist Classicism.[545]


Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), in a 1893 painting by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov

Until the 18th-century, music in Russia consisted mainly of church music and folk songs and dances.[546] In the 19th-century, it was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful, who were later succeeded by the Belyayev circle,[547] and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein.[548] The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian and European classical music. World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Glazunov,[546] Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich, and later Edison Denisov, Sofia Gubaidulina,[549] Georgy Sviridov,[550] and Alfred Schnittke.[549]

Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer,[551][552] cellist Mstislav Rostropovich,[553] pianists Vladimir Horowitz,[554] Sviatoslav Richter,[555] and Emil Gilels,[556] and vocalist Galina Vishnevskaya.[557]

During the Soviet era, popular music also produced a number of renowned figures, such as the two balladeersVladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava,[549] and performers such as Alla Pugacheva.[558] Jazz, even with sanctions from Soviet authorities, flourished and evolved into one of the country's most popular musical forms.[549] By the 1980s, rock music became popular across Russia, and produced bands such as Aria, Aquarium,[559] DDT,[560] and Kino;[561] the latter's leader Viktor Tsoi, was in particular, a gigantic figure.[562] Pop music has continued to flourish in Russia since the 1960s, with globally famous acts such as t.A.T.u.[563]

Literature and philosophy

Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time, with works such as War and Peace.[564]
Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881), one of the great novelists of all time, whose masterpieces include Crime and Punishment.[565]

Russian literature is considered to be among the world's most influential and developed.[498] It can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed.[566] By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, with works from Mikhail Lomonosov, Denis Fonvizin, Gavrila Derzhavin, and Nikolay Karamzin.[567] From the early 1830s, during the Golden Age of Russian Poetry, literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama.[568] Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore.[569] Following Pushkin's footsteps, a new generation of poets were born, including Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev and Afanasy Fet.[567]

The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol.[570] Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels.[571] Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy soon became internationally renowned. Ivan Goncharov is remembered mainly for his novel Oblomov.[572] Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote prose satire,[573] while Nikolai Leskov is best remembered for his shorter fiction.[574] In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist.[575] Other important 19th-century developments included the fabulist Ivan Krylov,[576] non-fiction writers such as the critic Vissarion Belinsky,[577] and playwrights such as Aleksandr Griboyedov and Aleksandr Ostrovsky.[578][579] The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. This era had poets such as Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Boris Pasternak, Konstantin Balmont,[580] Marina Tsvetaeva, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Osip Mandelshtam. It also produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.[567]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian literature split into Soviet and white émigré parts. In the 1930s, Socialist realism became the predominant trend in Russia. Its leading figure was Maxim Gorky, who laid the foundations of this style.[581] Mikhail Bulgakov was one of the leading writers of the Soviet era.[582] Nikolay Ostrovsky's novel How the Steel Was Tempered has been among the most successful works of Russian literature. Influential émigré writers include Vladimir Nabokov,[583] and Isaac Asimov; who was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers.[584] Some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, such as Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who wrote about life in the Gulag camps.[585]

Russian philosophy has been greatly influential. Alexander Herzen is known as one of the fathers of agrarian populism.[586] Mikhail Bakunin is referred to as the father of anarchism.[587] Peter Kropotkin was the most important theorist of anarcho-communism.[588] Mikhail Bakhtin's writings have significantly inspired scholars.[589] Helena Blavatsky gained international following as the leading theoretician of Theosophy, and co-founded the Theosophical Society.[590] Vladimir Lenin, a major revolutionary, developed a variant of communism known as Leninism.[591] Leon Trotsky, on the other hand, founded Trotskyism.[592] Alexander Zinoviev was a prominent philosopher in the second half of the 20th century.[593] Aleksandr Dugin, known for his fascist views, has been regarded as the "guru of geopolitics".[594]


Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.

Russian cuisine has been formed by climate, cultural and religious traditions, and the vast geography of the nation; and it shares similarities with the cuisines of its neighbouring countries. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for many drinks. Bread, of many varieties,[595] is very popular across Russia.[596] Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka, and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) and mayonnaise are often added to soups and salads.[597][598] Pirozhki,[599] blini,[600] and syrniki are native types of pancakes.[601] Beef Stroganoff,[602]:266 Chicken Kiev,[602]:320 pelmeni,[603] and shashlyk are popular meat dishes.[604] Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat.[605] Salads include Olivier salad,[606] vinegret,[607] and dressed herring.[608]

Russia's national non-alcoholic drink is kvass,[609] and the national alcoholic drink is vodka; its creation in the nation dates back to the 14th century.[610] The country has the world's highest vodka consumption,[611] while beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage.[612] Wine has become increasingly popular in Russia in the 21st century.[613] Tea has been popular in Russia for centuries.[614]

Mass media and cinema

There are 400 news agencies in Russia, among which the largest internationally operating are TASS, RIA Novosti, Sputnik, and Interfax.[616] Television is the most popular medium in Russia.[617] Among the 3,000 licensed radio stations nationwide, notable ones include Radio Rossii, Vesti FM, Echo of Moscow, Radio Mayak, and Russkoye Radio. Of the 16,000 registered newspapers, Argumenty i Fakty, Komsomolskaya Pravda, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Izvestia, and Moskovskij Komsomolets are popular. State-run Channel One and Russia-1 are the leading news channels, while RT is the flagship of Russia's international media operations.[617] Russia has the largest video gaming market in Europe, with over 65 million players nationwide.[618]

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention, resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin, which was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.[619][620] Soviet-era filmmakers, most notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, would go on to become among of the world's most innovative and influential directors.[621][622] Eisenstein was a student of Lev Kuleshov, who developed the groundbreaking Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography.[623] Dziga Vertov's "Kino-Eye" theory had a huge impact on the development of documentary filmmaking and cinema realism.[624] Many Soviet socialist realism films were artistically successful, including Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, and Ballad of a Soldier.[504]

The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema.[504] The comedies of Eldar Ryazanov and Leonid Gaidai of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catchphrases still in use today.[625][626] In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace, which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.[504] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space.[627] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian cinema industry suffered large losses—however, since the late 2000s, it has seen growth once again, and continues to expand.[628]


Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.[629]

Football is the most popular sport in Russia.[630] The Soviet Union national football team became the first European champions by winning Euro 1960,[631] and reached the finals of Euro 1988.[632] Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008.[633][634] The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008.[635] Russia was the host nation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup,[636] and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[637] However, Russian teams are currently suspended from FIFA and UEFA competitions.[638]

Ice hockey is very popular in Russia, and the Soviet national ice hockey team dominated the sport internationally throughout its existence.[502] Bandy is Russia's national sport, and it has historically been the highest-achieving country in the sport.[639] The Russian national basketball team won the EuroBasket 2007,[640] and the Russian basketball club PBC CSKA Moscow is among the most successful European basketball teams.[641] The annual Formula One Russian Grand Prix was held at the Sochi Autodrom in the Sochi Olympic Park, until its termination following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022.[642][643]

Historically, Russian athletes have been one of the most successful contenders in the Olympic Games.[502] Russia is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics; and Russian synchronised swimming is considered to be the world's best.[644] Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing.[645] Russia has produced numerous prominent tennis players.[646] Chess is also a widely popular pastime in the nation, with many of the world's top chess players being Russian for decades.[647] The 1980 Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow,[648] and the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics were hosted in Sochi.[649][650] However, Russia has also had 43 Olympic medals stripped from its athletes due to doping violations, which is the most of any country, and nearly a third of the global total.[651]

See also


  1. Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014, remains internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine.[1] Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson, and Zaporizhzhia oblasts, which were annexed in 2022, also remain internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine. The southernmost Kuril Islands are also the subject of a territorial dispute with Japan since their occupation by the Soviet Union at the end of World War II.[2]
  2. Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014, remains internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine.[1] Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson, and Zaporizhzhia oblasts, which were annexed in 2022, also remain internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine. The southernmost Kuril Islands are also the subject of a territorial dispute with Japan since their occupation by the Soviet Union at the end of World War II.[2]
  3. The Sreda Arena Atlas 2012 did not count the populations of two federal subjects of Russia where the majority of the population is Muslim, namely Chechnya and Ingushetia, which together had a population of nearly 2 million, thus the proportion of Muslims was possibly slightly underestimated.[5]
  4. Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]
  5. Russia shares land borders with fourteen sovereign states: Norway and Finland to the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and Ukraine to the west, as well as Lithuania and Poland (with Kaliningrad Oblast); Georgia and Azerbaijan to the southwest; Kazakhstan and Mongolia to the south; China and North Korea to the southeast — as well as sharing maritime boundaries with Japan and the United States. Russia also shares borders with the two partially recognised breakaway states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia that it occupies in Georgia.
  6. Most notably the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, the Russian apartment bombings, the Moscow theater hostage crisis, and the Beslan school siege.
  7. Russia has an additional 850 km (530 mi) of coastline along the Caspian Sea, which is the world's largest inland body of water, and has been variously classified as a sea or a lake.[212]
  8. Russia, by land area, is larger than the continents of Australia, Antarctica, and Europe; although it covers a large part of the latter itself. Its land area could be roughly compared to that of South America.
  9. Russia borders, clockwise, to its southwest: the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, to its west: the Baltic Sea, to its north: the Barents Sea (White Sea, Pechora Sea), the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, and the East Siberian Sea, to its northeast: the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and to its southeast: the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan.
  10. In 2020, constitutional amendments were signed into law that limit the president to two terms overall rather than two consecutive terms, with this limit reset for current and previous presidents.[248]
  11. Including the Republic of Crimea, and the federal city of Sevastopol, which are disputed between Russia and Ukraine, since the internationally unrecognised annexation of Crimea in 2014.[1]


     This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY 4.0 (license statement/permission). Text taken from Frequently Asked Questions on Energy Security, International Energy Agency, the International Energy Agency. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.


    1. Pifer, Steven (17 March 2020). "Crimea: Six years after illegal annexation". Brookings Institute. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
    2. Chapple, Amos (4 January 2019). "The Kurile Islands: Why Russia And Japan Never Made Peace After World War II". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
    3. Chevalier, Joan F. (2006). "Russian as the National Language: An Overview of Language Planning in the Russian Federation". Russian Language Journal. American Councils for International Education ACTR / ACCELS. 56: 25–36. JSTOR 43669126.
    4. "ВПН-2010". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
    5. "Арена: Атлас религий и национальностей" [Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities] (PDF). Среда (Sreda). 2012. See also the results' main interactive mapping and the static mappings: "Religions in Russia by federal subject" (Map). Ogonek. 34 (5243). 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. The Sreda Arena Atlas was realised in cooperation with the All-Russia Population Census 2010 (Всероссийской переписи населения 2010), the Russian Ministry of Justice (Минюста РФ), the Public Opinion Foundation (Фонда Общественного Мнения) and presented among others by the Analytical Department of the Synodal Information Department of the Russian Orthodox Church. See: "Проект АРЕНА: Атлас религий и национальностей" [Project ARENA: Atlas of religions and nationalities]. Russian Journal. 10 December 2012.
    6. Prof. Dr. Martin Krzywdzinski (26 January 2020). Consent and Control in the Authoritarian Workplace: Russia and China Compared. Oxford University Press. pp. 252–. ISBN 978-0-19-252902-2. OCLC 1026492383. officially a democratic state with the rule of law, in practice an authoritarian dictatorship
    7. "Russia – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
    8. Kuzio, Taras (2016). "Nationalism and authoritarianism in Russia". Communist and Post-Communist Studies. University of California Press. 49 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2015.12.002. JSTOR 48610429.
    9. "World Statistics Pocketbook 2016 edition" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
    10. "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
    11. Including 2,482,450 people living on the annexed Crimean Peninsula Том 1. Численность и размещение населения. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 3 September 2022.
    12. Предварительная оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2022 года и в среднем за 2021 год [Preliminary estimated population as of 1 January 2022 and on the average for 2021] (XLS). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 30 January 2022.
    13. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
    14. "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
    15. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    16. "Russia", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 12 October 2022, retrieved 14 October 2022
    17. Webster's II New College Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1999. p. 970. ISBN 978-0395962145.
    18. Kuchkin, V. A. (2014). Русская земля [Russian land]. In Melnikova, E. A.; Petrukhina, V. Ya. (eds.). Древняя Русь в средневековом мире [Old Rus' in the medieval world] (in Russian). Moscow: Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Ladomir. pp. 700–701.
    19. Kort, Michael (2008). A Brief History of Russia. New York, NY: Checkmark Books. p. 6. ISBN 0816071136.
    20. Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus. Brill Publishers. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-90-04-13874-2.
    21. Nazarenko, Aleksandr Vasilevich (2001). "1. Имя "Русь" в древнейшей западноевропейской языковой традиции (XI-XII века)" [The name Rus' in the old tradition of Western European language (XI-XII centuries)]. Древняя Русь на международных путях: междисциплинарные очерки культурных, торговых, политических связей IX-XII веков [Old Rus' on international routes: interdisciplinary essays on cultural, trade, and political ties in the 9th-12th centuries] (in Russian). Languages of the Rus' culture. pp. 40, 42–45, 49–50. ISBN 978-5-7859-0085-1. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011.
    22. Milner-Gulland, R. R. (1997). The Russians: The People of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-631-21849-4.
    23. Langer, Lawrence N. (2021). Historical Dictionary of Medieval Russia (Second ed.). Lanham. p. 182. ISBN 1538119420.
    24. Hellberg-Hirn, Elena (1998). Soil and Soul: The Symbolic World of Russianness. Aldershot [Hants, England]: Ashgate. p. 54. ISBN 1855218712.
    25. Merridale, Catherine (2003). "Redesigning History in Contemporary Russia". Journal of Contemporary History. 38 (1): 13–28. doi:10.1177/0022009403038001961. JSTOR 3180694. S2CID 143597960.
    26. Shchelinsky, V.E.; Gurova, M.; Tesakov, A.S.; Titov, V.V.; Frolov, P.D.; Simakova, A.N. (30 January 2016). "The Early Pleistocene site of Kermek in western Ciscaucasia (southern Russia): Stratigraphy, biotic record and lithic industry (preliminary results)". Quaternary International. 393: 51–69. Bibcode:2016QuInt.393...51S. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.10.032.
    27. Chepalyga, A.L.; Amirkhanov, Kh.A.; Trubikhin, V.M.; Sadchikova, T.A.; Pirogov, A.N.; Taimazov, A.I. (2011). "Geoarchaeology of the earliest paleolithic sites (Oldowan) in the North Caucasus and the East Europe". Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
    28. Douka, K. (2019). "Age estimates for hominin fossils and the onset of the Upper Palaeolithic at Denisova Cave". Nature. 565 (7741): 640–644. Bibcode:2019Natur.565..640D. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0870-z. PMID 30700871. S2CID 59525455.
    29. Warren, Matthew (22 August 2018). "Mum's a Neanderthal, Dad's a Denisovan: First discovery of an ancient-human hybrid". Nature. 560 (7719): 417–418. Bibcode:2018Natur.560..417W. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-06004-0. PMID 30135540.
    30. Igor V. Ovchinnikov; Anders Götherström; Galina P. Romanova; Vitaliy M. Kharitonov; Kerstin Lidén; William Goodwin (30 March 2000). "Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus". Nature. 404 (6777): 490–493. Bibcode:2000Natur.404..490O. doi:10.1038/35006625. PMID 10761915. S2CID 3101375.
    31. Fu Q, Li H, Moorjani P, Jay F, Slepchenko SM, Bondarev AA, Johnson PL, Aximu-Petri A, Prüfer K, de Filippo C, Meyer M, Zwyns N, Salazar-García DC, Kuzmin YV, Keates SG, Kosintsev PA, Razhev DI, Richards MP, Peristov NV, Lachmann M, Douka K, Higham TF, Slatkin M, Hublin JJ, Reich D, Kelso J, Viola TB, Pääbo S (23 October 2014). "Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia". Nature. 514 (7523): 445–449. Bibcode:2014Natur.514..445F. doi:10.1038/nature13810. hdl:10550/42071. PMC 4753769. PMID 25341783.
    32. Dinnis, Rob; Bessudnov, Alexander; Reynolds, Natasha; Devièse, Thibaut; Pate, Abi; Sablin, Mikhail; Sinitsyn, Andrei; Higham, Thomas (2019). "New data for the Early Upper Paleolithic of Kostenki (Russia)" (PDF). Journal of Human Evolution. 127: 21–40. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.11.012. PMID 30777356. S2CID 73486830.
    33. Sikora, Martin, et al. (2017). "Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers". Science. 358 (6363): 659–662. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..659S. doi:10.1126/science.aao1807. PMID 28982795.
    34. Pavlov, Pavel; John Inge Svendsen; Svein Indrelid (6 September 2001). "Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago". Nature. 413 (6851): 64–67. Bibcode:2001Natur.413...64P. doi:10.1038/35092552. PMID 11544525. S2CID 1986562.
    35. Gibbons, Ann (21 February 2017). "Thousands of horsemen may have swept into Bronze Age Europe, transforming the local population". Science.
    36. Anthony, David W.; Ringe, Don (1 January 2015). "The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives". Annual Review of Linguistics. 1 (1): 199–219. doi:10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124812. ISSN 2333-9683.
    37. Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Llamas, Bastien; Brandt, Guido; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fu, Qiaomei (11 June 2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. 522 (7555): 207–211. arXiv:1502.02783. Bibcode:2015Natur.522..207H. doi:10.1038/nature14317. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 5048219. PMID 25731166.
    38. Gibbons, Ann (10 June 2015). "Nomadic herders left a strong genetic mark on Europeans and Asians". Science. AAAS.
    39. Belinskij, Andrej; Härke, Heinrich (1999). "The 'Princess' of Ipatovo". Archeology. 52 (2). Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
    40. Drews, Robert (2004). Early Riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe. New York: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-415-32624-7.
    41. Koryakova, L. "Sintashta-Arkaim Culture". The Center for the Study of the Eurasian Nomads (CSEN). Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
    42. "1998 NOVA documentary: "Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden"". Transcript. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
    43. Lamnidis, Thiseas C.; Majander, Kerttu; Jeong, Choongwon; Salmela, Elina; Wessman, Anna; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Khartanovich, Valery; Balanovsky, Oleg; Ongyerth, Matthias; Weihmann, Antje; Sajantila, Antti; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante; Onkamo, Päivi; Haak, Wolfgang (27 November 2018). "Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 5018. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.5018L. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07483-5. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6258758. PMID 30479341. S2CID 53792952.
    44. Rostovtsev, M. (January 1921). "South Russia in the Prehistoric and Classical Period". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 26 (2): 203–224. doi:10.2307/1835935. JSTOR 1835935.
    45. Jacobson, E. (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World. Brill. p. 38. ISBN 978-90-04-09856-5.
    46. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Early History". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
    47. Tsetskhladze, G. R. (1998). The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology. F. Steiner. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-515-07302-8.
    48. Turchin, P. (2003). Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall. Princeton University Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0-691-11669-3.
    49. Weinryb, Bernard D. (1963). "The Khazars: An Annotated Bibliography". Studies in Bibliography and Booklore. Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. 6 (3): 111–129. JSTOR 27943361.
    50. Carter V. Findley, The Turks in World History (Oxford University Press, October 2004) ISBN 0-19-517726-6
    51. Zhernakova, Daria V.; et al. (2020). "Genome-wide sequence analyses of ethnic populations across Russia". Genomics. Elsevier. 112 (1): 442–458. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.03.007. PMID 30902755.
    52. Christian, D. (1998). A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-631-20814-3.
    53. Obolensky, D. (1994). Byzantium and the Slavs. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-88141-008-2.
    54. Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-86403-9.
    55. Obolensky, Dimitri (1971). Byzantium & the Slavs. pp. 75–108. ISBN 978-0-88141-008-2.
    56. Logan, Donald F. (1992). The Vikings in History 2nd Edition. Routledge. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-415-08396-6.
    57. Channon, John (1995). The Penguin historical atlas of Russia. London: Penguin. p. 16. ISBN 0140513264.
    58. "Battle of the Neva". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
    59. Ostrowski, Donald (2006). "Alexander Nevskii's "Battle on the Ice": The Creation of a Legend". Russian History. 33 (2/4): 289–312. doi:10.1163/187633106X00186. JSTOR 24664446.
    60. Halperin, Charles J. (1987). Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Indiana University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5.
    61. Glenn E., Curtis (1998). "Muscovy". Russia: A Country Study. Washington DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0866-2. OCLC 36351361.
    62. Davies, Brian L. (2014). Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500–1700 (PDF). Routledge. p. 4.
    63. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Muscovy". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
    64. Gleason, Abbott (2009). A Companion to Russian History. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. 126. ISBN 978-1444308426.
    65. Halperin, Charles J. (September 1999). "Novgorod and the 'Novgorodian Land'". Cahiers du Monde russe. EHESS. 40 (3): 345–363. JSTOR 20171136.
    66. Anderson, M.S. (2014). The Origins of the Modern European State System, 1494-1618. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317892755.
    67. Perrie, Maureen (April 1978). "The Popular Image of Ivan the Terrible". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 56 (2): 275–286. JSTOR 4207642.
    68. Skrynnikov, R. G. (1986). "Ermak's Siberian Expedition". Russian History. Brill Publishers. 13 (1): 1–39. doi:10.1163/187633186X00016. JSTOR 24655823.
    69. Filyushkin, Alexander (2016). "Livonian War in the Context of the European Wars of the 16th Century: Conquest, Borders, Geopolitics". Russian History. Brill. 43 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1163/18763316-04301004. JSTOR 44647035.
    70. Skrynnikov, R. G. (2015). Reign of Terror: Ivan IV. Brill. pp. 417–421. ISBN 978-9-004-30401-7.
    71. Dunning, Chester (1995). "Crisis, Conjuncture, and the Causes of the Time of Troubles". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. 19: 97–119. JSTOR 41036998.
    72. Wójcik, Zbigniew (1982). "Russian Endeavors for the Polish Crown in the Seventeenth Century". Slavic Review. Cambridge University Press. 41 (1): 59–72. doi:10.2307/2496635. JSTOR 2496635. S2CID 164176163.
    73. Bogolitsyna, Anna; Pichler, Bernhard; Vendl, Alfred; Mikhailov, Alexander; Sizov, Boris (2009). "Investigation of the Brass Monument to Minin and Pozharsky, Red Square, Moscow". Studies in Conservation. Taylor & Francis. 54 (1): 12–22. doi:10.1179/sic.2009.54.1.12. JSTOR 27867061. S2CID 138066784.
    74. Orchard, G. Edward (July 1989). "The Election of Michael Romanov". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 67 (3): 378–402. JSTOR 4210028.
    75. "The Russian Discovery of Siberia". Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 2000. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
    76. Frost, Robert I. (2000). The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-58206-429-4.
    77. Oliver, James A. (2006). The Bering Strait Crossing: A 21st Century Frontier between East and West. Information Architects. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0-9546995-8-1.
    78. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Early Imperial Russia". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
    79. Kohn, Hans (1960). "Germany and Russia". Current History. U of California Press. 38 (221): 1–5. doi:10.1525/curh.1960.38.221.1. JSTOR 45310370.
    80. Raeff, Marc (June 1970). "The Domestic Policies of Peter III and his Overthrow". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 75 (5): 1289–1310. doi:10.2307/1844479. JSTOR 1844479.
    81. Perkins, James Breck (October 1896). "The Partition of Poland". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 2 (1): 76–92. doi:10.2307/1833615. JSTOR 1833615.
    82. Anderson, M.S. (December 1958). "The Great Powers and the Russian Annexation of the Crimea, 1783–1784". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 37 (88): 17–41. JSTOR 4205010.
    83. Behrooz, Maziar (2013). "Revisiting the Second Russo-Iranian War (1826–1828): Causes and Perceptions". Iranian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 46 (3): 359–381. doi:10.1080/00210862.2012.758502. JSTOR 24482847. S2CID 143736977.
    84. Ragsdale, Hugh (1992). "Russia, Prussia, and Europe in the Policy of Paul I". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 31 (1): 81–118. JSTOR 41046596.
    85. "Finland". The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 4 (3): 350–364. August 1910. doi:10.2307/1945868. JSTOR 1945868.
    86. King, Charles (July 1993). "Moldova and the New Bessarabian Questions". The World Today. Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House). 49 (7): 135–139. JSTOR 40396520.
    87. "Exploration and Settlement on the Alaskan Coast". PBS. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
    88. McCartan, E. F. (1963). "The Long Voyages-Early Russian Circumnavigation". The Russian Review. 22 (1): 30–37. doi:10.2307/126593. JSTOR 126593.
    89. Blakemore, Erin (27 January 2020). "Who really discovered Antarctica? Depends who you ask". National Geographic. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
    90. Kroll, Mark J.; Toombs, Leslie A.; Wright, Peter (February 2000). "Napoleon's Tragic March Home from Moscow: Lessons in Hubris". The Academy of Management Executive. Academy of Management. 14 (1): 117–128. JSTOR 4165613.
    91. Ghervas, Stella (2015). "The Long Shadow of the Congress of Vienna". Journal of Modern European History. SAGE Publishers. 13 (4): 458–463. doi:10.17104/1611-8944-2015-4-458. JSTOR 26266203. S2CID 151713355.
    92. Grey, Ian (9 September 1973). "The Decembrists: Russia's First Revolutionaries". History Today. Vol. 23, no. 9. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
    93. Vincent, J.R. Vincent (1981). "The Parliamentary Dimension of the Crimean War". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Cambridge University Press. 31: 37–49. doi:10.2307/3679044. JSTOR 3679044. S2CID 153338264.
    94. Zenkovsky, Serge A. (October 1961). "The Emancipation of the Serfs in Retrospect". The Russian Review. Wiley. 20 (4): 280–293. doi:10.2307/126692. JSTOR 126692.
    95. Gunter, Michael M. (March 2013). "War and Diplomacy: The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 and the Treaty of Berlin". Journal of World History. University of Hawaiʻi Press. 24 (1): 231–233. doi:10.1353/jwh.2013.0031. ISSN 1527-8050. S2CID 159687214.
    96. Fromkin, David (1980). "The Great Game in Asia". Foreign Affairs. 58 (4): 936–951. doi:10.2307/20040512. JSTOR 20040512.
    97. Frank, Goodwin (1995). "Review: [Untitled]". The Slavic and East European Journal. 39 (4): 641–43. doi:10.2307/309128. JSTOR 309128.
    98. Taranovski, Theodore (1984). "Alexander III and his Bureaucracy: The Limitations on Autocratic Power". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 26 (2/3): 207–219. doi:10.1080/00085006.1984.11091776. JSTOR 40868293.
    99. Esthus, Raymond A. (October 1981). "Nicholas II and the Russo-Japanese War". The Russian Review. 40 (4): 396–411. doi:10.2307/129919. JSTOR 129919.
    100. Doctorow, Gilbert S. (1976). "The Fundamental State Laws of 23 April 1906". The Russian Review. 35 (1): 33–52. doi:10.2307/127655. JSTOR 127655.
    101. Williamson, Jr., Samuel R. (1988). "The Origins of World War I". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. The MIT Press. 18 (4): 795–818. doi:10.2307/204825. JSTOR 204825.
    102. Schmitt, Bernadotte E. (April 1924). "Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, 1902–1914". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 29 (3): 449–473. doi:10.2307/1836520. JSTOR 1836520.
    103. Schindler, John (2003). "Steamrollered in Galicia: The Austro-Hungarian Army and the Brusilov Offensive, 1916". War in History. 10 (1): 27–59. doi:10.1191/0968344503wh260oa. JSTOR 26061940. S2CID 143618581.
    104. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Revolutions and Civil War". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
    105. Walsh, Edmund (March 1928). "The Last Days of the Romanovs". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
    106. Mosse, W. E. (April 1964). "Interlude: The Russian Provisional Government 1917". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 15 (4): 408–419. JSTOR 149631.
    107. Figes, Orlando (November 1990). "The Red Army and Mass Mobilization during the Russian Civil War 1918–1920". Past & Present. Oxford University Press. 129 (190): 168–211. doi:10.1093/past/129.1.168. JSTOR 650938.
    108. Figes, Orlando (25 October 2017). "From Tsar to U.S.S.R.: Russia's Chaotic Year of Revolution". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
    109. Carley, Michael Jabara (November 1989). "Allied Intervention and the Russian Civil War, 1917–1922". The International History Review. 11 (4): 689–700. doi:10.1080/07075332.1989.9640530. JSTOR 40106089.
    110. Blakemore, Erin (2 September 2020). "How the Red Terror set a macabre course for the Soviet Union". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
    111. "Russian Civil War – Casualties and consequences of the war". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
    112. Schaufuss, Tatiana (May 1939). "The White Russian Refugees". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. SAGE Publishing. 203: 45–54. doi:10.1177/000271623920300106. JSTOR 1021884. S2CID 143704019.
    113. Haller, Francis (8 December 2003). "Famine in Russia: the hidden horrors of 1921". Le Temps. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
    114. Szporluk, Roman (1973). "Nationalities and the Russian Problem in the U.S.S.R.: an Historical Outline". Journal of International Affairs. Journal of International Affairs Editorial Board. 27 (1): 22–40. JSTOR 24356607.
    115. Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1984). "The Soviet Union: World Power of a New Type". Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science. The Academy of Political Science. 35 (3): 147–159. doi:10.2307/1174124. JSTOR 1174124.
    116. Glassman, Leo M. (April 1931). "Stalin's Rise to Power". Current History. University of California Press. 34 (1): 73–77. doi:10.1525/curh.1931.34.1.73. JSTOR 45336496. S2CID 248843930.
    117. Getty, J Arch. (January 1986). "Trotsky in Exile: The Founding of the Fourth International". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 38 (1): 24–35. JSTOR 151989.
    118. Bensley, Michael (2014). "Socialism in One Country: A Study of Pragmatism and Ideology in the Soviet 1920s" (PDF). University of Kent. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
    119. Kuromiya, Hirosaki (2005). "Accounting for the Great Terror". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 53 (1): 86–101. JSTOR 41051345.
    120. Rosefielde, Steven (January 1981). "An Assessment of the Sources and Uses of Gulag Forced Labour 1929–1956". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 33 (1): 51–87. JSTOR 151474.
    121. Kreindler, Isabelle (July 1986). "The Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary and an Update". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 38 (3): 387–405. JSTOR 151700.
    122. Zadoks, J.C. (2008). On the political economy of plant disease epidemics: Capita selecta in historical epidemiology. Wageningen Academic Publishers. p. 171. ISBN 978-90-8686-653-3. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
    123. Wolowyna, Oleh (October 2020). "A Demographic Framework for the 1932–1934 Famine in the Soviet Union". Journal of Genocide Research. 23 (4): 501–526. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1834741. S2CID 226316468.
    124. Rosefielde, Steven (1988). "Excess Deaths and Industrialization: A Realist Theory of Stalinist Economic Development in the 1930s". Journal of Contemporary History. SAGE Publishing. 23 (2): 277–289. doi:10.1177/002200948802300207. JSTOR 260849. PMID 11617302. S2CID 26592600.
    125. Kornat, Marek (December 2009). "Choosing Not to Choose in 1939: Poland's Assessment of the Nazi-Soviet Pact". The International History Review. Taylor & Francis. 31 (4): 771–797. doi:10.1080/07075332.2009.9641172. JSTOR 40647041. S2CID 155068339.
    126. Roberts, Geoffrey (1992). "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 44 (1): 57–78. JSTOR 152247.
    127. Spring, D. W. (April 1986). "The Soviet Decision for War against Finland, 30 November 1939". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 38 (2): 207–226. JSTOR 152247.
    128. Saburova, Irina (January 1955). "The Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States". The Russian Review. Wiley. 14 (1): 36–49. doi:10.2307/126075. JSTOR 126075.
    129. King, Charles (1999). The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-817-99791-5.
    130. Stolfi, Russel H. S. (March 1982). "Barbarossa Revisited: A Critical Reappraisal of the Opening Stages of the Russo-German Campaign (June–December 1941)". The Journal of Modern History. The University of Chicago Press. 54 (1): 27–46. doi:10.1086/244076. JSTOR 1906049. S2CID 143690841.
    131. Wilson, David (2018). The Eastern Front Campaign: An Operational Level Analysis. Eschenburg Press. ISBN 978-1-789-12193-3.
    132. Chapoutot, Johann (2018). The Law of Blood: Thinking and Acting as a Nazi. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-66043-4.
    133. D. Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York City: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9.
    134. Assmann, Kurt (January 1950). "The Battle for Moscow, Turning Point of the War". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 28 (2): 309–326. doi:10.2307/20030251. JSTOR 20030251.
    135. Clairmont, Frederic F. (July 2003). "Stalingrad: Hitler's Nemesis". Economic and Political Weekly. 38 (27): 2819–2823. JSTOR 4413752.
    136. Mulligan, Timothy P. (April 1987). "Spies, Ciphers and 'Zitadelle': Intelligence and the Battle of Kursk, 1943". Journal of Contemporary History. SAGE Publishing. 22 (2): 235–260. doi:10.1177/002200948702200203. JSTOR 260932. S2CID 162709461.
    137. Krypton, Constantin (January 1955). "The Siege of Leningrad". The Russian Review. Wiley. 13 (4): 255–265. doi:10.2307/125859. JSTOR 125859.
    138. Kagan, Neil; Hyslop, Stephen (7 May 2020). "The Soviet victory in the Battle of Berlin finished Nazi Germany". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
    139. Morton, Louis (July 1962). "Soviet Intervention in the War with Japan". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 40 (4): 653–662. doi:10.2307/20029588. JSTOR 20029588.
    140. "Russia's Monumental Tributes To The 'Great Patriotic War'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
    141. Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. New York City: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9.
    142. Ellman, Michael; Maksudov, S. (1994). "Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: A Note". Europe-Asia Studies. 46 (4): 671–680. doi:10.1080/09668139408412190. JSTOR 152934. PMID 12288331.
    143. Cumins, Keith (2011). Cataclysm: The War on the Eastern Front 1941-45. Helion and Company. ISBN 978-1-907-67723-6.
    144. Harrison, Mark (14 April 2010). "The Soviet Union after 1945: Economic Recovery and Political Repression" (PDF). University of Warwick. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    145. Reiman, Michael (2016). "The USSR as the New World Superpower". About Russia, Its Revolutions, Its Development and Its Present. Peter Lang. pp. 169–176. ISBN 978-3-631-67136-8. JSTOR j.ctv2t4dn7.14.
    146. Wills, Matthew (6 August 2015). "Potsdam and the Origins of the Cold War". JSTOR Daily. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
    147. Bunce, Valerie (1985). "The Empire Strikes Back: The Evolution of the Eastern Bloc from a Soviet Asset to a Soviet Liability". International Organization. The MIT Press. 39 (1): 1–46. doi:10.1017/S0020818300004859. JSTOR 2706633. S2CID 154309589.
    148. Holloway, David (May 1981). "Entering the Nuclear Arms Race: The Soviet Decision to Build the Atomic Bomb, 1939–1945". Social Studies of Science. SAGE Publishing. 11 (2): 159–197. doi:10.1177/030631278101100201. S2CID 145715873.
    149. Wolfe, Thomas W. (May 1966). "The Warsaw Pact in Evolution". The World Today. Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House). 22 (5): 191–198. JSTOR 40393859.
    150. Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (2007). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
    151. Jones, Polly (7 April 2006). The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: Negotiating Cultural and Social Change in the Khrushchev Era. Routledge. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-1-134-28347-7.
    152. Reid, Susan E. (1997). "Destalinization and Taste, 1953-1963". Journal of Design History. Oxford University Press. 10 (2): 177–201. doi:10.1093/jdh/10.2.177. JSTOR 1316131.
    153. Fuelling, Cody. "To the Brink: Turkish and Cuban Missiles during the Height of the Cold War". International Social Science Review. University of North Georgia. 93 (1). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
    154. "USSR Launches Sputnik". National Geographic. 7 July 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
    155. Dowling, Stephen (12 April 2021). "Yuri Gagarin: the spaceman who came in from the cold". BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
    156. Kontorovich, Vladimir (April 1988). "Lessons of the 1965 Soviet Economic Reform". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 40 (2): 308–316. JSTOR 151112.
    157. Westad, Odd Arne (February 1994). "Prelude to Invasion: The Soviet Union and the Afghan Communists, 1978–1979". The International History Review. Taylor & Francis. 16 (1): 49–69. doi:10.1080/07075332.1994.9640668. JSTOR 40106851.
    158. Daley, Tad (May 1989). "Afghanistan and Gorbachev's Global Foreign Policy". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 29 (5): 496–513. doi:10.2307/2644534. JSTOR 2644534.
    159. McForan, D. W. J. (1988). "Glasnost, Democracy, and Perestroika". International Social Science Review. Pi Gamma Mu. 63 (4): 165–174. JSTOR 41881835.
    160. Beissinger, Mark R. (August 2009). "Nationalism and the Collapse of Soviet Communism" (PDF). Contemporary European History. Princeton University. 18 (3): 331–347. doi:10.1017/S0960777309005074. JSTOR 40542830. S2CID 46642309. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
    161. Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (1991). "Reversing the Soviet Economic Collapse" (PDF). Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Brookings Institution. 1991 (2): 341–360. doi:10.2307/2534597. JSTOR 2534597. S2CID 153551739.
    162. Dahlburg, John-Thor; Marshall, Tyler (7 September 1991). "Independence for Baltic States: Freedom: Moscow formally recognizes Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, ending half a century of control. Soviets to begin talks soon on new relationships with the three nations". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
    163. Parks, Michael (19 March 1991). "Vote Backs Gorbachev but Not Convincingly: Soviet Union: His plan to preserve federal unity is supported—but so is Yeltsin's for a Russian presidency". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
    164. Remnick, David (14 June 1991). "YELTSIN ELECTED PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    165. Gibson, James L. (September 1997). "Mass Opposition to the Soviet Putsch of August 1991: Collective Action, Rational Choice, and Democratic Values in the Former Soviet Union". The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 97 (3): 671–684. doi:10.2307/2952082. JSTOR 2952082. S2CID 145141360.
    166. Foltynova, Kristyna (1 October 2021). "The Undoing Of The U.S.S.R.: How It Happened". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
    167. Shleifer, Andrei; Treisman, Daniel (2005). "A Normal Country: Russia After Communism" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. Harvard University. 19 (1): 151–174. doi:10.1257/0895330053147949. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    168. Watson, Joey (2 January 2019). "The rise of Russia's oligarchs — and their bid for legitimacy". ABC News. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
    169. Tikhomirov, Vladimir (June 1997). "Capital Flight from Post-Soviet Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. Taylor & Francis. 49 (4): 591–615. doi:10.1080/09668139708412462. JSTOR 153715.
    170. Hollander, D. (1997). "In Post-Soviet Russia, Fertility Is on the Decline; Marriage and Childbearing are Occurring Earlier". Family Planning Perspectives. Guttmacher Institute. 29 (2): 92–94. doi:10.2307/2953371. JSTOR 2953371.
    171. Chen, Lincoln C.; Wittgenstein, Friederike; McKeon, Elizabeth (September 1996). "The Upsurge of Mortality in Russia: Causes and Policy Implications". Population and Development Review. Population Council. 22 (3): 517–530. doi:10.2307/2137719. JSTOR 2137719.
    172. Klugman, Jeni; Braithwaite, Jeanine (February 1998). "Poverty in Russia during the Transition: An Overview". The World Bank Research Observer. Oxford University Press. 13 (1): 37–58. doi:10.1093/wbro/13.1.37. JSTOR 3986388.
    173. Shlapentokh, Vladimir (March 2013). "Corruption, the power of state and big business in Soviet and post-Soviet regimes". Communist and Post-Communist Studies. University of California Press. 46 (1): 147–158. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2012.12.010. JSTOR 48610380.
    174. Frisby, Tanya (January 1998). "The Rise of Organised Crime in Russia: Its Roots and Social Significance". Europe-Asia Studies. Taylor & Francis. 50 (1): 27–49. doi:10.1080/09668139808412522. JSTOR 153404.
    175. Goncharenko, Roman (3 October 2018). "Russia's 1993 crisis still shaping Kremlin politics, 25 years on". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
    176. "Who Was Who? The Key Players In Russia's Dramatic October 1993 Showdown". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
    177. Wilhelmsen, Julie (2005). "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Islamisation of the Chechen Separatist Movement". Europe-Asia Studies. 57 (1): 35–37. doi:10.1080/0966813052000314101. ISSN 0966-8136. JSTOR 30043851. S2CID 153594637.
    178. Hockstader, Lee (12 December 1995). "CHECHEN WAR REVEALS WEAKNESSES IN YELTSIN, RUSSIA'S NEW DEMOCRACY". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    179. Sinai, Joshua (2015). "The Terrorist Threats Against Russia and its Counterterrorism Response Measures". Connections. Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes. 14 (4): 95–102. doi:10.11610/Connections.14.4.08. JSTOR 26326421.
    180. "26 years on, Russia set to repay all Soviet Union's foreign debt". The Straits Times. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
    181. Lipton, David; Sachs, Jeffrey D.; Mau, Vladimir; Phelps, Edmund S. (1992). "Prospects for Russia's Economic Reforms" (PDF). Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 1992 (2): 213. doi:10.2307/2534584. ISSN 0007-2303. JSTOR 2534584.
    182. Chiodo, Abbigail J.; Owyang, Michael T. (2002). "A Case Study of a Currency Crisis: The Russian Default of 1998" (PDF). Canadian Parliamentary Review. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 86 (6): 7–18.
    183. Bohlen, Celestine (1 January 2000). "YELTSIN RESIGNS: THE OVERVIEW; Yeltsin Resigns, Naming Putin as Acting President To Run in March Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
    184. Wines, Mark (27 March 2000). "ELECTION IN RUSSIA: THE OVERVIEW; Putin Wins Russia Vote in First Round, But His Majority Is Less Than Expected". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
    185. O'Loughlin, John; W. Witmer, Frank D. (January 2011). "The Localized Geographies of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999–2007". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Taylor & Francis. 101 (1): 178–201. doi:10.1080/00045608.2010.534713. JSTOR 27980166. S2CID 52248942.
    186. Mydans, Seth (15 March 2004). "As Expected, Putin Easily Wins a Second Term in Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
    187. Ellyatt, Holly (11 October 2021). "5 charts show Russia's economic highs and lows under Putin". CNBC. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
    188. Kotkin, Stephen (2015). "The Resistible Rise of Vladimir Putin: Russia's Nightmare Dressed Like a Daydream". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 94 (2): 140–153. JSTOR 24483492.
    189. Harding, Luke (8 May 2008). "Putin ever present as Medvedev becomes president". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    190. Monaghan, Andrew (January 2012). "The vertikal: power and authority in Russia". International Affairs. Oxford University Press. 88 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2012.01053.x. JSTOR 41428537.
    191. Harzl, B.C.; Petrov, R. (2021). Unrecognized Entities: Perspectives in International, European and Constitutional Law. Law in Eastern Europe. Brill. p. 246. ISBN 978-90-04-49910-2. Retrieved 18 December 2022.
    192. Emerson, Michael (August 2008). "Post-Mortem on Europe's First War of the 21st Century" (PDF) (167). Centre for European Policy Studies. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1333553. S2CID 127834430. Retrieved 6 April 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    193. Yekelchyk, Serhy (2020). Ukraine: What Everyone Needs to Know (2nd ed.). New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-753213-3. OCLC 1190722543.
    194. Grossman, Erik J. (2018). "Russia's Frozen Conflicts and the Donbas". Parameters. 48 (2). doi:10.55540/0031-1723.2944. S2CID 159155441.
    195. "Russian forces launch full-scale invasion of Ukraine". Al Jazeera. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
    196. Herb, Jeremy; Starr, Barbara; Kaufman, Ellie (24 February 2022). "US orders 7,000 more troops to Europe following Russia's invasion of Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
    197. Borger, Julian (2 March 2022). "UN votes to condemn Russia's invasion of Ukraine and calls for withdrawal". The Guardian. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
    198. Walsh, Ben (9 March 2022). "The unprecedented American sanctions on Russia, explained". Vox. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
    199. "The Russian Federation is excluded from the Council of Europe" (Press release). Council of Europe. 16 March 2022.
    200. "UN General Assembly votes to suspend Russia from the Human Rights Council". United Nations. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
    201. Landay, Jonathan (30 September 2022). "Defiant Putin proclaims Ukrainian annexation as military setback looms". Reuters. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
    202. "European Parliament declares Russia to be a state sponsor of terrorism". European Parliament. 23 November 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
    203. "Resolution 479" (PDF). NATO.
    204. "Statement by President von der Leyen on Russian accountability and the use of Russian frozen assets". European Commission. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
    205. "Ukraine: Commission presents options to make sure that Russia pays for its crimes". European Commission. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
    206. Whitelaw, Kevin; Valero, Jorge (30 November 2022). "EU Explores New Steps to Probe Russian Crimes, Use Frozen Assets". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
    207. Olson, Carly; Surman, Matt (8 December 2022) [Originally published November 30, 2022]. "Russia-Ukraine War: Top E.U. Official Calls for Tribunal for War Crimes in Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
    208. Rauhala, Emily (30 November 2022). "E.U. proposes special tribunal to investigate Russian crimes in Ukraine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
    209. Carbonaro, Giulia (1 December 2022) [Originally published November 30, 2022]. "The EU wants a court to probe Russian war crime claims. Will it work?". Euronews. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
    210. "PACE calls for an ad hoc international criminal tribunal to hold to account perpetrators of the crime of aggression against Ukraine". Council of Europe. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
    211. "Russia". National Geographic Kids. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
    212. "Is the Caspian a sea or a lake?". The Economist. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    213. "Coastline – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    214. "Russia – Land". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
    215. Clark, Stuart (28 July 2015). "Pluto: ten things we now know about the dwarf planet". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
    216. "Klyuchevskoy". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
    217. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Topography and Drainage". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
    218. "The Ural Mountains". NASA Earth Observatory. NASA. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
    219. "Europe – Land". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The lowest terrain in Europe, virtually lacking relief, stands at the head of the Caspian Sea; there the Caspian Depression reaches some 95 feet (29 metres) below sea level.
    220. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Global Position and Boundaries". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
    221. "Russia". The Arctic Institute – Center for Circumpolar Security Studies. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    222. Aziz, Ziryan (28 February 2020). "Island hopping in Russia: Sakhalin, Kuril Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula". Euronews. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    223. "Diomede Islands – Russia". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    224. "Lake Baikal—A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
    225. "Total renewable water resources". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
    226. Hartley, Janet M. (2020). The Volga: A History. Yale University Press. pp. 5, 316. ISBN 978-0-300-25604-8.
    227. "Russia's Largest Rivers From the Amur to the Volga". The Moscow Times. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
    228. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Climate". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
    229. Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
    230. Drozdov, V. A.; Glezer, O. B.; Nefedova, T. G.; Shabdurasulov, I. V. (1992). "Ecological and Geographical Characteristics of the Coastal Zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal. 27 (2): 169. doi:10.1007/BF00717701. S2CID 128960702.
    231. "Putin urges authorities to take action as wildfires engulf Siberia". euronews. 10 May 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
    232. "Why Russia's thawing permafrost is a global problem". NPR. 22 January 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
    233. "Russian Federation – Main Details". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    234. Gardiner, Beth (23 March 2021). "Will Russia's Forests Be an Asset or an Obstacle in Climate Fight?". Yale University. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
    235. Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Fedorov, Stanislav; Karminov, Victor; Ontikov, Petr; Santoro, Maurizio; See, Linda; Kositsyn, Vladimir; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Romanovskaya, Anna; Korotkov, Vladimir; Lesiv, Myroslava; Bartalev, Sergey; Fritz, Steffen; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kraxner, Florian (17 June 2021). "Russian forest sequesters substantially more carbon than previously reported". Scientific Reports. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 11 (1): 12825. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1112825S. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-92152-9. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8211780. PMID 34140583.
    236. "Species richness of Russia". REC. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    237. "Russian Federation". UNESCO. June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
    238. "Look Inside Russia's Wildest Nature Reserves—Now Turning 100". National Geographic. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
    239. Danilov-Danil'yan, V.I.; Reyf, I.E. (2018). The Biosphere and Civilization: In the Throes of a Global Crisis. Springer International Publishing. p. 234. ISBN 978-3-319-67193-2. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
    240. Grantham HS, et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
    241. Bird, Richard M.; Ebel, Robert D.; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge (2007). "Asymmetric Federalism in Russia: Cure or Poison?". Fiscal Fragmentation in Decentralized Countries. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 227–266. ISBN 978-1-845-42402-2.
    242. "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 80, § 1). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
    243. DeRouen, Karl R.; Heo, Uk (2005). Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies. ABC-CLIO. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-85109-781-4.
    244. "Chapter 5. The Federal Assembly | The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Retrieved 4 February 2022.
    245. Remington, Thomas F. (2014). Presidential Decrees in Russia: A Comparative Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-107-04079-3. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
    246. "Chapter 7. Judicial Power | The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Retrieved 4 February 2022.
    247. "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 81, § 3). Retrieved 2 February 2022.
    248. "Putin strongly backed in controversial Russian reform vote". BBC. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
    249. Reuter, Ora John (March 2010). "The Politics of Dominant Party Formation: United Russia and Russia's Governors". Europe-Asia Studies. Taylor & Francis. 62 (2): 293–327. doi:10.1080/09668130903506847. JSTOR 27808691. S2CID 153495141.
    250. Konitzer, Andrew; Wegren, Stephen K. (2006). "Federalism and Political Recentralization in the Russian Federation: United Russia as the Party of Power". Publius. Oxford University Press. 36 (4): 503–522. doi:10.1093/publius/pjl004. JSTOR 4624765.
    251. Kjell Engelbrekt; Bertil Nygren, eds. (18 March 2014). Russia and Europe: Building Bridges, Digging Trenches. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-99200-1.
    252. Kiyan, Olga (9 April 2020). "Russia & Democratic Backsliding: The Future of Putinism". Harvard International Review. Harvard International Relations Council. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
    253. Fischer, Sabine (2022). "Russia on the road to dictatorship: Internal political repercussions of the attack on Ukraine". doi:10.18449/2022C30. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    254. Brian D. Taylor (2018). The Code of Putinism. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–7. ISBN 978-0-19-086731-7. OCLC 1022076734.
    255. "Chapter 5. The Federal Assembly". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
    256. KARTASHKIN, V.A.; ABASHIDZE, A.KH. (2004). "Autonomy in the Russian Federation: Theory and Practice". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. Brill. 10 (3): 203–220. doi:10.1163/1571811031310738. JSTOR 24675138.
    257. Petrov, Nikolai (March 2002). "Seven Faces of Putin's Russia: Federal Districts as the New Level of State—Territorial Composition". Security Dialogue. SAGE Publishing. 33 (1): 73–91. doi:10.1177/0967010602033001006. JSTOR 26298005. S2CID 153455573.
    258. Russell, Martin (October 2015). "Russia's constitutional structure" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. European Parliament. doi:10.2861/664907. ISBN 978-92-823-8022-2. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
    259. Hale, Henry E. (March 2005). "The Makeup and Breakup of Ethnofederal States: Why Russia Survives Where the USSR Fell". Perspectives on Politics. American Political Science Association. 3 (1): 55–70. doi:10.1017/S153759270505005X. JSTOR 3688110. S2CID 145259594.
    260. Orttung, Robert; Lussier, Danielle; Paetskaya, Anna (2000). The Republics and Regions of the Russian Federation: A Guide to Politics, Policies, and Leaders. New York City: EastWest Institute. pp. 523–524. ISBN 978-0-7656-0559-7.
    261. Shabad, Theodore (April 1946). "Political-Administrative Divisions of the U.S.S.R., 1945". Geographical Review. Taylor & Francis. 36 (2): 303–311. doi:10.2307/210882. JSTOR 210882.
    262. Sharafutdinova, Gulnaz (April 2006). "When Do Elites Compete? The Determinants of Political Competition in Russian Regions". Comparative Politics. Comparative Politics, Ph.D. Programs in Political Science, City University of New York. 38 (3): 273–293. doi:10.2307/20433998. JSTOR 20433998.
    263. Kelesh, Yulia V.; Bessonova, Elena A. (11 June 2021). "Digitalization management system of Russia's federal cities focused on prospective application throughout the country" (PDF). SHS Web of Conferences. 110 (5011): 05011. doi:10.1051/shsconf/202111005011. S2CID 236655658.
    264. Alessandro, Vitale (2015). "Ethnopolitics as Co-operation and Coexistence: The Case-Study of the Jewish Autonomous Region in Siberia". Politeja. Księgarnia Akademicka (31/2): 123–142. doi:10.12797/Politeja.12.2015.31_2.09. JSTOR 24919780. S2CID 132962208.
    265. "Global Diplomacy Index – Country Rank". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
    266. Neumann, Iver B (20 May 2008). "Russia as a Great Power, 1815–2007". Journal of International Relations and Development. 11 (11): 128–151. doi:10.1057/jird.2008.7. S2CID 143792013.
    267. Fish, M. Steven; Samarin, Melissa; Way, Lucan Ahmad (2017). "Russia and the CIS in 2016". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 57 (1): 93–102. doi:10.1525/as.2017.57.1.93. JSTOR 26367728.
    268. Sadri, Houman A. (2014). "Eurasian Economic Union (Eeu): a good idea or a Russian takeover?". Rivista di studi politici internazionali. Maria Grazia Melchionni. 81 (4): 553–561. JSTOR 43580687.
    269. "What is the Collective Security Treaty Organisation?". The Economist. 6 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
    270. Tiezzi, Shannon (21 July 2015). "Russia's 'Pivot to Asia' and the SCO". The Diplomat. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
    271. Roberts, Cynthia (January 2010). "Russia's BRICs Diplomacy: Rising Outsider with Dreams of an Insider". Polity. The University of Chicago Press. 42 (1): 38–73. doi:10.1057/pol.2009.18. JSTOR 40587582. S2CID 54682547.
    272. Hancock, Kathleen J. (April 2006). "The Semi-Sovereign State: Belarus and the Russian Neo-Empire". Foreign Policy Analysis. Oxford University Press. 2 (2): 117–136. doi:10.1111/j.1743-8594.2006.00023.x. JSTOR 24907272. S2CID 153926665.
    273. Cohen, Lenard J. (1994). "Russia and the Balkans: Pan-Slavism, Partnership and Power". International Journal. SAGE Publishing. 49 (4): 814–845. doi:10.2307/40202977. JSTOR 40202977.
    274. Tamkin, Emily (8 July 2020). "Why India and Russia Are Going to Stay Friends". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
    275. Nation, R Craig. (2015). "Russia and the Caucasus". Connections. Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes. 14 (2): 1–12. doi:10.11610/Connections.14.2.01. JSTOR 26326394.
    276. Swanström, Niklas (2012). "Central Asia and Russian Relations: Breaking Out of the Russian Orbit?". Brown Journal of World Affairs. 19 (1): 101–113. JSTOR 24590931. The Central Asian states have been dependent on Russia since they gained independence in 1991, not just in economic and energy terms, but also militarily and politically.
    277. Feinstein, Scott G.; Pirro, Ellen B. (22 February 2021). "Testing the world order: strategic realism in Russian foreign affairs". International Politics. 58 (6): 817–834. doi:10.1057/s41311-021-00285-5. S2CID 231985182.
    278. "Ukraine cuts diplomatic ties with Russia after invasion". Al Jazeera. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2022. Ukraine has cut all diplomatic ties with Russia after President Vladimir Putin authorised an all-out invasion of Ukraine by land, air and sea.
    279. Kanerva, Ilkka (2018). "Russia and the West". Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development. Center for International Relations and Sustainable Development (12): 112–119. JSTOR 48573515.
    280. Bolt, Paul J. (2014). "Sino-Russian Relations in a Changing World Order". Strategic Studies Quarterly. Air University Press. 8 (4): 47–69. JSTOR 26270816.
    281. Baev, Pavel (May 2021). "Russia and Turkey: Strategic Partners and Rivals" (PDF) (35). Ifri. Retrieved 6 January 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    282. Tarock, Adam (June 1997). "Iran and Russia in 'Strategic Alliance'". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 18 (2): 207–223. doi:10.1080/01436599714911. JSTOR 3993220. S2CID 153838744.
    283. Rumer, Eugene; Sokolsky, Richard; Stronski, Paul (29 March 2021). "Russia in the Arctic—A Critical Examination". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
    284. Hunt, Luke (15 October 2021). "Russia Tries to Boost Asia Ties to Counter Indo-Pacific Alliances". Voice of America. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
    285. "Russia in Africa: What's behind Moscow's push into the continent?". BBC. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
    286. Cerulli, Rossella (1 September 2019). "Russian Influence in the Middle East: Economics, Energy, and Soft Power". American Security Project: 1–21. JSTOR resrep19825. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    287. Shuya, Mason (2019). "Russian Influence in Latin America: a Response to NATO". Journal of Strategic Security. University of South Florida. 12 (2): 17–41. doi:10.5038/1944-0472.12.2.1727. JSTOR 26696258. S2CID 199756261.
    288. Ryan Bauer and Peter A. Wilson (17 August 2020). "Russia's Su-57 Heavy Fighter Bomber: Is It Really a Fifth-Generation Aircraft?". RAND Corporation. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
    289. International Institute for Strategic Studies (25 February 2021). The Military Balance 2021. London: Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-85743-988-5.
    290. Nichol, Jim (24 August 2011). "Russian Military Reform and Defense Policy" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
    291. "Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance". Arms Control Association. August 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
    292. "Ballistic missile submarines data". Asia Power Index. Lowy Institute. 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
    293. Paul, T. V.; Wirtz, James J.; Fortmann, Michael (2004). Balance of power: theory and practice in the 21st century. Stanford University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-8047-5017-2.
    294. Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (26 April 2021). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2020" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    295. Bowen, Andrew S. (14 October 2021). "Russian Arms Sales and Defense Industry". Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
    296. Shevchenko, Vitaliy (15 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Protester exposes cracks in Kremlin's war message". BBC. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
    297. "Russian Federation". Amnesty International. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
    298. "Russia". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
    299. "Russia: Freedom in the World 2021". Freedom House. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
    300. "A new low for global democracy". The Economist. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
    301. "Russia". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
    302. Simmons, Ann M. (18 September 2021). "In Russia's Election, Putin's Opponents Are Seeing Double". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
    303. Kramer, Andrew E. (10 June 2021). "In Shadow of Navalny Case, What's Left of the Russian Opposition?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    304. Seddon, Max (13 February 2021). "Russian crackdown brings pro-Navalny protests to halt". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    305. Goncharenko, Roman (21 November 2017). "NGOs in Russia: Battered, but unbowed". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    306. Yaffa, Joshua (7 September 2021). "The Victims of Putin's Crackdown On The Press". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    307. Simon, Scott (21 April 2018). "Why Do Russian Journalists Keep Falling?". NPR. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
    308. "Russia: Growing Internet Isolation, Control, Censorship". Human Rights Watch. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
    309. Krastev, Ivan (16 June 2022). "Putin's aggressive autocracy reduces Russian soft power to ashes". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
    310. Fish, M. Steven (April 2018). "What Has Russia Become?". Comparative Politics. New York City: City University of New York. 50 (3): 327–346. doi:10.5129/001041518822704872. JSTOR 26532689.
    311. Guriev, Sergei; Rachinsky, Andrei (2005). "The Role of Oligarchs in Russian Capitalism". The Journal of Economic Perspectives. American Economic Association. 19 (1): 131–150. doi:10.1257/0895330053147994. JSTOR 4134996. S2CID 17653502.
    312. Åslund, Anders (7 May 2019). Russia's Crony Capitalism: The Path from Market Economy to Kleptocracy. Yale University Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-0-300-24486-1.
    313. "Corruptions Perceptions Index 2021". Transparency International. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
    314. "New Reports Highlight Russia's Deep-Seated Culture of Corruption". Voice of America. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
    315. Alferova, Ekaterina (26 October 2020). В России предложили создать должность омбудсмена по борьбе с коррупцией [Russia proposed to create the post of Ombudsman for the fight against corruption]. Izvestia Известия (in Russian). Retrieved 5 November 2020.
    316. "Russia Corruption Report". GAN Integrity. June 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
    317. Suhara, Manabu. "Corruption in Russia: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). Slavic-Eurasian Research Center. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
    318. Gerber, Theodore P.; Mendelson, Sarah E. (March 2008). "Public Experiences of Police Violence and Corruption in Contemporary Russia: A Case of Predatory Policing?". Law & Society Review. Wiley. 42 (1): 1–44. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5893.2008.00333.x. JSTOR 29734103.
    319. Klara Sabirianova Peter; Zelenska, Tetyana (2010). "Corruption in Russian Health Care: The Determinants and Incidence of Bribery" (PDF). Georgia State University. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
    320. "Corruption Pervades Russia's Health System". CBS News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
    321. Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Leontyeva, Elvira; Prytula, Yaroslav (2014). "Corruption at Universities is a Common Disease for Russia and Ukraine". Harvard University. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
    322. Cranny-Evans, Sam; Ivshina, Dr. Olga (12 May 2022). "Corruption in the Russian Armed Forces". Westminster: Royal United Services Institute (RUSI). Retrieved 6 October 2022. Corruption in the Russian armed forces, and society in general, has been a long-acknowledged truism.
    323. Herszenhorn, David M. (1 July 2015). "Russia Sees a Threat in Its Converts to Islam". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015.
    324. "U.S. Report Says Russia Among 'Worst Violators' Of Religious Freedom". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 21 April 2021.
    325. Clancy Chassay (19 September 2009). "Russian killings and kidnaps extend dirty war in Ingushetia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 November 2022.
    326. DENIS SOKOLOV (20 August 2016). "Putin's Savage War Against Russia's 'New Muslims'". Newsweek. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
    327. 🇷🇺Ingushetia: A second Chechnya? l People and Power, Al Jazeera, 13 October 2010
    328. Russia's Invisible War: Crackdown on Salafi Muslims in Dagestan, Human Rights Watch, 17 June 2015, retrieved 17 November 2022
    329. Associated Press (25 November 2015). "Russian Crackdown on Muslims Fuels Exodus to IS". Voice of America.
    330. Mairbek Vatchagaev (9 April 2015). "Abuse of Chechens and Ingush in Russian Prisons Creates Legions of Enemies". Jamestown Foundation.
    331. Marquise Francis (7 April 2022). "What are Russian 'filtration camps'?". Yahoo! News.
    332. Katie Bo Lillis, Kylie Atwood and Natasha Bertrand (26 May 2022). "Russia is depopulating parts of eastern Ukraine, forcibly removing thousands into remote parts of Russia". CNN. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
    333. Churkina, Natalie; Zaverskiy, Sergey (2017). "Challenges of strong concentration in urbanization: the case of Moscow in Russia". Procedia Engineering. Elsevier. 198: 398–410. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.095.
    334. "Mixed economy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
    335. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia – Natural Resources". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
    336. "Russian Federation – Unemployment Rate". Moody's Analytics. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
    337. "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period)". Central Bank of Russia. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
    338. "Labor force – The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
    339. "List of importing markets for the product exported by Russian Federation in 2021". International Trade Centre. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
    340. "List of supplying markets for the product imported by Russian Federation in 2021". International Trade Centre. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
    341. "Frequently Asked Questions on Energy Security – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
    342. Davydova, Angelina (24 November 2021). "Will Russia ever leave fossil fuels behind?". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2022. Overall in Russia, oil and gas provided 39% of the federal budget revenue and made up 60% of Russian exports in 2019.
    343. "Russia's Natural Resources Make Up 60% of GDP". The Moscow Times. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
    344. "Russian finances strong but economic problems persist". TRT World. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2022. Now Russia is one of the least indebted countries in the world – thanks to all the oil revenue.
    345. Russell, Martin (April 2018). "Socioeconomic inequality in Russia" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. European Parliament. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
    346. Remington, Thomas F. (March 2015). "Why is interregional inequality in Russia and China not falling?". Communist and Post-Communist Studies. University of California Press. 48 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2015.01.005. JSTOR 48610321.
    347. Kholodilin, Konstantin A.; Oshchepkov, Aleksey; Siliverstovs, Boriss (2012). "The Russian Regional Convergence Process: Where Is It Leading?". Eastern European Economies. Taylor & Francis. 50 (3): 5–26. doi:10.2753/EEE0012-8775500301. JSTOR 41719700. S2CID 153168354.
    348. Likka, Korhonen (2019). "Economic Sanctions on Russia and Their Effects" (PDF). CESifo Forum. Munich: Ifo Institute for Economic Research. ISSN 2190-717X. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
    349. Sonnenfeld, Jeffrey (22 March 2022). "Over 300 Companies Have Withdrawn from Russia – But Some Remain". Yale School of Management. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
    350. Wadhams, Nick (8 March 2022). "Russia Is Now the World's Most-Sanctioned Nation". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2 October 2022. Russia has vaulted past Iran and North Korea to become the world's most-sanctioned nation in the span of just 10 days following President Vladimir Putin's invasion of Ukraine.
    351. Whalen, Jeanne; Dixon, Robyn; Nakashima, Ellen; Ilyushina, Mary (23 August 2022). "Western sanctions are wounding but not yet crushing Russia's economy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 October 2022. Russia has stopped publishing many economic statistics, making it difficult to judge how hard sanctions are hitting, but some data shows signs of distress.
    352. Martin, Nik (6 September 2022). "Is Russia's economy really hurting?". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
    353. Warren, Katie (3 January 2020). "I rode the legendary Trans-Siberian Railway on a 2,000-mile journey across 4 time zones in Russia. Here's what it was like spending 50 hours on the longest train line in the world". Business Insider. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
    354. "Railways – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
    355. "О развитии дорожной инфраструктуры" [On the development of road infrastructure]. Government of Russia. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
    356. "Europe continues to report the world's highest Road Network Density, followed by East Asia and Pacific". International Road Federation. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
    357. "Waterways – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
    358. "Airports – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
    359. Guzeva, Alexandra (20 April 2021). "10 Biggest port cities in Russia". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
    360. Elizabeth Buchanan, ed. (1 June 2021). Russian Energy Strategy in the Asia-Pacific: Implications for Australia. Australian National University. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-76046-339-7. OCLC 1246214035.
    361. "Natural gas – proved reserves". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
    362. "Statistical Review of World Energy 69th edition" (PDF). BP. 2020. p. 45. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
    363. "Crude oil – proved reserves". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
    364. 2010 Survey of Energy Resources (PDF). World Energy Council. 2010. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-946121-02-1. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
    365. "Energy Fact Sheet: Why does Russian oil and gas matter? – Analysis". International Energy Agency. 21 March 2022.
    366. "Natural gas – production". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
    367. "Crude oil – production". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
    368. "Crude oil – exports". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
    369. "Oil Market and Russian Supply – Russian supplies to global energy markets – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
    370. "Gas Market and Russian Supply – Russian supplies to global energy markets – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
    371. Sauer, Natalie (24 September 2019). "Russia formally joins Paris climate pact". Euractiv. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
    372. Hill, Ian (1 November 2021). "Is Russia finally getting serious on climate change?". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
    373. "Electricity – production". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
    374. Long, Tony (27 June 2012). "June 27, 1954: World's First Nuclear Power Plant Opens". Wired. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
    375. "Nuclear Power Today". World Nuclear Association. October 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
    376. Whiteman, Adrian; Akande, Dennis; Elhassan, Nazik; Escamilla, Gerardo; Lebedys, Arvydas; Arkhipova, Lana (2021). Renewable Energy Capacity Statistics 2021 (PDF). Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency. ISBN 978-92-9260-342-7. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
    377. "Russia – Economy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
    378. "Arable land (% of land area) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
    379. "System Shock: Russia's War and Global Food, Energy, and Mineral Supply Chains". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington, D.C. 13 April 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022. Together, Russia and Ukraine—sometimes referred to as the breadbasket of Europe—account for 29% of global wheat exports, 80% of the world's sunflower oil, and 40% of its barley.
    380. Medetsky, Anatoly; Durisin, Megan (23 September 2020). "Russia's Dominance of the Wheat World Keeps Growing". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
    381. "Wheat in Russia | OEC". OEC – The Observatory of Economic Complexity.
    382. "The importance of Ukraine and the Russian Federation for global agricultural markets and the risks associated with the current conflict" (PDF). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
    383. Lustgarten, Abrahm (16 December 2020). "How Russia Wins the Climate Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 June 2021. Across Eastern Russia, wild forests, swamps and grasslands are slowly being transformed into orderly grids of soybeans, corn and wheat. It's a process that is likely to accelerate: Russia hopes to seize on the warming temperatures and longer growing seasons brought by climate change to refashion itself as one of the planet's largest producers of food
    384. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome: United Nations. 2018. ISBN 978-92-5-130562-1. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
    385. "Gross domestic spending on R&D". OECD. doi:10.1787/d8b068b4-en. Retrieved 4 April 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    386. "SJR – International Science Ranking". SCImago Journal Rank. 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
    387. Кто из российских и советских ученых и литераторов становился лауреатом Нобелевской премии [Which of the Russian and Soviet scientists and writers became the Nobel Prize laureate]. Tacc ТАСС (in Russian). TASS. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
    388. "RUSSIAN FEDERATION" (PDF). World Intellectual Property Organization. United Nations. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
    389. Usitalo, Steven A. (2011). "Lomonosov: Patronage and Reputation at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 59 (2): 217–239. doi:10.25162/jgo-2011-0011. JSTOR 41302521. S2CID 252450664.
    390. Vucinich, Alexander (1960). "Mathematics in Russian Culture". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 21 (2): 161–179. doi:10.2307/2708192. JSTOR 2708192.
    391. Leicester, Henry M. (1948). "Factors Which Led Mendeleev to the Periodic Law". Chymia. University of California Press. 1: 67–74. doi:10.2307/27757115. JSTOR 27757115.
    392. Rappaport, Karen D. (October 1981). "S. Kovalevsky: A Mathematical Lesson". The American Mathematical Monthly. Taylor & Francis. 88 (8): 564–574. doi:10.2307/2320506. JSTOR 2320506.
    393. Morgan, Frank (February 2009). "Manifolds with Density and Perelman's Proof of the Poincaré Conjecture". The American Mathematical Monthly. Taylor & Francis. 116 (2): 134–142. doi:10.1080/00029890.2009.11920920. JSTOR 27642690. S2CID 6068179.
    394. Marsh, Allison (30 April 2020). "Who Invented Radio: Guglielmo Marconi or Aleksandr Popov?". IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
    395. Shampo, Marc A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Steensma, David P. (January 2012). "Nikolay Basov—Nobel Prize for Lasers and Masers". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87 (1): e3. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2011.11.003. PMC 3498096. PMID 22212977.
    396. Ivanov, Sergey (10 September 2019). "Remembering Zhores Alferov". Nature Photonics. 13 (10): 657–659. Bibcode:2019NaPho..13..657I. doi:10.1038/s41566-019-0525-0. S2CID 203099794.
    397. Zheludev, Nikolay (April 2007). "The life and times of the LED — a 100-year history". Nature Photonics. 1 (4): 189–192. Bibcode:2007NaPho...1..189Z. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2007.34.
    398. Ghilarov, Alexej M. (June 1995). "Vernadsky's Biosphere Concept: An Historical Perspective". The Quarterly Review of Biology. The University of Chicago Press. 70 (2): 193–203. doi:10.1086/418982. JSTOR 3036242. S2CID 85258634.
    399. Gordon, Siamon (3 February 2016). "Elie Metchnikoff, the Man and the Myth". Journal of Innate Immunity. 8 (3): 223–227. doi:10.1159/000443331. PMC 6738810. PMID 26836137.
    400. Anrep, G. V. (December 1936). "Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. 1849-1936". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society. 2 (5): 1–18. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1936.0001. JSTOR 769124.
    401. Gorelik, Gennady (August 1997). "The Top-Secret Life of Lev Landau". Scientific American. Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc. 277 (2): 72–77. Bibcode:1997SciAm.277b..72G. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0897-72. JSTOR 24995874.
    402. Janick, Jules (1 June 2015). "Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov: Plant Geographer, Geneticist, Martyr of Science" (PDF). HortScience. 50 (6): 772–776. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.50.6.772.
    403. Wang, Zhengrong; Liu, Yongsheng (2017). "Lysenko and Russian genetics: an alternative view". European Journal of Human Genetics. 25 (10): 1097–1098. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.117. ISSN 1476-5438. PMC 5602018. PMID 28905876.
    404. Hunsaker, Jerome C. (15 April 1954). "A Half Century of Aeronautical Development". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 98 (2): 121–130. JSTOR 3143642.
    405. "Vladimir Zworykin". Lemelson–MIT Prize. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
    406. Ford, Edmund Brisco (November 1977). "Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky, 25 January 1900 – 18 December 1975". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 23: 58–89. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1977.0004. ISSN 1748-8494. PMID 11615738.
    407. "The Distinguished Life and Career of George Gamow". University of Colorado Boulder. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
    408. Gautschi, Walter (March 2008). "Leonhard Euler: His Life, the Man, and His Works". SIAM Review. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 50 (1): 3–33. Bibcode:2008SIAMR..50....3G. doi:10.1137/070702710. JSTOR 20454060.
    409. Jorpes, J. Erik (3 January 1959). "Alfred Nobel". The British Medical Journal (The BMJ). 1 (5113): 1–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5113.1. JSTOR 25386146. PMC 1992347. PMID 13608066.
    410. "Mir Space Station". NSSDCA. NASA. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
    411. Siddiqi, Asif A. (2000). Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974. United States Government Publishing Office. ISBN 978-0-160-61305-0.
    412. "Vostok 6". NSSDCA. NASA. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
    413. Rincon, Paul (13 October 2014). "The First Spacewalk". BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    414. Wellerstein, Alex (3 November 2017). "Remembering Laika, Space Dog and Soviet Hero". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
    415. "Luna 9". NSSDCA. NASA. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
    416. Betz, Eric (19 September 2018). "The First Earthlings Around the Moon Were Two Soviet Tortoises". Discover. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
    417. Avduevsky, V. S.; Ya Marov, M.; Rozhdestvensky, M. K.; Borodin, N. F.; Kerzhanovich, V. V. (1 March 1971). "Soft Landing of Venera 7 on the Venus Surface and Preliminary Results of Investigations of the Venus Atmosphere". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. 28 (2): 263–269. Bibcode:1971JAtS...28..263A. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1971)028<0263:SLOVOT>2.0.CO;2.
    418. Perminov, V.G. (July 1999). The Difficult Road to Mars – A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union (PDF). NASA History Division. ISBN 0-16-058859-6.
    419. "Lunokhod 01". NSSDCA. NASA. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
    420. "50 Years Ago: Launch of Salyut, the World's First Space Station". NSSDCA. NASA. 19 April 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
    421. "Satellite Database". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
    422. "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer English Version. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 18 (6): 18. 2020. doi:10.18111/wtobarometereng. ISSN 1728-9246.
    423. Выборочная статистическая информация, рассчитанная в соответствии с Официальной статистической методологией оценки числа въездных и выездных туристских поездок – Ростуризм [Selected statistical information calculated in accordance with the Official Statistical Methodology for Estimating the Number of Inbound and Outbound Tourist Trips – Rostourism]. (in Russian). Federal Agency for Tourism (Russia). Retrieved 11 November 2020.
    424. "Russian Federation Contribution of travel and tourism to GDP (% of GDP), 1995–2019". Knoema.
    425. Tomb, Howard (27 August 1989). "Getting to the Top In the Caucasus". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
    426. "Tourism Highlights 2014" (PDF). UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
    427. Vlasov, Artem (17 December 2018). Названы самые популярные достопримечательности России [The most popular sights of Russia are named]. Izvestia (in Russian). Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    428. Sullivan, Paul (7 March 2021). "48 hours in . . . Moscow, an insider guide to Russia's mighty metropolis". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
    429. Hammer, Joshua (3 June 2011). "White Nights of St. Petersburg, Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
    430. "Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
    431. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Demographics". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
    432. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
    433. "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
    434. Koehn, Jodi. "Russia's Demographic Crisis". Kennan Institute. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
    435. "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
    436. "Russia's Putin seeks to stimulate birth rate". BBC. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
    437. Foltynova, Kristyna (19 June 2020). "Migrants Welcome: Is Russia Trying To Solve Its Demographic Crisis By Attracting Foreigners?". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Russia has been trying to boost fertility rates and reduce death rates for several years now. Special programs for families have been implemented, anti-tobacco campaigns have been organized, and raising the legal age to buy alcohol was considered. However, perhaps the most successful strategy so far has been attracting migrants, whose arrival helps Russia to compensate population losses.
    438. Saver, Pjotr (13 October 2021). "Russia's population undergoes largest ever peacetime decline, analysis shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2021. Russia's natural population has undergone its largest peacetime decline in recorded history over the last 12 months...
    439. Goble, Paul (18 August 2022). "Russia's Demographic Collapse Is Accelerating". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Washington, D.C.: Jamestown Foundation. 19 (127). Retrieved 6 October 2022.
    440. Cocco, Federica; Ivanonva, Polina (4 April 2022). "Ukraine war threatens to deepen Russia's demographic crisis". Financial Times. London. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
    441. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Ethnic Composition". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
    442. "EAll- Russian population census 2010 – Population by nationality, sex and subjects of the Russian Federation". Demoscope Weekly. 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    443. "Russia – The Indo-European Group". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 July 2021. East Slavs—mainly Russians but including some Ukrainians and Belarusians—constitute more than four-fifths of the total population and are prevalent throughout the country.
    444. Kowalev, Viktor; Neznaika, Pavel (2000). "Power and Ethnicity in the Finno-Ugric Republics of the Russian Federation: The Examples of Komi, Mordovia, and Udmurtia". International Journal of Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. 30 (3): 81–100. doi:10.1080/08911916.2000.11644017. JSTOR 41103741. S2CID 152467776.
    445. Bartlett, Roger (July 1995). "The Russian Germans and Their Neighbours". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 73 (3): 499–504. JSTOR 4211864.
    446. Kirk, Ashley (21 January 2016). "Mapped: Which country has the most immigrants?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
    447. Ragozin, Leonid (3 April 2019). "Russia and Ukraine Fight, But Their People Seek Reconciliation". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
    448. "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
    449. Lazarev, Vladimir; Pravikova, Ludmila. "The North Caucasus Bilingualism and Language Identity" (PDF). Pyatigorsk State Linguistic University: 1325. The North Caucasus, inhabited by more than 100 of autochthonous and allochthonous peoples, including Russians, is a unique locus for conducting a large-scale research in the area of bilingualism and multilingualism. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    450. "Russian". University of Toronto. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Russian is the most widespread of the Slavic languages and the largest native language in Europe. Of great political importance, it is one of the official languages of the United Nations – making it a natural area of study for those interested in geopolitics.
    451. Wakata, Koichi. "My Long Mission in Space". JAXA. Retrieved 18 July 2021. The official languages on the ISS are English and Russian...
    452. Iryna, Ulasiuk (2011). "Legal protection of linguistic diversity in Russia: past and present". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. European University Institute. 32 (1): 71–83. doi:10.1080/01434632.2010.536237. ISSN 0143-4632. S2CID 145612470. Russia is unique in its size and ethnic composition. There is a further linguistic complexity of more than 150 co-existing languages.
    453. "Russia – Ethnic groups and languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2020. Although ethnic Russians comprise more than four-fifths of the country's total population, Russia is a diverse, multiethnic society. More than 120 ethnic groups, many with their own national territories, speaking some 100 languages live within Russia's borders.
    454. Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года [All-Russian population census 2010]. Том 4. Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство (in Russian). Rosstat. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
    455. "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 27 December 2007. 2. The Republics shall have the right to establish their own state languages. In the bodies of state authority and local self-government, state institutions of the Republics they shall be used together with the state language of the Russian Federation. 3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee to all of its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.
    456. Jankiewicz, Szymon; Knyaginina, Nadezhda; Prina, Federic (13 March 2020). "Linguistic rights and education in the republics of the Russian Federation: towards unity through uniformity" (PDF). Review of Central and East European Law. Brill. 45 (1): 59–91. doi:10.1163/15730352-bja10003. ISSN 0925-9880. S2CID 216273023.
    457. Bondarenko, Dmitry V.; Nasonkin, Vladimir V.; Shagieva, Rozalina V.; Kiyanova, Olga N.; Barabanova, Svetlana V. (2018). "Linguistic Diversity In Russia Is A Threat To Sovereignty Or A Condition Of Cohesion?" (PDF). Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods. 8 (5): 166–182. ISSN 2251-6204.
    458. Bourdeaux, Michael (2003). "Trends in Religious Policy". Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia. Taylor and Francis. pp. 46–52. ISBN 9781857431377. p. 47.
    459. Fagan, Geraldine (2013). Believing in Russia: Religious Policy After Communism. Routledge. ISBN 9780415490023. p. 127.
    460. "CDL-REF(2021)010 – Opinion No. 992/2020 – Russian Federation – Constitution". Venice Commission, Council of Europe. 4 February 2021. Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help) p. 16.
    461. Bennett, Brian P. (2011). Religion and Language in Post-Soviet Russia. Routledge. ISBN 9781136736131. pp. 27–28.
    462. Borenstein, Eliot (1999). "Suspending Disbelief: 'Cults' and Postmodernism in Post-Soviet Russia". In Barker, Adele Marie (ed.). Consuming Russia: Popular Culture, Sex, and Society Since Gorbachev. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822323136. p. 441.
    463. Beskov, Andrey (2020). "Этнорелигиозное измерение современной русской идентичности: православие vs неоязычество" [Ethno-Religious Dimension of Modern Russian Identity: Orthodoxy vs Neo-Paganism]. Studia Culturae (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: ANO DPO. 3 (45): 106–122. ISSN 2310-1245.
    464. Foltz, Richard (2019). "Scythian Neo-Paganism in the Caucasus: The Ossetian Uatsdin as a 'Nature Religion'". Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture. 13 (3): 314–332. doi:10.1558/jsrnc.39114. S2CID 213692638.
    465. Andreeva, Julia Olegovna (2012). "Представления о народных традициях в движении 'Звенящие кедры России'" [Representations of national traditions in the movement 'Ringing Cedars of Russia'] (PDF). In T. B. Shchepanskaya (ed.). Аспекты будущего по этнографическим и фольклорным материалам: сборник научных статей [Prospects of the future in ethnographic and folklore materials: Collection of scientific articles] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Kunstkamera. pp. 231–245. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2020.
    466. Tkatcheva, Anna (1994). "Neo-Hindu Movements and Orthodox Christianity in Post-Communist Russia". India International Centre Quarterly. 21 (2/3): 151–162. JSTOR 23003642.
    467. Kharitonova, Valentina (2015). "Revived Shamanism in the Social Life of Russia". Folklore. 62: 37–54. doi:10.7592/FEJF2015.62.kharitonova. ISSN 1406-0949.
    468. Bourdeaux, Michael; Filatov, Sergey, eds. (2006). Современная религиозная жизнь России. Опыт систематического описания [Contemporary religious life of Russia. Systematic description of experiences] (in Russian). Vol. 4. Moscow: Keston Institute; Logos. ISBN 5987040574.
    469. Menzel, Brigit; Hagemeister, Michael; Glatzer Rosenthal, Bernice, eds. (2012). The New Age of Russia: Occult and Esoteric Dimensions (PDF). Kubon & Sagner. ISBN 9783866881976. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2021.
    470. Sibireva, Olga (29 April 2021). "Freedom of Conscience in Russia: Restrictions and Challenges in 2020". SOVA Center. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022.
    471. Knox, Zoe (2019). "Jehovah's Witnesses as Extremists: The Russian State, Religious Pluralism, and Human Rights". The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review. Leiden: Brill. 46 (2): 128–157. doi:10.1163/18763324-04602003. hdl:2381/43756. ISSN 1876-3324. S2CID 164831768.
    472. "Lomonosov Moscow State University". QS World University Rankings. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
    473. "Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
    474. "Education system Russia" (PDF). 3. The Hague: Nuffic. October 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
    475. Kouptsov, Oleg (1997). Mutual recognition of qualifications: the Russian Federation and the other European countries. UNESCO-CEPES. Bucharest: UNESCO. p. 25. ISBN 929-0-69146-8.
    476. "Population with tertiary education". OECD. 2022. doi:10.1787/0b8f90e9-en. Retrieved 21 January 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    477. "Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
    478. Taratukhina, Maria S.; Polyakova, Marina N.; Berezina, Tatyana A.; Notkina, Nina A.; Sheraizina, Roza M.; Borovkov, Mihail I. (2006). "Early childhood care and education in the Russian Federation". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
    479. "Russia – Education". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
    480. Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (1996). History of the University in Europe: Volume 2, Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800). A History of the University in Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 80–89. ISBN 978-0-521-36106-4.
    481. "Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
    482. Morton, Elise (25 May 2018). "Russian rivieia: from Soviet sanatoriums to lush gardens, your walking guide to seaside Sochi". Calvert 22 Foundation. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
    483. Cook, Linda (February 2015). "Constraints on Universal Health Care in the Russian Federation" (PDF). United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Geneva: United Nations. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
    484. "Healthcare in Russia: the Russian healthcare system explained". Expatica. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
    485. "Current health expenditure (% of GDP) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 21 April 2021. Data retrieved on January 30, 2022.
    486. Reshetnikov, Vladimir; Arsentyev, Evgeny; Bolevich, Sergey; Timofeyev, Yuriy; Jakovljević, Mihajlo (24 May 2019). "Analysis of the Financing of Russian Health Care over the Past 100 Years". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (10): 1848. doi:10.3390/ijerph16101848. PMC 6571548. PMID 31137705.
    487. Nuwer, Rachel (17 February 2014). "Why Russian Men Don't Live as Long". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
    488. "Life expectancy and Healthy life expectancy, data by country". World Health Organization. 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
    489. "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
    490. Lakunchykova, Olena; Averina, Maria; Wilsgaard, Tom; Watkins, Hugh; Malyutina, Sofia; Ragino, Yulia; Keogh, Ruth H; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Govorun, Vadim; Cook, Sarah; Schirmer, Henrik; Eggen, Anne Elise; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Leon, David A (2020). "Why does Russia have such high cardiovascular mortality rates? Comparisons of blood-based biomarkers with Norway implicate non-ischaemic cardiac damage". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 74 (9): 698–704. doi:10.1136/jech-2020-213885. PMC 7577103. PMID 32414935.
    491. "Russian Federation". World Obesity Federation Global Obesity Observatory. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
    492. McKee, Martin (1 November 1999). "Alcohol in Russia". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 34 (6): 824–829. doi:10.1093/alcalc/34.6.824. PMID 10659717.
    493. The Lancet (5 October 2019). "Russia's alcohol policy: a continuing success story". The Lancet. 394 (10205): 1205. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32265-2. PMID 31591968. Russians are officially drinking less and, as a consequence, are living longer than ever before...Russians are still far from being teetotal: a pure ethanol per capita consumption of 11·7 L, reported in 2016, means consumption is still one of the highest worldwide, and efforts to reduce it further are required.
    494. Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; et al. (23 March 2020). "Time trends in smoking in Russia in the light of recent tobacco control measures: synthesis of evidence from multiple sources". BMC Public Health. 20 (378): 378. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-08464-4. PMC 7092419. PMID 32293365.
    495. "Suicide mortality rate (per 100,000 population) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
    496. "Preventing suicide: Russian Federation adapts WHO self-harm monitoring tool". World Health Organization. 9 October 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
    497. Lincoln, W.B. (10 October 1970). "Western Culture Comes to Russia". 20 (10). History Today. Retrieved 14 January 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    498. McLean, Hugh (September 1962). "The Development of Modern Russian Literature". Slavic Review. Cambridge University Press. 21 (3): 389–410. doi:10.2307/3000442. JSTOR 3000442. S2CID 163341589.
    499. Frank, S. (January 1927). "Contemporary Russian Philosophy". The Monist. Oxford University Press. 37 (1): 1–23. doi:10.5840/monist192737121. JSTOR 27901095.
    500. Swan, Alfred J. (January 1927). "The Present State of Russian Music". The Musical Quarterly. Oxford University Press. 13 (1): 29–38. doi:10.1093/mq/XIII.1.29. JSTOR 738554.
    501. Lifar, Sergei (October 1969). "The Russian Ballet in Russia and in the West". The Russian Review. 28 (4): 396–402. doi:10.2307/127159. JSTOR 127159.
    502. Riordan, Jim (1993). "Rewriting Soviet Sports History". Journal of Sport History. University of Illinois Press. 20 (4): 247–258. JSTOR 43609911.
    503. Snow, Francis Haffkine (November 1916). "Ten Centuries of Russian Art". The Art World. 1 (2): 130–135. doi:10.2307/25587683. JSTOR 25587683.
    504. Bulgakova, Oksana (2012). "The Russian Cinematic Culture". University of Nevada, Las Vegas. pp. 1–37. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
    505. Hachten, Elizabeth A. (2002). "In Service to Science and Society: Scientists and the Public in Late-Nineteenth-Century Russia". Osiris. The University of Chicago Press. 17: 171–209. doi:10.1086/649363. JSTOR 3655271. S2CID 144835649.
    506. Ipatieff, V.N. (1943). "Modern Science in Russia". The Russian Review. Wiley. 2 (2): 68–80. doi:10.2307/125254. JSTOR 125254.
    507. "Russian Federation". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
    508. Platoff, Anne M. (2012). "The 'Forward Russia' Flag: Examining the Changing Use of the Bear as a Symbol of Russia" (PDF). Raven: A Journal of Vexillology. 19: 99–126. doi:10.5840/raven2012197. ISSN 1071-0043.
    509. Riabov, Oleg (2020). "The Symbol of the Motherland in the Legitimation and Delegitimation of Power in Contemporary Russia". Nationalities Papers. 48 (4): 752–767. doi:10.1017/nps.2019.14. ISSN 0090-5992. S2CID 214578255.
    510. Joanna, Hubbs (1993). Mother Russia: The Feminine Myth in Russian Culture. Indiana University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-253-20842-2.
    511. "Public Holidays in Russia". Central Bank of Russia. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    512. Lagunina, Irina; O'Connor, Coilin (30 December 2020). "Russian New Year: At The Heart Of A Wide Tapestry Of Winter Traditions". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    513. День защитника Отечества. История праздника [Defender of the Fatherland Day. history of the holiday]. Риа Новости РИА Новости (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
    514. "Russians splurge on flowers for International Women's Day". France 24. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    515. "In pictures: May Day through history". Euronews. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    516. Ilyushina, Maria; Hodge, Nathan (24 June 2020). "Russia kicks off lavish Victory Day parade following coronavirus delay". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    517. Prokopyeva, Svetlana (12 May 2017). "Russia's Immortal Regiment: From Grassroots To 'Quasi-Religious Cult'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    518. Yegorov, Oleg (12 June 2019). "What do Russians celebrate on June 12?". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    519. "Russia celebrates National Unity Day". TASS. 3 November 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
    520. Guzeva, Alexandra (13 January 2021). "Why Russians celebrate New Year TWICE". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
    521. Godoy, Maria (14 March 2013). "It's Russian Mardi Gras: Time For Pancakes, Butter And Fistfights". NPR. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
    522. Dambach, Kai (12 April 2020). "Russia marks Cosmonautics Day — in pictures". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
    523. Leonov, Tatyana (5 April 2018). "Celebrate: Russian Orthodox Easter". Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
    524. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia – Architecture and Painting". Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
    525. Grover, Stuart R. (January 1973). "The World of Art Movement in Russia". The Russian Review. Wiley. 32 (1): 28–42. doi:10.2307/128091. JSTOR 128091.
    526. Dianina, Katia (2018). "The Making of an Artist as National Hero". Slavic Review. Cambridge University Press. 77 (1): 122–150. doi:10.1017/slr.2018.13. JSTOR 26565352. S2CID 165942177.
    527. Sibbald, Balb (5 February 2002). "If the soul is nourished ..." Canadian Medical Association Journal. 166 (3): 357–358. PMC 99322.
    528. Leek, Peter (2012). Russian Painting. Parkstone International. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-780-42975-5.
    529. Valkenier, Elizabeth Kridl (1975). "The Peredvizhniki and the Spirit of the 1860s". The Russian Review. Wiley. 34 (3): 247–265. doi:10.2307/127973. JSTOR 127973.
    530. Reeder, Roberta (July 1976). "Mikhail Vrubel': A Russian Interpretation of "fin de siècle" Art". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 54 (3): 323–334. JSTOR 4207296.
    531. Archer, Kenneth (1986). "Nicholas Roerich and His Theatrical Designs: A Research Survey". Dance Research Journal. Dance Studies Association. 18 (2): 3–6. doi:10.2307/1478046. JSTOR 1478046. S2CID 191516851.
    532. Birnholz, Alan C. (September 1973). "Notes on the Chronology of El Lissitzky's Proun Compositions". The Art Bulletin. CAA. 55 (3): 437–439. doi:10.2307/3049132. JSTOR 3049132.
    533. Salmond, Wendy (2002). "The Russian Avant-Garde of the 1890s: The Abramtsevo Circle". The Journal of the Walters Art Museum. The Walters Art Museum. 60/61: 7–13. JSTOR 20168612.
    534. Conant, Kenneth John (August 1944). "Novgorod, Constantinople, and Kiev in Old Russian Church Architecture". The Slavonic and East European Review. Cambridge University Press. 3 (2): 75–92. doi:10.2307/3020237. JSTOR 3020237.
    535. Voyce, Arthur (1957). "National Elements in Russian Architecture". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 16 (2): 6–16. doi:10.2307/987741. ISSN 0037-9808. JSTOR 987741.
    536. Jarzombek, Mark M.; Prakash, Vikramaditya; Ching, Frank (2010). A Global History of Architecture 2nd Edition. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-470-40257-3.
    537. Lidov, Alexei (2005). "The Canopy over the Holy Sepulchre. On the Origin of Onion-Shaped Domes". 171–180.
    538. Hughes, Lindsey A. J. (October 1977). "Western European Graphic Material as a Source for Moscow Baroque Architecture". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 55 (4): 433–443. JSTOR 4207533.
    539. Munro, George (2008). The Most Intentional City: St. Petersburg in the Reign of Catherine the Great. Cranbury: Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8386-4146-0.
    540. Ivask, George (1954). "The "Empire" Period". The Russian Review. Wiley. 13 (3): 167–175. doi:10.2307/125968. JSTOR 125968.
    541. Wortman, Richard S.; Marker, Gary (2014). "The "Russian Style" in Church Architecture as Imperial Symbol after 1881". Visual Texts, Ceremonial Texts, Texts of Exploration: Collected Articles on the Representation of Russian Monarchy. Academic Studies Press. pp. 208–237. doi:10.2307/j.ctt21h4wkb.15. ISBN 978-1-618-11347-4. JSTOR j.ctt21h4wkb.15.
    542. Brumfield, William C. (December 1989). "Anti-Modernism and the Neoclassical Revival in Russian Architecture, 1906–1916". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. University of California Press. 48 (4): 371–386. doi:10.2307/990455. JSTOR 990455.
    543. Brumfield, William (1987). "The Decorative Arts in Russian Architecture: 1900-1907". The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. Florida International University Board of Trustees. 5: 12–27. doi:10.2307/1503933. JSTOR 1503933.
    544. Fer, Briony (1989). "Metaphor and Modernity: Russian Constructivism". Oxford Art Journal. Oxford University Press. 12 (1): 14–30. doi:10.1093/oxartj/12.1.14. JSTOR 1360263.
    545. Zubovich-Eady, Katherine (2013). "To the New Shore: Soviet Architecture's Journey from Classicism to Standardization" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
    546. Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia – Music". Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
    547. Carpenter, Ellon D. (2002). "Review of A History of Russian Music: From Kamarinskaya to Babi Yar". Notes. 59 (1): 74–77. doi:10.1353/not.2002.0113. ISSN 0027-4380. JSTOR 900748. S2CID 191601515.
    548. Garden, Edward (January 1969). "Classic and Romantic in Russian Music". Music & Letters. Oxford University Press. 50 (1): 153–157. doi:10.1093/ml/L.1.153. JSTOR 732909.
    549. "Russia – Music". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    550. Gillies, Richard Louis (April 2019). "Otchalivshaia Rus': Georgii Sviridov and the Soviet Betrayal of Rus'". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 97 (2): 227–265. doi:10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.97.2.0227. S2CID 151076719.
    551. "David Oistrakh". The Musical Times. 115 (1582): 1071. December 1974. ISSN 0027-4666. JSTOR 960424.
    552. Higgins, Charlotte (22 November 2000). "Perfect isn't good enough". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    553. Botstein, Leon (2006). "An Unforgettable Life in Music: Mstislav Rostropovich (1927–2007)". The Musical Quarterly. Oxford University Press. 89 (2/3): 153–163. doi:10.1093/musqtl/gdm001. JSTOR 25172838.
    554. Goldsmith, Harris (October 1989). "Vladimir Horowitz at Eighty-Five". The Musical Times. 130 (1760): 601–603. doi:10.2307/965578. ISSN 0027-4666. JSTOR 965578.
    555. Ballard, Lincoln Miles (September 2011). "Review of Sviatoslav Richter, Pianist". Notes. Music Library Association. 68 (1): 98–100. doi:10.1353/not.2011.0120. ISSN 0027-4380. JSTOR 23012874. S2CID 191336167.
    556. "Emil Gilels". The Musical Times. 126 (1714): 747. December 1985. ISSN 0027-4666. JSTOR 965219.
    557. Roffman, Frederick S. (September 1985). "Review of Galina: A Russian Story". Notes. Music Library Association. 42 (1): 44–46. doi:10.2307/898239. ISSN 0027-4380. JSTOR 898239.
    558. Smale, Alison (28 February 2000). "A Superstar Evokes a Superpower; In Diva's Voice, Adoring Fans Hear Echoes of Soviet Days". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    559. McGrane, Sally (21 October 2014). "Boris Grebenshikov: 'The Bob Dylan of Russia'". BBC. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    560. Pellegrinelli, Lara (6 February 2008). "DDT: Notes from Russia's Rock Underground". NPR. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
    561. O'Connor, Coilin (23 March 2021). "'Crazy Pirates': The Leningrad Rockers Who Rode A Wind Of Change Across The U.S.S.R." Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    562. "Musician, Songwriter, Cultural Force: Remembering Russia's Viktor Tsoi". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
    563. "Tatu bad to be true". The Age. 14 June 2003. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    564. Thirlwell, Adam (8 October 2005). "A masterpiece in miniature". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
    565. Dahlkvist, Tobias (October 2015). "The Epileptic Genius: The Use of Dostoevsky as Example in the Medical Debate over the Pathology of Genius". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 76 (4): 587–608. doi:10.1353/jhi.2015.0028. ISSN 0022-5037. JSTOR 43948762. PMID 26522713. S2CID 37817118.
    566. Letopisi: Literature of Old Rus'. Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary. ed. by Oleg Tvorogov. Moscow: Prosvescheniye ("Enlightenment"), 1996. (Russian: Летописи // Литература Древней Руси. Биобиблиографический словарь / под ред. О.В. Творогова. – М.: Просвещение, 1996.)
    567. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia – Literature". Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
    568. Prose, Francine; Moser, Benjamin (25 November 2014). "What Makes the Russian Literature of the 19th Century So Distinctive?". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
    569. Emerson, Caryl (1998). "Pushkin, Literary Criticism, and Creativity in Closed Places". New Literary History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 29 (4): 653–672. doi:10.1353/nlh.1998.0040. JSTOR 20057504. S2CID 144165201.
    570. Strakhovsky, Leonid I. (October 1953). "The Historianism of Gogol". The American Slavic and East European Review (Slavic Review). Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies. 12 (3): 360–370. doi:10.2307/2491790. JSTOR 2491790.
    571. Henry Chamberlin, William (1946). "Turgenev: The Eternal Romantic". The Russian Review. Wiley. 5 (2): 10–23. doi:10.2307/125154. JSTOR 125154.
    572. Pritchett, V.S. (7 March 1974). "Saint of Inertia". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
    573. Neuhäuser, Rudolf (1980). "The Early Prose of Saltykov-Shchedrin and Dostoevskii: Parallels and Echoes". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 22 (3): 372–387. doi:10.1080/00085006.1980.11091635. JSTOR 40867755.
    574. Muckle, James (1984). "Nikolay Leskov: educational journalist and imaginative writer". New Zealand Slavonic Journal. Australia and New Zealand Slavists' Association: 81–110. JSTOR 40921231.
    575. Boyd, William (3 July 2004). "A Chekhov lexicon". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
    576. Pirie, Gordon; Chandler, Robert (2009). "Eight Tales from Ivan Krylov". Translation and Literature. Edinburgh University Press. 18 (1): 64–85. doi:10.3366/E096813610800037X. JSTOR 40340118.
    577. Gifford, Henry (1948). "Belinsky: One Aspect". The Slavonic and East European Review. 27 (68): 250–258. JSTOR 4204011.
    578. Brintlinger, Angela (2003). "The Persian Frontier: Griboedov as Orientalist and Literary Hero". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 45 (3/4): 371–393. doi:10.1080/00085006.2003.11092333. JSTOR 40870888. S2CID 191370504.
    579. Beasly, Ina (1928). "The Dramatic Art of Ostrovsky. (Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky, 1823-86)". The Slavonic and East European Review. 6 (18): 603–617. JSTOR 4202212.
    580. Markov, Vladimir (1969). "Balmont: A Reappraisal". Slavic Review. 28 (2): 221–264. doi:10.2307/2493225. JSTOR 2493225. S2CID 163456732.
    581. Tikhonov, Nikolay (November 1946). "Gorky and Soviet Literature". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 25 (64): 28–38. JSTOR 4203794.
    582. Lovell, Stephen (1998). "Bulgakov as Soviet Culture". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 76 (1): 28–48. JSTOR 4212557.
    583. Grosshans, Henry (1966). "Vladimir Nabokov and the Dream of Old Russia". Texas Studies in Literature and Language. University of Texas Press. 7 (4): 401–409. JSTOR 40753878.
    584. Freedman, Carl (2000). Critical Theory and Science Fiction. Wesleyan University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-819-56399-6.
    585. Rowley, David G. (July 1997). "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Russian Nationalism". Journal of Contemporary History. SAGE Publishing. 32 (3): 321–337. doi:10.1177/002200949703200303. JSTOR 260964. S2CID 161761611.
    586. Kelly, Aileen (1980). "The Destruction of Idols: Alexander Herzen and Francis Bacon". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 41 (4): 635–662. doi:10.2307/2709278. JSTOR 2709278.
    587. Rezneck, Samuel (1927). "The Political and Social Theory of Michael Bakunin". The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 21 (2): 270–296. doi:10.2307/1945179. JSTOR 1945179. S2CID 147141998.
    588. Adams, Matthew S. (2014). "Rejecting the American Model: Peter Kropotkin's Radical Communalism". History of Political Thought. Imprint Academic. 35 (1): 147–173. JSTOR 26227268.
    589. Schuster, Charles I. (1985). "Mikhail Bakhtin as Rhetorical Theorist". College English. National Council of Teachers of English. 47 (6): 594–607. doi:10.2307/377158. JSTOR 377158. S2CID 141332657.
    590. Bevir, Mark (1994). "The West Turns Eastward: Madame Blavatsky and the Transformation of the Occult Tradition". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 62 (3): 747–767. doi:10.1093/jaarel/LXII.3.747. JSTOR 1465212.
    591. Brinkley, George (1998). Harding, Neil; Pipes, Richard (eds.). "Leninism: What It Was and What It Was Not". The Review of Politics. 60 (1): 151–164. doi:10.1017/S0034670500043965. ISSN 0034-6705. JSTOR 1408333. S2CID 144930608.
    592. Day, Richard B., ed. (1973), "The myth of Trotskyism", Leon Trotsky and the Politics of Economic Isolation, Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–16, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511524028.002, ISBN 978-0-521-52436-0, retrieved 14 March 2022
    593. Brom, Libor (1988). "Dialectical Identity and Destiny: A General Introduction to Alexander Zinoviev's Theory of the Soviet Man". Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature. Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association. 42 (1/2): 15–27. doi:10.2307/1347433. JSTOR 1347433. S2CID 146768452.
    594. Rutland, Peter (December 2016). "Geopolitics and the Roots of Putin's Foreign Policy". Russian History. Brill Publishers. 43 (3–4): 425–436. doi:10.1163/18763316-04304009. JSTOR 26549593.
    595. Azhnina, Maria (13 July 2017). "7 kinds of Russian bread you'll want to bite the crust off of". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
    596. Thatcher, Gary (16 September 1985). "When it comes to bread, Russians don't loaf". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
    597. Eremeeva, Jennifer (15 May 2021). "Spotlight on Smetana: Russia's Sour Cream". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
    598. Shearlaw, Maeve (21 November 2014). "Understanding Russia's obsession with mayonnaise". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
    599. Goldstein, Darra (1999). A Taste of Russia: A Cookbook of Russian Hospitality (2 ed.). p. 54. ISBN 978-1-880-10042-4.
    600. Curtis, Michele (April 2018). In the Kitchen: The New Bible of Home Cooking. Hardie Grant Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-743-58555-9.
    601. Sacharow, Alla (1993). Classic Russian Cuisine: A Magnificent Selection of More Than 400 Traditional Recipes. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-628-72079-2.
    602. Volokh, Anne; Manus, Mavis (1983). The Art of Russian Cuisine. New York City: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-0-026-22090-3.
    603. Grigson, Jane (2007). Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. University of Nebraska Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-803-25994-2.
    604. Naylor, Tony (22 July 2020). "From sizzling shashlik to spicy seekh kebabs: barbecue recipes from around the world". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
    605. Eremeeva, Jennifer (10 February 2021). "North Meets South in Mini Golubtsy". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
    606. Cloake, Felicity (5 August 2020). "How to make the perfect Russian salad". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
    607. "Russian Vinegret salad: Super-easy and super-traditional". Russia Beyond. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
    608. "Global Snack: Herring under a fur coat". DW News. Deutsche Welle. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
    609. Eremeeva, Jennifer (4 July 2020). "Kvas: Russia's National Tipple". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
    610. Nosowitz, Dan (7 April 2016). "How To Drink Vodka Like a Russian". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
    611. Ferdman, Roberto A. (23 February 2014). "Map: Where the world's biggest vodka drinkers are". Quartz. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
    612. Obzor rossiyskogo rynka alkogol'noy produktsii. IV kvartal 2020 Обзор российского рынка алкогольной продукции. IV квартал 2020 (PDF) (Report) (in Russian). Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation. February 2021. p. 11. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
    613. Russia Wine Market Overview. Foreign Agricultural Service (Report). United States Department of Agriculture. 22 April 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
    614. Teslova, Elena (31 January 2021). "Russian samovars make tea-time distinctive tradition". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
    615. Sinelschikova, Yekaterina (8 August 2017). "The high life: How to get to Ostankino Tower and what to do there". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
    616. Krasnoboka, Natalya. "Russia – Media Landscape". European Journalism Centre. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
    617. "Russia profile – Media". BBC. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
    618. "Russia Games Market 2018". Newzoo. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
    619. Miller, Jamie (2006). "Soviet Cinema, 1929–41: The Development of Industry and Infrastructure". Europe-Asia Studies. 58 (1): 103–124. doi:10.1080/09668130500401715. JSTOR 20451166. S2CID 153570960.
    620. Hodgson, Jonathan (4 December 2020). "EISENSTEIN, Sergei - BATTLESHIP POTEMKIN - 1925 Russia". Middlesex University. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
    621. Brown, Mike (22 January 2018). "Sergei Eisenstein: How the "Father of Montage" Reinvented Cinema". Inverse. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
    622. Gray, Carmen (27 October 2015). "Where to begin with Andrei Tarkovsky". British Film Institute. Retrieved 27 May 2021. He made only seven features, but Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky is widely regarded as one of cinema's true masters.
    623. "All-Union State Institute of Cinematography". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
    624. Teare, Kendall (12 August 2019). "Yale film scholar on Dziga Vertov, the enigma with a movie camera". Yale University. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
    625. "Eldar Ryazanov And His Films". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
    626. Prokhorova, Elena; Beumers, Birgit (2008). "The Man Who Made Them Laugh: Leonid Gaidai, the King of Soviet Comedy". A History of Russian Cinema. Berg Publishers. pp. 519–542. ISBN 978-1-84520-215-6.
    627. "White Sun of the Desert". Film at Lincoln Center. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
    628. Aris, Ben (18 January 2019). "The Revival of Russia's Cinema Industry". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
    629. Badenhausen, Kurt (8 March 2016). "How Maria Sharapova Earned $285 Million During Her Tennis Career". Forbes. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
    630. Gorokhov, Vitalii Aleksandrovich (2015). "Forward Russia! Sports Mega-Events as a Venue for Building National Identity". Nationalities Papers. Cambridge University Press. 43 (2): 278. doi:10.1080/00905992.2014.998043. S2CID 140640018.
    631. "EURO 1960: all you need to know". UEFA Champions League. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    632. "Classics: Soviet Union vs Netherlands, 1988". UEFA Champions League. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    633. "Sporting-CSKA Moskva: watch their 2005 final". UEFA Champions League. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    634. Terry, Joe (18 November 2019). "How a brilliant Zenit Saint Petersburg lifted the UEFA Cup in 2008". These Football Times. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    635. Ingle, Sean (26 June 2008). "Euro 2008: Russia v Spain – as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    636. "2018 FIFA Confederations Cup Russia 2017". FIFA. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    637. "2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™". FIFA. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    638. Brito, Christopher (28 February 2022). "FIFA and UEFA suspend Russian national teams and clubs from all competitions "until further notice"". CBS News. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
    639. Trisvyatsky, Ilya (14 February 2013). "Bandy: A concise history of the extreme sport". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
    640. Gancedo, Javier (16 September 2007). "EuroBasket 2007 final: September 16, 2007". EuroLeague. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    641. Burks, Tosten; Woo, Jeremy (4 August 2015). "Follow the Bouncing Ball". Grantland. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
    642. "Russia – Sochi". Formula One. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    643. Benson, Andrew (3 March 2022). "Formula 1 terminates contract with Russian Grand Prix". BBC. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
    644. "Russian mastery in synchronized swimming yields double gold". USA Today. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
    645. Jennings, Rebecca (18 February 2021). "Figure skating is on thin ice. Here's how to fix it". Vox. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
    646. Caffrey, Oliver (11 February 2021). "Russian domination at the Australian Open". The West Australian. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
    647. Beam, Christopher (25 September 2009). "Why are the Russians so good at chess?". Slate. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
    648. "Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics – Athletes, Medals & Results". International Olympic Committee. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    649. "Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics – Athletes, Medals & Results". International Olympic Committee. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    650. "Sochi 2014". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
    651. Keh, Andrew; Panja, Tariq (8 December 2019). "Will Russia Be Thrown Out of the Olympics on Monday? A Primer". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2022.

    Further reading

    • Bartlett, Roger P. A history of Russia (2005) online
    • Breslauer, George W. and Colton, Timothy J. 2017. Russia Beyond Putin (Daedalus) online
    • Brown, Archie, ed. The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (1982) online
    • Dutkiewicz, P.; Richard, S.; Vladimir, K. (2016). The Social History of Post-Communist Russia. Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-32846-9. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
    • Florinsky, Michael T. ed. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (1961).
    • Frye, Timothy. Weak Strongman: The Limits of Power in Putin's Russia (2021) excerpt
    • Greene, by Samuel A. and Graeme B. Robertson. Putin v. the People: the Perilous Politics of a Divided Russia (Yale UP, 2019) excerpt
    • Hosking, Geoffrey A. Russia and the Russians: a history (2011) online
    • Kort, Michael. A Brief History of Russia (2008) online
    • Kropotkin, Peter Alexeivitch; Bealby, John Thomas; Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). "Russia" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 869–912.
    • Lowe, Norman. Mastering Twentieth Century Russian History (2002) excerpt
    • Millar, James R. ed. Encyclopedia of Russian History (4 vol 2003). online
    • Riasanovsky, Nicholas V., and Mark D. Steinberg. A History of Russia (9th ed. 2018) 9th edition 1993 online
    • Rosefielde, Steven. Putin's Russia: Economy, Defence and Foreign Policy (2020) excerpt
    • Service, Robert. A History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century (Harvard UP, 3rd ed., 2009) excerpt
    • Smorodinskaya, Tatiana, and Karen Evans-Romaine, eds. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Russian Culture (2014) excerpt; 800 pp covering art, literature, music, film, media, crime, politics, business, and economics.
    • Walker, Shauin. The Long Hangover: Putin's New Russia and the Ghosts Of the Past (2018, Oxford UP) excerpt


    General information


    This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.