List of meat substitutes

This is a list of meat substitutes. A meat substitute, also called a meat analogue, approximates certain aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) or chemical characteristics of a specific meat. Substitutes are often based on soybeans (such as tofu and tempeh), gluten, or peas.[1] Whole legumes are often used as a protein source in vegetarian dishes, but are not listed here.

A vegetarian patty prepared from crushed soybean, avocado, tomato and beetroot.


Paneer cheese produced in India



Cubes of young green jackfruit pulp sold as a meat substitute
  • Breadfruit – used similarly as jackfruit in savory dishes
  • Coconut burger – made from sapal, the coconut pulp by-products of traditional coconut milk extraction in Filipino cuisine
  • Eggplant – semitropical/tropical plant with a highly textured flesh[5]
  • Grapefruit – during the course of the Special Period economic crisis Cubans prepared steaks made out of breaded and fried grapefruit rind known as "bistec de toronja".[6]
  • Jackfruit – a fruit whose flesh has a similar texture to pulled pork when cooked


  • Burmese tofu – made from water, chickpea flour and turmeric
  • Falafel – a traditional Middle Eastern bean fritter, believed to have been created by ancient Copts as a meat substitute during Lent
  • Ganmodoki – a traditional Japanese tofu based dish similar to veggie burgers
  • Härkis – a brand of processed ground fava beans
  • Injo-gogi-bap – a Korean steamed rice wrapped in leftover soybean paste and dressed with a chili sauce.
  • Koya dofu – a freeze-dried tofu that has a taste and texture similar to meat when prepared, common in Buddhist vegetarian cuisine
  • Oncom – one of the traditional staple foods of West Java (Sundanese) cuisine of Indonesia, there are two types: red oncom and black oncom. Oncom is closely related to tempeh; both are foods fermented using mold.[7]
  • Seitan – a food made from gluten
  • Soy protein – a protein that is isolated from soybeans, it is made from soybean meal that has been dehulled and defatted
  • Soy curls – made from dehydrated soy beans. Often used as a substitute of chicken
  • Soy pulp – used for veggie burgers and croquettes
  • Tempeh – a traditional Indonesian soy product in a cake form, made from fermented soybeans
Tempeh burger
  • Textured vegetable protein – a defatted soy flour product that is a by-product of extracting soybean oil.[8] It is often used as a meat analogue or meat extender. It is quick to cook, with a protein content that is comparable to certain meats.[9]
  • Tofu – not traditionally seen as a meat substitute in Asia, but widely used for that purpose in the Western hemisphere
  • Tofurkey – faux turkey, a meat substitute in the form of a loaf or casserole of vegetarian protein, usually made from tofu (soybean protein) or seitan (wheat protein) with a stuffing made from grains or bread, flavored with a broth and seasoned with herbs and spices
  • Vegan chicken nuggets – made from pea protein, soy protein, textured vegetable protein, and wheat gluten
  • Vegetarian bacon – sometimes made from tempeh.
  • Vegetarian hot dog
  • Vegetarian sausage
  • Veggie burger


Companies and brands

See also


  1. Strom, Stephanie (3 April 2014). "Fake Meats, Finally, Taste Like Chicken". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  2. Godwin, Nigel (27 February 2009). "St David's Day recipes: Glamorgan sausages". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  3. "Meat Fans, You Have To Try These 3 Paneer-Based Versions Of Your Favourite Dishes". NDTV Food. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  4. Nowak, Rhonda (2 February 2020). "How to grow edible mushrooms". Mail Tribune. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  5. "On-farm trials of eggplant". AGRIS: International Information System for the Agricultural Science and Technology. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  6. "Cuba: A Little Hunger and Lot of Poor Eating". Havana Times. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  7. Sastraatmadja, D. D.; et al. (2002). "Production of High-Quality Oncom, a Traditional Indonesian Fermented Food, by the Inoculation with Selected Mold Strains in the Form of Pure Culture and Solid Inoculum". J. Grad. SCH. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 70: 111–127. hdl:2115/13163.
  8. Riaz MN (2006). Soy applications in food. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 155–84. ISBN 0-8493-2981-7.
  9. Clark JD, Valentas KJ, Levine L (1991). Food processing operations and scale-up. New York: CRC Press. pp. 134–7. ISBN 0-8247-8279-8.
  10. Luna, Nancy (November 12, 2007). "Kellogg buys Irvine-maker of Gardenburger frozen foods". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
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