Personal anthem

The anthem for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band. The head of state in many countries is honored with a prescribed piece of music; in some countries the national anthem serves this purpose, while others have a separate royal, presidential, or, historically, imperial anthem. Other officials may also have anthems, such as the vice-regal salute in several Commonwealth realms for the governor-general, governor, or lieutenant governor. Ruffles and flourishes may be played instead of, or preceding, such an anthem.

The 191st Army Band performs three Ruffles and Flourishes which is followed by the "General's March" as honors are rendered to General Robert W. Cone at Fort Hood.


Countries where the national anthem is also the royal anthem include Jamaica,[1] Malaysia,[2] and the Netherlands.[3]

Other examples include the following:

Country Office/rank Music Notes
Argentina President "Marcha de Ituzaingó" Presidential march[4]
Armenia President "Presidential Fanfare"
Australia Monarch "God Save the King"[5]
Other Royal Family members "God Save the King" First six bars only.
Governor-General, Governors Vice-regal salute[5] The first and last four bars of "Advance Australia Fair", the national anthem.[5] Before 1984, the royal salute was the first six bars of God save the King.
Austria President "Österreich, du herrliches Land" Also the anthem of the Austrian Armed Forces.
Bahamas Monarch "God Save the King"
Other Royal Family members "God Save the King"
Governor-General Vice-regal salute The playing of "March On, Bahamaland", the national anthem. Prior to 1973, the royal salute was the first six bars of God save the Queen.
Brazil President "Continências ao Presidente da República" Introduction and final chords of the Brazilian National Anthem. Only applicable at military ceremonies.[6]
Canada Monarch, consort "God Save the King"[7] For a pipe band, "Mallorca" is played instead.
Other Royal Family members The first six bars of "God Save the King"[7] For a pipe band, "Mallorca" is played instead.
Governor General, Lieutenant Governors "Salute to the Governor General/Lieutenant Governor", commonly called the Vice Regal Salute The first six bars of "God Save the King" immediately followed by the first four and last four bars of "O Canada", the national anthem. For a pipe band, a combination of "Mallorca" and "O Canada" is played instead.[7] Before 1968, the Vice Regal Salute was simply a Royal Salute first six bars of God Save the King.
High-ranking Canadian Forces personnel "General Salute" Played to render honours to high ranking personnel.
China President "欢迎进行曲" (Welcome March) Played as a welcoming signal for the president and the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.
Colombia President "Honores al Presidente de la Republica"
(Presidential Salute)
Bugle fanfare by the Corps of drums then followed by the:
1. Introduction and Chorus of the National Anthem of Colombia
2. Introduction from the hymn of the National Army of Colombia
3. Introduction from the hymn of the Colombian Navy
4. Introduction from the hymn of the Colombian Air Force
5. First bars of the hymn of the National Police of Colombia, all by a military band
If the president attends an event hosted by only either of the three service branches of the Military Forces of Colombia or the National Police, the Introduction and Chorus of the National Anthem are played first followed by the introduction of the specific service anthem.
Czech Republic President "Fanfáry z Libuše" Fanfares from Overture of the opera Libuše
Denmark Monarch "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast" "King Christian stood by the lofty mast". Also one of the two national anthems, the other being "Der er et yndigt land".
Ecuador President "Honores al Presidente de la Republica"
(Presidential Salute)
"Marcha Presidential"
(Presidential March)
1. In the Army, Air Force and Police, a bugle fanfare followed by the chorus of Salve, Oh Patria[8]
2. In the Navy, four long blasts of the boatswain's call then the rest as above
3. Played at the arrival of the President in military events, once the arrival honors have been received.
Vice President "Honores al Vicepresidente de la Republica"
(Vice-presidential Salute)
"Cancion patria"
(Fatherland Song)
1. In the Army, Air Force and Police, a bugle fanfare followed by the chorus of Salve, Oh Patria
2. In the Navy, four long blasts of the boatswain's call then the rest as above
3. Played at the arrival of the vice president, once the arrival honors have been received.
Estonia President "Pidulik marss" ("Solemn March", or Presidential March) In 1922, "Pidulik marss" won the contest for Estonian-composed state march. On 27 January 1923, it was adopted by the then-Minister of War Jaan Soots as the honorary march of the State Elder of Estonia (later known as the president of the Republic of Estonia), thus replacing the "Porilaste marss" which was previously used in its place.[9][10][11]
Commander of the Estonian Defence Forces and Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Defence Forces "Porilaste marss" was the honorary march of the State Elder of Estonia until 27 January 1923 when it was replaced by the "Pidulik marss". "March of the Pori Regiment"/"March of the Björneborgers". The tune was first publicly performed in Estonia at the 7th Estonian Song Festival in 1910, a handful of years before the declaration of independence.[12]
Finland Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Defence Forces (normally the President) "Björneborgarnas marsch/Porilaisten marssi" "March of the Pori Regiment"/"March of the Björneborgers"
France President "Chant du Départ" First used in 1974.[13]
Grenada Monarch "God Save the King"
Governor-General "Vice-regal Salute" The playing of "Hail Grenada", the national anthem.
Haiti President "Quand nos Aïeux brisèrent leurs entraves"
(Chant Nationale)
"When Our Fathers Broke Their Chains" (also known as the National Hymn). Poem by Oswald Durand, set to music by Occide Jeanty in 1893 to serve as a national anthem; replaced by "La Dessalinienne" in 1904.[14]
Ireland President "Presidential Salute" The first four and last five bars of "Amhrán na bhFiann", the national anthem[15]
Taoiseach "Mór Chluana" / "Amhrán Dóchais" "Mór Chluana" ("More of Cloyne") is a traditional air collected by Patrick Weston Joyce in 1873.[16][17] "Amhrán Dóchais" ("Song of Hope") is a poem written by Osborn Bergin in 1913 and set to the air.[17][18] John A. Costello chose the air as his salute.[18] Though the salute is often called "Amhrán Dóchais", Brian Ó Cuív argues "Mór Chluana" is the correct title.[18][19]
Italy President "S'hymnu sardu nationale" ("Inno Sardo Nazionale") Used only in 1991 and in 1992.[20][21]
Korea (Republic of) General-rank Officer "Star March" Abridged version
Ministers of State "Rose of Sharon"
President "Phoenix Hymn" Modified version of Star March, played during Military Parade attended by the president
Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) Supreme Leader "Song of Happiness for the Leader" Played during the arrival and departure of the Supreme Leader.
Luxembourg Monarch "De Wilhelmus" A variant of "Het Wilhelmus", the national and royal anthem of the Netherlands
Malaysia Raja Permaisuri Agong; Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abridged version of the National Anthem Consisting of first and last sections.[2] Played before the relevant state's anthem[2] if the salute is for the Yang di-Pertua Negeri.
State monarchs Short version of "Negaraku" (the national anthem) Consisting of last section. Played after the relevant state's anthem. Only may be played if the state monarch present representing the king.[2]
Mauritania Mauritania "Presidental Hymn of Mauritania" Poem by Baba Ould Cheikh in the late 18th century and composed by Tolia Nikiprowetzky in 1960 to serve as a national anthem; replaced by "Bilada-l ubati-l hudati-l kiram" in 2017.
Montenegro President "Abridged version of Oj, svijetla majska zoro" First stanza only.
Netherlands Members of the Royal House; Governor of Aruba; Governor of Curacao and Governor of Sint Maarten "Het Wilhelmus" The national anthem.[3]
Various officials not entitled to "Het Wilhelmus".[fn 1] "De Jonge Prins van Friesland" [3] Ministers used the national anthem untill Queen Beatrix objected in 1986.[22]
New Zealand Monarch "God Save the King"[23] Also one of two national anthems, the other being "God Defend New Zealand".[23]
Governor-General "Salute to the Governor-General" The first six bars of "God Save the King"[24] The anthem may also be played in full.[23]
Norway Monarch "Kongesangen" "The King's Song"; an adaptation of "God Save the King" and set to the same tune.
Papua New Guinea Monarch "God Save the King"[25]
Philippines President "Mabuhay"[26] ("We Say Mabuhay")[27](Presidential march)
The word mabuhay means "long live". The song, with music by Tirso Cruz, Sr and English lyrics by American James King Steele, was written c. 1935–40.[27] Played to announce the arrival of the president during major events, minus the four ruffles and flourishes.
President "Honorable Salute to the President" (Marangál na Parangál sa Pangulo)
(Presidential salute music)
An older version, adopted in 1999, was played until 2010 and was readopted in 2022 by President Ferdinand R. Marcos, Jr..[28] A new version (with lyrics in Filipino, composed by former PSG Band Conductor Maj. Xavier Celestal) debuted in 2011 and was until 2022 (played during the Presidential Security Group change of command ceremony and PCG's anniversary attended by President Marcos in 2022) used in all events of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Philippine National Police and the Philippine Coast Guard when the president is present. It is preceded by four ruffles and flourishes, and is often performed with a 21-gun salute (military events only).
Poland President "Sygnał prezydencki"[29] Played in the presence of the president when the presidential ensign is raised in major events.
Portugal President "A Portuguesa" The national anthem.
President of the Assembly of the Republic
Prime Minister
Ministers and Secretaries of State
"Hino da Maria da Fonte"[30]
Romania President "Marș triumfal"[31] Played in the presence of the president in state events and during state visits by foreign high officials.
Russia President "Glory" (A Life for the Tsar) Played during the inauguration of the president.
President "Президентская Фанфара" ("Presidential Fanfare") Played as a welcoming signal for the president.
Serbia President "Abridged version of Bože pravde" First half of the first stanza and last two parts of the second stanza only.
Singapore President "Abridged version of Majulah Singapura" First six bars only, played during state visits by foreign heads of state.[32] During major national events, the anthem is played in full.
Slovenia Commander-in-Chief of the Slovenian Armed Forces (normally the President) "Naprej, zastava slave" "Forward, Flag of Glory"
Spain Monarch "Marcha Real"
Princess of Asturias Short version of "Marcha Real" Played without the repeated bars.
Sweden Monarch "Kungssången" "The King's Song"
Switzerland Members of the federal council "Rufst du, mein Vaterland"
Chancellor "Rufst du, mein Vaterland"
Various officials "Rufst du, mein Vaterland" First six bars only.
Thailand Monarch "Sansoen Phra Barami"[33] "The song of glorifying His Majesty's prestige". Former national anthem, still played before shows in cinemas and theatres and during all major events when the king and queen are present. also performed for:
  • Queen Sirikit the Queen Mother
  • Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, the Princess Royal
  • Heirs-apparent to the throne
  • Royal remains
  • Some Thai Royal Standards when hoisted or shown:-
    • Royal Standard of Thailand
    • Standard of Queen Sirikit the Queen Mother
    • Standard of the Queen of Thailand
    • Standard for Senior members of the Royal Family (Standard of the Princess Mother)
    • Standard of Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, the Princess Royal
    • Standard of the Crown Prince of Thailand
King "Sadudee Jom Racha" "Hymn to the Righteous King". Used for the ceremonies related to King Vajiralongkorn and Queen Suthida.[34]
Other members of the royal family "Maha Chai" "Grand Victory". It may be also used for the Regent of Thailand and Thai military officers who held the rank of field marshal of the Royal Thai Army, admiral of the fleet of the Royal Thai Navy and/or marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force.[35][36]
Other situations "Maha Roek" "Grand Auspice". Mainly used for the arrival of senior government officials and for inaugurations. It is also used as the General Salute Music of the Royal Thai Armed Forces.[37]
United States President "Hail to the Chief"[38] Short or long version may be played depending on the event
Vice President "Hail Columbia"[38] First 8 and last 4 bars
Various officials[fn 2] "Honors March 1"[38] 32-bar medley of "Stars and Stripes Forever"[38]
Army, Air Force, and Space Force general officers "General's March"[38] Also listed in AR 600-25 as "Honors March 2"
Navy flag officers "Admiral's March"[38] Also listed in AR 600-25 as "Honors March 3"
Navy and Coast Guard admirals and Marine Corps generals "Flag Officer's March"[38] Also listed in AR 600-25 as "Honors March 4"
United Kingdom Monarch "God Save The King" The entire anthem is performed.[39] Prince of Wales and those ranking below only receive a short version with the first eight bars of the anthem, otherwise anthem is played in full.
Venezuela President "Hymn to the Liberator Simon Bolivar" (Himno a Bolivar), (military band only),[40]
"Gloria al Bravo Pueblo" (short version or full version, for military band only),
"National Salute March" (Marcha Regular) (for Corps of drums only)
1. Presidential march, played during the arrival of the president during major events
2. National anthem, chorus, first verse and chorus only during all events, can also be played in full or using the chorus only
3. Played during military ceremonies if a Corps of Drums is in attendance,[41] also played as Salute March of the Flag of Venezuela if the national anthem is not used, can also be played by a military band as well if possible.

Historical anthems

Country Office Anthem Notes
Kingdom of Afghanistan Monarch "Shahe ghajur-o-mehrabane ma" ("Our Brave and Dear King") Used from 1943 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
Principality of Albania/Albanian Kingdom Monarch "Himni i Flamurit"
("Hymn to the Flag")
The royal anthem until the abolition of the monarchy in 1943, now the national anthem.
Austrian Empire/Austria-Hungary Monarch "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser"
("God Save Emperor Francis")
Used with updated words for later emperors until the abolition of the monarchy in 1918.
Kingdom of Bavaria Monarch "Königsstrophe"
("King's Stanza")
An earlier version of the current state anthem glorifying the king.
Empire of Brazil Monarch "Hino da Independência"
("Hymn of Independence")
Used between 1822 and 1831. The current national anthem was used for the rest of the empire's existence.
Kingdom of Bulgaria Monarch "Anthem of His Majesty the Tsar" Royal anthem until 1944.
Qing dynasty Monarch
  • "lǐ zhōng táng yuè" (1896–1906)
    (""李中堂樂"; "Tune of Li Zhongtang")
  • "Sòng lóng qí" (1906–11)
    ("頌龍旗"; "Praise the Dragon Flag")
  • "Gong Jin'ou"; (1911–12)
    ("鞏金甌"; "Cup of Solid Gold")
Empire of China (1915–16) Emperor Yuan Shikai "Zhong guo xiong li yu zhou jian"
("中國雄立宇宙間"; "China Heroically Stands in the Universe")
Ethiopian Empire House of Solomon "Ityopp'ya Hoy"
("Ethiopia be happy")
Kingdom of Egypt Muhammad Ali Dynasty "Salam Affandina"
("Royal Anthem of Egypt")
Kingdom of France (c.1590–1789 & 1815–48) King of France and Navarre "Marche Henri IV"
("Henry IV March")
"Vive la France, Vive le roi Henri" until 1789, "Vive le princes, et le bon roi Louis" after 1815
Kingdom of France (1791–92) King of France and Navarre "La Nation, la Loi, le Roi"
("The Nation, the Law, the King")
First French Empire (1804–15) Napoleon I, Napoleon II "Chant du Départ"
("Song of the Departure")
"Chant du Départ" until 1815, now the presidential anthem
Second French Empire (1852–70) Napoleon III "Partant pour la Syrie"
("Departing for Syria")
German Empire Emperor "Heil dir im Siegerkranz"
("Hail to Thee in the Victor's Crown")
Nazi Germany Führer "Badonviller Marsch"
("Badonviller March")
Kingdom of Greece Monarch "Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν"
("Hymn to Liberty")
The royal anthem until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974, now the national anthem.
Kingdom of Hawaii Monarch
  • "E Ola Ke Aliʻi Ke Akua" (1860–66)
    ("God Save the King")
  • "He Mele Lâhui Hawaiʻi" (1866–76)
    ("The Song of the Hawaiian Nation")
  • "Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī" (from 1876)
    ("Hawaiʻi's own true sons")
British Hong Kong Monarch, Governor of Hong Kong God Save the King (first stanza only)[42]
Iran (Qajar) Shah "Salamati-ye Shah"
("Health of the Shah")
Iran (Pahlavi) Shah "Sorood-e Shahanshahi Iran"
("Imperial Salute of Iran")
Kingdom of Iraq Monarch "Es Salam al-Malaky"
("The Royal Salute")
Irish Free State Governor-General "The Soldier's Song" (1929–32); none (1932–36) Monarchy in the Irish Free State was a requirement of the Anglo-Irish Treaty resented by nationalists. While unionists felt that "God Save the King" was appropriate anthem for the king's Irish representative, the 1927–32 government decreed that the governor-general should leave any function at which it was played.[43] The 1933–37 government eliminated all ceremonial honours before abolishing the position entirely.[44]
Kingdom of Italy Monarch "S'hymnu sardu nationale"
("Inno Sardo Nazionale")
Glorifies the prince/king. Used until the abolition of the monarchy in 1946, now the presidential anthem.
Korean Empire Monarch "Daehan Jeguk Aegukga"
("대한 제국 애국가"; "Patriotic Song of the Korean Empire")
Kingdom of Laos Monarch "Pheng Xat Lao" An earlier version of the current national anthem.
Kingdom of Libya King Idris "Libya, Libya, Libya" This anthem was readopted by the National Transitional Council in 2011, as the national anthem, with the verse glorifying King Idris omitted.
Kingdom of Madagascar Monarch "Andriamanitra ô"
("O Lord")
Glorifies the Malagasy sovereign.
Principality of Montenegro/Kingdom of Montenegro Monarch "Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori"
("To our Beautiful Montenegro")
Glorifies the prince/king.
Kingdom of Nepal Monarch "Rastriya Gaan"
("May Glory Crown our Illustrious Sovereign")
Used between 1962 and 2006.
Ottoman Empire Monarch
  • "Mahmudiye" (1808–39 and 1918–22)
  • "Mecidiye March" (1839–61)
  • "Aziziye March" (1861–76)
  • "Hamadiye" (1876-1909)
  • "Reşadiye" (1909–18)
From the nineteenth century, a new imperial anthem was usually composed for each sultan.
Kingdom of Portugal Monarch "O Hino da Carta"
("Hymn to the Charter")
Used from 1834 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1910.
Prussia/German Empire King of Prussia/German Emperor "Heil dir im Siegerkranz"
("Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown")
Kingdom of Romania Monarch "Trăiască Regele"
("Long Live the King")
Russian Empire Monarch "Боже, Царя храни"
("God Save The Tsar!")
The national anthem until the abolition of monarchy—still used by some descendants of white émigrés.
Principality of Serbia/Kingdom of Serbia Monarch "Bože pravde"
("Lord of Justice")
An earlier version of the current national anthem glorifying the prince/king.
Siam Monarch
  • "Chom Rat Chong Charoen" (1852–71)
    ("จอมราชจงเจริญ"; "Long live the Great King")
  • "Bulan Loi Luean" (1871–88)
    ("บุหลันลอยเลื่อน"; "The Floating Moon on the Sky")
  • "Sansoen Phra Barami" (1888–1932)
    ("สรรเสริญพระบารมี"; "Glorify His Prestige")
Afterward Sansoen Phra Barami changed status for Royal Salute Anthem ever since change of rule for democratic form of government with the king as head of state in 1932, which the state changed to use the new national anthem as a replacement.
Union of South Africa Monarch "God Save the King"
Sweden Gustav III "Gustafs skål"
("Toast to Gustaf")
Monarch "Bevare Gud vår kung" (1805–93)
("God Save The King")
Based on the British anthem, and with an identical melody.
Kingdom of Tunisia Monarch "Salam al-Bey"
("Beylical Salute")
Empire of Vietnam Monarch "Đăng đàn cung"
("Melody on the Ascent to the Esplanade")
Kingdom of Yemen Monarch "Salam al-Malaky"
("Royal Salute")
No official words.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Monarch "National Anthem of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia"
Sultanate of Zanzibar Monarch "March for the Sultan of Zanzibar" No words.

See also


  1. Members of the Dutch Cabinet, Netherlands Antilles Cabinet, or Aruba Cabinet; senior Dutch military officers; Secretaries General of NATO, of the UN, and of the EU Council; EU foreign and security High Representative. (In the absence of persons entitled to the anthem).
  2. State governors, chief justice, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the United States Senate, chairmen of committees of Congress, Cabinet members, Department of Defense officials ranked assistant secretary or higher, senior diplomats, brigadier generals


  1. "National Anthem". Jamaica: King's House. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
  2. "Act 390: National Anthem Act 1968; Incorporating all amendments up to 1 January 2006" (PDF). Malaysia: Commissioner of Law Revision. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  3. "DP 20-10, Ceremonieel & Protocol; Hoofdstuk 8 Muzikaal eerbetoon". Ministeriële & Defensie Publicaties (in Dutch). Netherlands: Ministry of Defence. §§2,5,10. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  4. "¿Sabías que "La Marcha de Ituzaingó" es un atributo presidencial como la banda y el bastón?". No. 3 December 2015. La Nación. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  5. "16.3 Australian national anthem". Protocol Guidelines. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia). Archived from the original on 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  6. Law No 5700 of 1 September 1971 Cap.3 Sec.II Art.24.V
  7. "Heritage Structure | Section 3 – Anthems, Salutes and Protocol". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2022-09-13.
  9. Eesti Rahvusringhääling (2021-02-16). "Eero Raun: "Piduliku marsi" autorit süüdistati esialgu plagiaadis". (in Estonian). Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  10. Sõjaministeerium (1921), "Sõjaministri päevakäsud (1 Jan - 31 Dec 1921, nr. 1-753)",, retrieved 2022-04-23
  11. Sõjaministeerium (1923), "Sõjaministri päevakäsud (3 Jan - 31 Dec 1923, nr. 4-584)",, retrieved 2022-04-23
  12. Estonia selts (1910), "VII Laulupidu (12 Jun - 14 Jun) / Tallinna III Eesti laulupidu",, retrieved 2022-04-23
  13. "Le Chant du Départ". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
  14. Victor, A.J. "Haitian Patriotic Songs". Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  15. "National Anthem". Department of the Taoiseach. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  16. "P. W. Joyce: Ancient Irish Music » 47 - Mór Chluana". Na Píobairí Uilleann. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  17. "Joyce, Patrick Weston (1827–1914)". (in Ga). Cló Iar-Chonnacht. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  18. Ó Cuív, Brian (2010-04-01). "Irish language and literature, 1845-1921". In W. E. Vaughan (ed.). Ireland Under the Union, 1870-1921. A New History of Ireland. Vol. VI. Oxford University Press. p. 425. ISBN 9780199583744. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  19. "Amhrán Dóchais". Library. Ireland: Contemporary Music Centre. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
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  21. "Il primo inno nazionale, "S'hymnu sardu nationale"". 21 February 2021.
  22. Hoedeman, Jan; Theo Koelé (5 June 2004). "Beatrix: 'Het Wilhelmus is van mij'". De Volkskrant (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  23. "Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage (New Zealand). Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  24. "Instructions for Playing the Anthem". Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage (New Zealand). 1966. If the first six bars only are used, as for a salute to the Governor-General as the Queen's representative, the anthem is to be played "fortissimo" at M.M. 60 crotchets.
  25. Webb, Michael (1993). Lokal Musik: Lingua Franca Song and Identity in Papua New Guinea. Cultural Studies Division, National Research Institute. p. 37. ISBN 978-9980-68-019-8.
  26. Quezon, Manuel L. (2004-06-24). "The Long view". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2020-02-26. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  27. Walsh, Thomas P. (2013). Tin Pan Alley and the Philippines: American Songs of War and Love, 1898-1946 : a Resource Guide. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 271–273. ISBN 9780810886087. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  29. Music notation
  32. Guidelines for playing and singing national anthems Part IV of the Singapore Arms and Flag and National Anthem Rules
  33. Rutnin, Mattani Mojdara (1993). Dance, drama, and theatre in Thailand: the process of development and modernization. Tokyo: Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, the Toyo Bunko. p. 132. ISBN 978-4-89656-107-4. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
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  36. "A collection of Thai anthems" (in Thai). Thailand: Office of Public Relations. Archived from the original on 25 June 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2012.; "A collection of Thai anthems". Thailand: Office of Public Relations. Archived from the original on 24 June 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  37. TAWAT HUAHIN SUDDEE ข้างเขา หัวหิน (6 February 2012). "มหาฤกษ์ Combination RTA Band". Archived from the original on 2021-12-15. Retrieved 19 April 2018 via YouTube.
  38. "Army Regulation 600–25: Salutes, Honors, and Courtesy" (PDF). U.S. Department of the Army. 2019-09-10. pp. 5–6, Table 2-1. Retrieved 2021-11-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  42. "China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  43. Morris, Ewan (May 1998). "'God Save the King' Versus 'The Soldier's Song': The 1929 Trinity College National Anthem Dispute and the Politics of the Irish Free State". Irish Historical Studies. 31 (121): 72–90. doi:10.1017/S0021121400013705. JSTOR 30007063.
  44. Bogdanor, Vernon (1997). The Monarchy and the Constitution. Oxford University Press. p. 282. ISBN 9780198293347. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
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