List of monarchs of Brazil

The monarchs of Brazil (Portuguese: monarcas do Brasil) were the imperial heads of state and hereditary rulers of Brazil from the House of Braganza that reigned from the creation of the Brazilian monarchy in 1815 as a constituent kingdom of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves until the republican coup d'état that overthrew the Empire of Brazil in 1889.[1]

Monarchy of Brazil
Imperial
Last to reign
Pedro II

1831–1889
Details
StyleHis/Her Most Faithful Majesty
His/Her Imperial Majesty
First monarchMaria I
(as queen)
Last monarchPedro II
(as emperor)
Formation16 December 1815
Abolition15 November 1889
Pretender(s)Disputed:
Prince Bertrand
(Vassouras Branch)
Pedro Carlos Orléans-Braganza
(Petrópolis Branch)

The coast of the territory which would become known as Brazil was first explored by Portuguese navigators on 22 April 1500. This territory was subsequently colonized by the Portuguese crown. Since the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil in 1808, colonial rule had de facto ended. On 16 December 1815, Prince Regent John, the future king John VI, raised Brazil to the status of a kingdom, thus making his mother, Maria I, the reigning queen, the first monarch of Brazil. The next year, 20 March 1816, John succeeded his mother as king of the united Luso-Brazilian monarchy. Having proclaimed independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from Portugal in 1822, Pedro I, son of John VI, was acclaimed the first emperor of Brazil on 12 October 1822. He was later succeeded on 7 April 1831 by his son Pedro II, deposed along with the 74-years-old monarchy on 15 November 1889 in a bloodless and unpopular military coup d'état.

Title

From 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822, while the Kingdom of Brazil was in union with the Kingdom of Portugal, the monarch's full title and styles were, according to tradition and the United Kingdom's 1822 Constitution: By the Grace of God, King/Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.[2]

From 12 October 1822 to 15 November 1889, as the independent Empire of Brazil, the country's monarch's full title were: By Grace of God and Unanimous Acclamation of the People, Constitutional Emperor/Empress and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.

It's worth noting that from a short period of time, between 15 November 1825 and 10 March 1826, according to the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized Brazilian independence, it was granted to King John VI the courtesy title of Emperor of Brazil, while his son was the actual reigning emperor. From the treaty's date to his death John VI used the title: By the Grace of God, John VI, Emperor of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.[2]

Colonial Brazil (1500–1815)

House of Avis

Brazil is discovered by Portuguese navigators on April 22, 1500, and becomes a Portuguese colony.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Manuel I
  • The Fortunate; The Grocer King/The Spices King (Le Roi-Épicier)
31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521 (aged 52)25 October 149513 December 1521Cousin of John II
Grandson of Edward I
Aviz
John III
7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557 (aged 55)13 December 152111 June 1557Son of Manuel IAviz
Sebastian I
  • The Desired; The Asleep; The Sleeper; The Sleeping Hero; The Sleeping King; The Virgin King; The Hidden; The Crusader
  • Portuguese: Sebastião I
20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578 (aged 24)11 June 15574 August 1578Grandson of John IIIAviz
Henry I
  • The Chaste; The Cardinal; The Cardinal-King
  • Portuguese: Henrique I
31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580 (aged 68)4 August 157831 January 1580Son of Manuel I
Brother of John III
Great-uncle of Sebastian
Aviz
Anthony I
  • The Prior of Crato; The Determined; The Fighter; The Resistant; The Independentist
  • Portuguese: António I
1531 – 28 August 1595 (aged 64)(Disputed) 24 July 1580(Disputed) 1583Grandson of Manuel I
Nephew of Henry I
Aviz

House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Philip I
21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598 (aged 71)17 April 158113 September 1598Grandson of Manuel I
Nephew of Henry I
Habsburg
Philip II
14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621 (aged 42)13 September 159831 March 1621Son of Philip IHabsburg
Philip III
  • The Great; The Tyrant; The Oppressor
  • Portuguese: Filipe III
8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665 (aged 60)31 March 16211 December 1640Son of Philip IIHabsburg

House of Braganza

The House of Braganza, also known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, claimed to be the rightful heir of the defunct House of Aviz, as he was the great great grandson of King Manuel I. John was proclaimed King John IV, and he deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John IV
  • The Restorer; The Fortunate; The Musician King
  • Portuguese: João IV
19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656 (aged 53)1 December 16406 November 1656Great-great-grandson of Manuel IBraganza
Afonso VI
  • The Victorious
21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683 (aged 40)6 November 165612 September 1683Son of John IVBraganza
Peter II
26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706 (aged 58)6 November 16839 December 1706Son of John IV
Brother of Afonso VI
Braganza
John V
  • The Magnanimous; The Magnificent; The Generous; The Most Faithful King; The Nuns' Lover; The Portuguese Sun-King
  • Portuguese: João V
22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750 (aged 60)9 December 170631 July 1750Son of Peter IIBraganza
Joseph I
6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777 (age 62)31 July 175024 February 1777Son of John VBraganza
Mary I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81)24 February 177720 March 1816Daughter of Joseph IBraganza

Kingdom of Brazil (1815–1822)

The house of Braganza continued to rule over Brazil, and on 16 December 1815, the Prince Regent John, the future king John VI raised Brazil to the status of a kingdom, thus making his mother, Maria I, the reigning Queen, the first Monarch of Brazil. The next year, 20 March 1816, John succeeded his mother as King of the united Luso-Brazilian monarchy.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Maria I
  • The Pious; The Mad
17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816 (aged 81)16 December 181520 March 1816Daughter of Joseph I of PortugalBraganza
John VI
13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58)20 March 18167 September 1822Son of Maria I of Portugal and BrazilBraganza

Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)

The house of Braganza continued to rule over Brazil after Pedro I, son of John VI, was acclaimed the first Emperor of Brazil on 12 October 1822, having proclaimed the independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from Portugal. He was later succeeded on 7 April 1831 by his son Pedro II, the last monarch of Brazil. Pedro II of Brazil, reigned 49 years in fact or 58 years if the regency period is considered.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Pedro I
  • The Liberator; The Soldier King
12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35)12 October 18227 April 1831Son of John VI of PortugalBraganza
Pedro II
  • The Magnanimous
2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891 (aged 66)7 April 183115 November 1889Son of Pedro I of BrazilBraganza

See also

References

  1. Bandeira, Moniz. Casa da Torre de Garcia d'Avila. Editora Record, 2000, pp. 423–425
  2. Amaral, Manuel. "João VI". In: Portugal – Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico, Volume III, 2000–2010, pp. 1051–1055. In Portuguese.
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