List of Portuguese monarchs

This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

King of Portugal and the Algarves
StyleHis Most Faithful Majesty
First monarchAfonso I
Last monarchManuel II
Formation25 July 1139
Abolition5 October 1910
ResidenceRoyal residences in Portugal
Pretender(s)Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

Through the nearly 800 years in which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the House of Habsburg came into power, the kings of Spain, Naples, and Sicily also became kings of Portugal. The House of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then de jure Emperor of Brazil.

After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the house of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed king of Portugal by their monarchist groups.

The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I of Portugal, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

The Portuguese House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Afonso Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to a royal house which would rule Portugal for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred between 1383 and 1385. Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Afonso I
  • The Conqueror; The Great; The Founder; The Father of the Nation
  • Afonso Henriques
1106/09/11 – 6 December 1185 (aged 73–79)25 July 11396 December 1185previously Count of Portugal, founder of the Kingdom of Portugal
Son of Henry, Count of Portugal and Teresa, Countess of Portugal
Sancho I
  • The Populator
11 November 1154 – 26 March 1211 (aged 56)6 December 118526 March 1211Son of Afonso IBurgundy
Afonso II
  • The Fat; The Leprous; The Lawgiver
23 April 1185 – 25 March 1223 (aged 37)27 March 121125 March 1223Son of Sancho IBurgundy
Sancho II
  • The Caped; The Capuched; The Cowled; The Pious
8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248 (aged 38)26 March 12234 December 1247Son of Afonso IIBurgundy
Afonso III
  • The Boulonnais
5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279 (aged 68)4 January 124816 February 1279Son of Afonso II
Brother of Sancho II
Denis I
  • The Farmer; The Farmer-King; The Poet; The Poet-King; The Troubadour; The Just; The Liberal
  • Portuguese: Dinis I
9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 (aged 63)6 February 12797 January 1325Son of Afonso IIIBurgundy
Afonso IV
  • The Brave; The Bold
8 February 1291 – 28 May 1357 (aged 66)7 January 132528 May 1357Son of Denis IBurgundy
Peter I
  • The Cruel; The Just; The Enemy-Son; The Stutterer; The Till-the-End-of-the-World-Passionate; The Vengeful; The Revengeful
  • Portuguese: Pedro I
8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367 (aged 46)28 May 135718 January 1367Son of Afonso IVBurgundy
Ferdinand I
  • The Handsome; The Debonair; The Inconstant; The Fickle; The Inconscient
  • Portuguese: Fernando I
31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383 (aged 37)18 January 136722 October 1383Son of Peter IBurgundy

House of Aviz (1385–1580)

The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, who was the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal died without an heir, the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian of Portugal died, the throne passed to his uncle, Henry of Portugal (he might be called Henry II because Henry, Count of Portugal, father of Alphonso I of Portugal, was the first of that name to rule Portugal). When Henry died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato, was proclaimed António of Portugal.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John I
11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433 (aged 75)6 April 138514 August 1433Illegitimate son of Peter IAviz
  • The Eloquent; The Philosopher; The Philosopher-King
  • Portuguese: Duarte I
31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438 (aged 46)14 August 14339 September 1438Son of John IAviz
Afonso V
  • The African; The Crusader
15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481 (aged 49)13 September 1438

15 November 1477
11 November 1477

28 August 1481
Son of Edward IAviz
John II
  • The Perfect Prince; The Man (El Hombre)
  • Portuguese: João II
3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495 (aged 40)11 November 1477

28 August 1481
15 November 1477

25 October 1495
Son of Afonso VAviz
Manuel I
  • The Fortunate; The Grocer King/The Spices King (Le Roi-Épicier)
31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521 (aged 52)25 October 149513 December 1521Cousin of John II
Grandson of Edward I
John III
7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557 (aged 55)13 December 152111 June 1557Son of Manuel IAviz
Sebastian I
  • The Desired; The Asleep; The Sleeper; The Sleeping Hero; The Sleeping King; The Hidden; The Crusader
  • Portuguese: Sebastião I
20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578 (aged 24)11 June 15574 August 1578Grandson of John IIIAviz
Henry I
  • The Chaste; The Cardinal; The Cardinal-King
  • Portuguese: Henrique I
31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580 (aged 68)4 August 157831 January 1580Son of Manuel I
Brother of John III
Great-uncle of Sebastian
Anthony I
  • The Prior of Crato; The Determined; The Fighter; The Resistant; The Independentist
  • Portuguese: António I
1531 – 28 August 1595 (aged 64)(Disputed) 24 July 1580(Disputed) 1583Grandson of Manuel I
Nephew of Henry I

House of Habsburg (1581–1640)

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Philip I
21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598 (aged 71)17 April 158113 September 1598Grandson of Manuel I
Nephew of Henry I
Philip II
14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621 (aged 42)13 September 159831 March 1621Son of Philip IHabsburg
Philip III
  • The Great; The Tyrant; The Oppressor
  • Portuguese: Filipe III
8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665 (aged 60)31 March 16211 December 1640Son of Philip IIHabsburg

House of Braganza (1640–1910)

The House of Braganza, also known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, claimed to be the rightful heir of the defunct House of Aviz, as he was the great great grandson of King Manuel I. John was proclaimed King John IV, and he deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

The descendants of Queen Maria II and her consort, King Ferdinand II (a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha), came to rule in 1853. Portuguese law and custom treated them as members of the House of Braganza, though they were still Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasts. This has led some to classify these last four monarchs of Portugal as members of a new royal family, called the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, though this view is not widely held.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John IV
  • The Restorer; The Fortunate; The Musician King
  • Portuguese: João IV
19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656 (aged 52)1 December 16406 November 1656Great-great-grandson of Manuel IBraganza
Afonso VI
  • The Victorious
21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683 (aged 40)6 November 165612 September 1683Son of John IVBraganza
Peter II
26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706 (aged 58)6 November 16839 December 1706Son of John IV
Brother of Afonso VI
John V
  • The Magnanimous; The Magnificent; The Generous; The Most Faithful King; The Nuns' Lover; The Portuguese Sun-King
  • Portuguese: João V
22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750 (aged 60)9 December 170631 July 1750Son of Peter IIBraganza
Joseph I
6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777 (age 62)31 July 175024 February 1777Son of John VBraganza
Maria I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81)24 February 177720 March 1816Daughter of Joseph IBraganza
Peter III
  • The Capacidónio; The Builder; The Edifier; The Sacristan; The Enabler
  • Portuguese: Pedro III
(1717-07-05)5 July 1717 – 25 May 1786(1786-05-25) (aged 68)24 February 177725 May 1786Husband of Maria I
Son of John V
jure uxoris king
John VI
13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58)20 March 181610 March 1826Son of Maria I and Peter IIIBraganza
Peter IV
  • The Soldier King; The Liberator; The Emperor; The Hero of Two Worlds
  • Portuguese: Pedro IV
12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35)10 March 18262 May 1826Son of John VIBraganza
Maria II
4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853 (aged 34)2 May 1826
26 May 1834
23 June 1828
15 November 1853
Daughter of Peter IVBraganza
Michael I
  • The Absolute King; The Absolutist; The Traditionalist; The Usurper; The Grandfather of Europe
  • Portuguese: Miguel I
26 October 1802 – 14 November 1866 (aged 64)26 February 18286 May 1834Son of John VI
Brother of Peter IV
Uncle of Maria II
Ferdinand II
29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885 (aged 69)16 September 183715 November 1853Husband of Maria II
jure uxoris king
Peter V
  • The Hopeful; The Beloved; The Well-Beloved
  • Portuguese: Pedro V
16 September 1837 – 11 November 1861 (aged 24)15 November 185311 November 1861Son of Maria II and Ferdinand IIBraganza/Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[3]
Louis I
  • The Popular; The Musician King; The Painter King
  • Portuguese: Luís I
31 October 1838 – 19 October 1889 (aged 50)11 November 186119 October 1889Son of Maria II and Ferdinand II
Brother of Peter V
Braganza/Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[3]
Carlos I
  • The Diplomat; The Martyr; The Martyred; The Oceanographer; The Hunter; The Painter King; The Obese
28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908 (aged 44)19 October 18891 February 1908Son of Louis IBraganza/Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[3]
Manuel II
  • The Patriot; The Sorrowful; The Unfortunate; The Studious; The Scholar; The Erudite; The Learned; The Bibliophile; The Missed-King
15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932 (aged 42)1 February 19085 October 1910Son of Carlos I
Last King of Portugal
Braganza/Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[3][4]

See also


  1. David Williamson, «Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe»,1988,Webb & Bower, Exeter, ISBN 0-86350-194-X; César Olivera Serrano, «Beatriz de Portugal»
  2. García de Cortázar, Fernando (1999), Breve historia de España, Alianza Editorial, page 712; Armindo de Sousa, in História de Portugal coordinated by José Mattoso, Editorial Estampa, vol. II, ISBN 972-33-0919-X, pages 494/95
  3. Also referred as the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza"
  4. Some historians consider that Manuel II was preceded by his elder brother Luís Filipe, not by his father Carlos. In fact, while king Carlos died instantly under the bullets of the anarchists on 1 February 1908, his son Luís Filipe, the crown prince, survived for at least twenty-five minutes, enough to allow governmental officials to name him king. This act is, however, usually considered as historically irrelevant, given that the crown prince never recovered from his coma. His younger brother Manuel (who was also injured, though not seriously) is therefore considered to have been the direct successor of the murdered king Carlos I.


  • Sousa, D. António Caetano de (1946) [1735–49]. História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Coimbra: Atlântida-Livraria Eds. OCLC 20210378. {{cite book}}: Check |author-link= value (help)
  • Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228–237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0-02-897255-4.)
  • Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
  • Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.
  • Imhof, Jacob Wilhelm (1708). Stemma Regum lusitanicum sive Historia genealogica Familiae Regiae Portugallicae. Amsterdam. (reprint)
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