State religion

A state religion (also called religious state or official religion) is a religion or creed officially endorsed by a sovereign state. A state with an official religion (also known as confessional state), while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy. State religions are official or government-sanctioned establishments of a religion, but the state does not need to be under the control of the religion (as in a theocracy) nor is the state-sanctioned religion necessarily under the control of the state.

Confessional states[note 1]
  Christianity (unspecified)
  Islam (unspecified)

Official religions have been known throughout human history in almost all types of cultures, reaching into the Ancient Near East and prehistory. The relation of religious cult and the state was discussed by the ancient Latin scholar Marcus Terentius Varro, under the term of theologia civilis (lit.'civic theology'). The first state-sponsored Christian church was the Armenian Apostolic Church, established in 301 CE.[28] In Christianity, as the term church is typically applied to a place of worship for Christians or organizations incorporating such ones, the term state church is associated with Christianity as sanctioned by the government, historically the state church of the Roman Empire in the last centuries of the Empire's existence, and is sometimes used to denote a specific modern national branch of Christianity. Closely related to state churches are ecclesiae, which are similar but carry a more minor connotation.

In the Middle East, the majority of states with a predominantly Muslim population have Islam as their official religion, though the degree of religious restrictions on citizens' everyday lives varies by country. Rulers of Saudi Arabia use both secular and religious power, while Iran's secular presidents are supposed to follow the decisions of religious authorities since the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Turkey, which also has Muslim-majority population, became a secular country after Atatürk's Reforms, although unlike the Russian Revolution of the same time period, it did not result in the adoption of state atheism.

The degree to which an official national religion is imposed upon citizens by the state in contemporary society varies considerably; from high as in Saudi Arabia and Iran to minimal or none at all as Denmark, England, Iceland, and Greece.


The degree and nature of state backing for denomination or creed designated as a state religion can vary. It can range from mere endorsement (with or without financial support) with freedom for other faiths to practice, to prohibiting any competing religious body from operating and to persecuting the followers of other sects. In Europe, competition between Catholic and Protestant denominations for state sponsorship in the 16th century evolved the principle Cuius regio, eius religio (states follow the religion of the ruler) embodied in the text of the treaty that marked the Peace of Augsburg, 1555. In England, Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1534, being declared the Supreme Head of the Church of England,[29] the official religion of England continued to be "Catholicism without the Pope" until after his death in 1547,[30] while in Scotland the Church of Scotland assested spiritual independence from the state.

In some cases, an administrative region may sponsor and fund a set of religious denominations; such is the case in Alsace-Moselle in France under its local law, following the pre-1905 French concordatory legal system and patterns in Germany.[31]

In some communist states, notably in North Korea and Cuba, the state sponsors religious organizations, and activities outside those state-sponsored religious organizations are met with various degrees of official disapproval. In these cases, state religions are widely seen as efforts by the state to prevent alternate sources of authority.

State churches

There is also a difference between a "state church" and the broader term of "state religion". A "state church" is a state religion created by a state for use exclusively by that state. An example of a "state religion" that is not also a "state church" is Roman Catholicism in Costa Rica, which was accepted as the state religion in the 1949 Constitution, despite the lack of a national church. In the case of a "state church", the state has absolute control over the church, but in the case of a "state religion", the church is ruled by an exterior body; in the case of Catholicism, the Vatican has control over the church. In either case, the official state religion has some influence over the ruling of the state. As of 2012, there are only five state churches left.


Disestablishment is the process of repealing a church's status as an organ of the state. In a state where an established church is in place, those opposed to such a move may be described as antidisestablishmentarians. This word is, however, most usually associated with the debate on the position of the Anglican churches in the British Isles: the Church of Ireland (disestablished in 1871), the Church of England in Wales (disestablished in 1920), and the Church of England itself (which remains established in England).

Current state recognized religions


Governments where Buddhism, either a specific form of it, or Buddhism as a whole, has been established as an official religion:

  • Bhutan: The Constitution defines Buddhism as the "spiritual heritage of Bhutan". The Constitution of Bhutan is based on Buddhist philosophy.[32] It also mandates that the Druk Gyalpo (King) should appoint the Je Khenpo and Dratshang Lhentshog (The Commission for Monastic Affairs).[33]
  • Cambodia: The Constitution declared Buddhism as the official religion of the country.[34] About 98% of Cambodia's population is Buddhist.[35]
  • Myanmar: Section 361 of the Constitution states that "The Union recognizes special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union."[36] The 1961 State Religion Promotion and Support Act requires : to teach Buddhist lessons in schools, to give priority to Buddhist monasteries in founding of primary schools, to make Uposatha days holidays during Vassa months, to broadcast Buddhist sermons by State media on Uposatha days, and other promotion and supports for Buddhism as State Religion.[37]
  • Sri Lanka: The constitution of Sri Lanka states under Chapter II, Article 9, "The Republic of Sri Lanka declares Buddhism as the state religion and accordingly it shall be the duty of the Head of State and Head of Government to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana".[38]
  • Thailand: Article 67 of the Thai constitution: "The State should support and protect Buddhism". In supporting and protecting Buddhism, the State should promote and support education and dissemination of dharmic principles of Theravada Buddhism, and shall have measures and mechanisms to prevent Buddhism from being undermined in any form. The State should also encourage Buddhists to participate in implementing such measures or mechanisms.[39]

In some countries, Buddhism is not recognized as a state religion, but holds special status:

  • Laos: According to the Lao Constitution, Buddhism is given special privilege in the country. The state respects and protects all the lawful activities of Buddhism.[40]
  • Kalmykia: The Government supports Buddhism and also encourages Buddhist teachings and traditions. It also builds various Buddhist temples and sites. Various efforts are taken by the Government for the revival of Buddhism in the republic.[41][42][43]


The following states recognize some form of Christianity as their state or official religion or recognize a special status for it (by denomination):

Non-denominational Christianity

  •  Samoa: In June 2017, Parliament voted to amend the wording of Article 1 of the constitution, thereby making Christianity the state religion. Part 1, Section (1)(3) reads "Samoa is a Christian nation founded on God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit." The status of the religion had previously only been mentioned in the preamble, which Prime Minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi considered legally inadequate.[44][45]
  •  Zambia: The preamble to the Zambian Constitution of 1991 declares Zambia to be "a Christian nation", while also guaranteeing freedom of religion.[46]


Jurisdictions where Catholicism has been established as a state or official religion:

  •  Costa Rica: Article 75 of the Constitution of Costa Rica confirms that "The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State, which contributes to its maintenance, without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs."[47]
  •   Holy See: It is an elective, theocratic (or sacerdotal), absolute monarchy ruled by the Pope, who is also the Vicar of Christ.[48] The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's official residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.
  •  Liechtenstein: The Constitution of Liechtenstein describes the Catholic Church as the state religion and enjoying "the full protection of the State". The constitution does however ensure that people of other faiths "shall be entitled to practice their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order".[49]
  •  Malta: Article 2 of the Constitution of Malta declares that "the religion of Malta is the Catholic and Apostolic Religion".[50]
  •  Monaco: Article 9 of the Constitution of Monaco describes the "Catholic, and apostolic religion" as the religion of the state.[51]

Jurisdictions that give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Roman Catholicism without establishing it as the State religion:

  •  Andorra.[52]
  •  Argentina: Article 2 of the Constitution of Argentina explicitly states that the government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith, but the constitution does not establish a state religion.[53] Before its 1994 amendment, the Constitution stated that the President of the Republic must be a Roman Catholic.
  •  East Timor: While the Constitution of East Timor enshrines the principles of freedom of religion and separation of church and state in Section 45 Comma 1, it also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble (although this has no legal value).[54]
  •  El Salvador: Although Article 3 of the Constitution of El Salvador states that "no restrictions shall be established that are based on differences of nationality, race, sex or religion", Article 26 states that the state recognizes the Catholic Church and gives it legal preference.[55][56]
  •  Guatemala: The Constitution of Guatemala recognises the juridical personality of the Catholic Church. Other churches, cults, entities, and associations of religious character will obtain the recognition of their juridical personality in accordance with the rules of their institution.[57]
  •  Italy: The Constitution of Italy does not establish a state religion, but recognizes the state and the Catholic Church as "independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere".[58] The Constitution additionally reserves to the Catholic faith singular position in regard to the organization of worship, as opposed to all other confessions.[59]
  •  Panama: The Constitution of Panama recognizes Catholicism as "the religion of the majority" of citizens but does not designate it as the official state religion.[60]
  •  Paraguay: The Constitution of Paraguay recognizes the Catholic Church's role in the nation's historical and cultural formation.[61]
  •  Peru: The Constitution of Peru recognizes the Catholic Church as an important element in the historical, cultural, and moral formation of Peru and lends it its cooperation.[62]
  •  Poland.[63]
  •  Spain: The Constitution of Spain of 1978 abolished Catholicism as the official state religion, while recognizing the role it plays in Spanish society.[64]

Eastern Orthodoxy

  •  Greece: The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the prevailing religion in Greece[65] and is the only country in the world where Eastern Orthodoxy is clearly recognized as a state religion.[66][67] However, this provision does not give exclusivity of worship to the Church of Greece, while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practiced freely.[68]

The jurisdictions below give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Eastern Orthodoxy, but without establishing it as the state religion:


The following states recognize some form of Protestantism as their state or official religion:


The Anglican Church of England is the established church in England as well as all three of the Crown Dependencies:

  •  Scotland: The Church of Scotland is the national church, but not the United Kingdom as a whole.[78] Whilst it is the national church, it 'is not State controlled' and the monarch is not the 'supreme governor' as in the Church of England.[78]
  •  Tuvalu: The Church of Tuvalu is the state religion, although in practice this merely entitles it to "the privilege of performing special services on major national events".[79] The Constitution of Tuvalu guarantees freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice, the freedom to change religion, the right not to receive religious instruction at school or to attend religious ceremonies at school, and the right not to "take an oath or make an affirmation that is contrary to his religion or belief".[80]

Jurisdictions where a Lutheran church has been fully or partially established as a state recognized religion include the Nordic States.

Jurisdictions that give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Lutheranism without establishing it as the state religion:

  •  Finland: The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland has a special relationship with the Finnish state, its internal structure being described in a special law, the Church Act.[86] The Church Act can be amended only by a decision of the synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and subsequent ratification by the Parliament of Finland. The Church Act is protected by the Constitution of Finland and the state cannot change the Church Act without changing the constitution. The church has the power to tax its members. The state collects these taxes for the church, for a fee. On the other hand, the church is required to give a burial place for everyone in its graveyards.[86] The President of Finland also decides the themes for intercession days. The church does not consider itself a state church, as the Finnish state does not have the power to influence its internal workings or its theology, although it has a veto in those changes of the internal structure which require changing the Church Act. Neither does the Finnish state accord any precedence to Lutherans or the Lutheran faith in its own acts.
  •  Sweden: The Church of Sweden was the state church of Sweden between 1527 when King Gustav Vasa broke all ties with Rome and 2000 when the state officially became secular. Much like in Finland, it does have a special relation to the Swedish state unlike any other religious organizations. For example, there is a special law that regulates certain aspects of the church[87] and the members of the royal family are required to belong to it in order to have a claim to the line of succession. A majority of the population still belongs to the Church of Sweden.[88]


  •  Armenia: The Armenian Apostolic Church has a constitutional agreement with the State: "The Republic of Armenia shall recognise the exclusive mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church, as a national church, in the spiritual life of the Armenian people, in the development of their national culture and preservation of their national identity."[89]
  •  Dominican Republic: The constitution of the Dominican Republic specifies that there is no state church and provides for freedom of religion and belief. A concordat with the Holy See designates Catholicism as the official religion and extends special privileges to the Catholic Church not granted to other religious groups. These include the legal recognition of church law, use of public funds to underwrite some church expenses, and complete exoneration from customs duties.[90]
  •  France: The local law in Alsace-Moselle accords official status to four religions in this specific region of France: Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism and Calvinism. The law is a remnant of the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801, which was abrogated in the rest of France by the law of 1905 on the separation of church and state. However, at the time, Alsace-Moselle had been annexed by Germany. The Concordat, therefore, remained in force in these areas, and it was not abrogated when France regained control of the region in 1918. Therefore, the separation of church and state, part of the French concept of Laïcité, does not apply in this region.[91]
  •  Haiti: While Catholicism has not been the state religion since 1987, a 19th-century concordat with the Holy See continues to confer preferential treatment to the Catholic Church, in the form of stipends for clergy and financial support to churches and religious schools. The Catholic Church also retains the right to appoint certain amounts of clergy in Haiti without the government's consent.[92][93]
  •  Hungary: The preamble to the Hungarian Constitution of 2011 describes Hungary as "part of Christian Europe" and acknowledges "the role of Christianity in preserving nationhood", while Article VII provides that "the State shall cooperate with the Churches for community goals." However, the constitution also guarantees freedom of religion and separation of church and state.[94]
  •  Nicaragua: The Nicaraguan Constitution of 1987 states that the country has no official religion, but defines "Christian values" as one of the "principles of the Nicaraguan nation".[95]
  •  Portugal: Although Church and State are formally separate, the Catholic Church in Portugal still receives certain privileges.[96]


Although Hinduism is not recognized as a state religion of any Hindu-majority country, it holds some special status/privileges in some nations:

  •  India
    • The Constitution of India, declares India to be a secular state with no state religion.[97] However, at a same time, "the Republic of India privileges Hinduism as state sponsored religion" through constitutionally, legislatively and culturally.[98][99] India is highly and deeply very religious country and nearly all Indians believe in the existence of Paramatman (God).[100] The culture of India is mainly influenced by Hinduism/Vedic culture.[101] The original copy of Indian constitution have the illustration of Lord Ram, Sita, and Lakshman in Part III on Fundamental Rights and Lord Rama have been considered as true guardian of people's rights and freedom.[102] Article 343 (1) of the Indian Constitution also state that, "The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script".[103] Also Article 48 of Indian constitution, prohibits the slaughter of cows or calf (a sacred animal in Hinduism) and is illegal criminal offense in most of the Hindu-majority states of India.[104][105] Indian defense force moto is largely influenced by Hindu Scriptures. The invocation to Varuna, (The Sea God) in the Vedas was adopted by Indian Navy as its emblem, with the Motto: “Sam no Varunah”, meaning: “Be auspicious unto us Oh Varuna”.[106] The Motto: (Touch the sky with Glory) of the Indian Air Force has been taken from the eleventh chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, where the Discourse was given by Lord Krishna to Arjuna on the Kurukshetra battlefield during the Mahabharata war.[107]
  •    Nepal
    • Although, Nepal is a secular country, as declared by the Constitution of Nepal, 2015 (Part 1, Article 4), but secularism literally 'means religious, cultural freedom, along with the protection of age-old religion, culture handed down since from time immemorial – mostly referring to (Indic faiths like: Hinduism, Buddhism, Kirat Mundhum and Nature worship etc), it's rich traditions and culture that it have impacted on the land of Nepal since the time of King Prithvi Narayan Shah and the Kingdom's foundation.[108][109] Cow (A sacred animal in Hinduism) is the National animal of Nepal and slaughtering, selling or eating of its meat is illegal and punishable criminal offense by law.[110] The Nepalese law prohibits Proselytism and “harming the religious sentiment" of community.[111]


Many Muslim-majority countries have constitutionally established Islam, or a specific form of it, as a state religion. Proselytism (converting people away from Islam) is often illegal in such states.[112][113][114][115]

In some countries, Islam is not recognized as a state religion, but holds special status:

  • Tajikistan: Although there is a separation of religion from politics, certain aspects of law also privilege Islam. One such law declares "Islam to be a traditional religion of Tajikistan, with more rights and privileges given to Islamic organizations than to religious groups of non-Muslim origin".[143]
  • Article (2A) of the Constitution of Tunisia 2022 July 25 declares: "Tunisia is part of the Islamic nation (referring to Muslim world), and the state alone must work to achieve "the goals of pure Islam in preserving honourable life of religious freedom". Although, Islam has been given special privileges by the Tunisian New constitution, though it is no longer the state religion of the republic.[144] Also, Article 88 says, President must be Muslim by faith.[145]
  • Turkey: The Republic of Turkey is officially a secular country. Although the current governing party has a close affinity with Sunni Islam, the latest Constitution of 1982 neither recognizes an official religion nor promotes any.[146] Islam has been referred as the country's main religion, and it plays a major dominant role in the life of the Turkish people.[147] The Directorate of Religious Affairs, an official state institution established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1924,[148] expresses opinions on religious matters and is responsible for all administration of the Sunni institutions.[149] The Turkish government oversees Muslim religious facilities and education through its Directorate of Religious Affairs, under the authority of the President (previously Prime Minister). The directorate regulates the operation of the country's hundreds of thousands of registered mosques and employs local and provincial imams (who are civil servants). Sunni imams are appointed and paid by the state.[150]
  • Turkmenistan: The Constitution claims to uphold a secular system in which religious and state institutions are separate. However, in Turkmenistan, the state actively privileges a form of traditional Islam. The culture, including Islam, is a key facet, contributes to the Turkmen national identity. The state encourages the conceptualization of "Turkmen Islam".[151]
  • Uzbekistan: Since independence, Islam has taken on an altogether new role in the nation-building process in Uzbekistan. The government affords Islam in special status and declared it as a national heritage and a moral guideline.[152]

Status of religion in Israel

  •  Israel is defined in several of its laws as a "Jewish and democratic state" (medina yehudit ve-demokratit). However, the term "Jewish" is a polyseme that can describe the Jewish people as either an ethnic or a religious group. The debate about the meaning of the term "Jewish" and its legal and social applications is one of the most profound issues with which Israeli society deals. The problem of the status of religion in Israel, even though it is relevant to all religions, usually refers to the status of Judaism in Israeli society. Thus, even though from a constitutional point of view Judaism is not the state religion in Israel, its status nevertheless determines relations between religion and state and the extent to which religion influences the political center.[153]

The State of Israel supports religious institutions, particularly Orthodox Jewish ones, and recognizes the "religious communities" as carried over from those recognized under the British Mandate—in turn derived from the pre-1917 Ottoman system of millets. These are Jewish and Christian (Eastern Orthodox, Latin Catholic, Gregorian-Armenian, Armenian-Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Chaldean, Melkite Catholic, Maronite Catholic, and Syriac Orthodox). The fact that the Muslim population was not defined as a religious community does not affect the rights of the Muslim community to practice their faith. At the end of the period covered by the 2009 U.S. International Religious Freedom Report, several of these denominations were pending official government recognition; however, the Government has allowed adherents of not officially recognized groups the freedom to practice. In 1961, legislation gave Muslim Shari'a courts exclusive jurisdiction in matters of personal status. Three additional religious communities have subsequently been recognized by Israeli law: the Druze (prior under Islamic jurisdiction), the Evangelical Episcopal Church, and followers of the Baháʼí Faith.[154] These groups have their own religious courts as official state courts for personal status matters (see millet system).

The structure and goals of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel are governed by Israeli law, but the law does not say explicitly that it is a state Rabbinate. However, outspoken Israeli secularists such as Shulamit Aloni and Uri Avnery have long maintained that it is that in practice. Non-recognition of other streams of Judaism such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism is the cause of some controversy; rabbis belonging to these currents are not recognized as such by state institutions and marriages performed by them are not recognized as valid. As pointed out by Avnery and Aloni, the essential problem is that Israel carries on the top-down Ottoman millet system, under which the government reserves the complete discretion of recognizing some religious groups and not recognizing others. As of 2015 marriage in Israel provides no provision for civil marriage, marriage between people of different religions, marriages by people who do not belong to one of nine recognized religious communities, or same-sex marriages, although there is recognition of marriages performed abroad.

Political religions

In some countries, there is a political ideology sponsored by the government that may be called political religion.[155]

Additional notes

  •  China: The government of China officially espouses state atheism,[156] and officially recognizes only five religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism.[157] Despite limitations on certain forms of religious expression and assembly, religion is not banned, and religious freedom is nominally protected under the Chinese constitution. Among the general Chinese population, there are a wide variety of religious practices.[158] The Chinese government's attitude to religion is one of skepticism and non-promotion.[158][159][160][161]
  •  Indonesia is officially a presidential republic and a unitary state that does not declare or designate a state religion. Officially, the government only recognizes six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism and Traditional beliefs (Aliran Kepercayaan). Pancasila comes from the Jakarta Charter whose first article was changed from "Divinity, with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents" to "the One Divinity", to respect other religions. The Constitution of Indonesia guarantees freedom of religion and the practice of other religions and beliefs, including traditional animistic beliefs. Indonesians who are practicing other unrecognized religions such as Sikhs and Jains are often counted as "Hindu" while Indonesians practicing Orthodoxy are often counted as "Christian" for governmental purposes. Atheism, although not prosecuted, is discouraged by the state ideology of Pancasila. In addition, the province of Aceh receives a special status and a higher degree of autonomy, in which it may enact laws (qanuns) based on the Sharia and enforce it, especially to its Muslim residents.
  •  Lebanon: There are 18 officially recognized religious groups in Lebanon, each with its own family law legislation and set of religious courts.[162] Under the terms of an agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite, the Prime Minister must be a Sunni, and the Speaker of Parliament must be a Shia.[163]
  •  Luxembourg is a secular state, but the Grand Duchy recognizes and supports several denominations, including the Catholic Church, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Romanian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Anglican and some Protestantism denominations as well as to Jewish congregations.[164]
  •  Russia: Though a secular state under the constitution, Russia is often said to have Russian Orthodoxy as the de facto national religion, despite other minorities: "The Russian Orthodox Church is de facto privileged religion of the state, claiming the right to decide which other religions or denominations are to be granted the right of registration".[165][166][167][168][169][170][171]
  •  Singapore is officially a secular country and does not have a state religion, and has been named in one study as the "most religiously diverse nation in the world", with no religious group forming a majority.[172] However, the government gives official recognition to ten different religions, namely Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism, Sikhism, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism, and the Baháʼí Faith,[173] and Singapore's penal code explicitly prohibits "wounding religious feelings". The Jehovah's Witnesses and Unification Church are also banned in Singapore, as the government deems them to be a threat to national security.
  •  Switzerland is officially secular at the federal level but 24 of the 26 cantons support both the Swiss Reformed Church and the Roman Catholic Church in various ways.
  •  Vietnam is officially atheist[174] (although sometimes also referred as atheist-Buddhist),[175][176] but recognizes only 38 religious organizations and one dharma practice.[177]

Former state religions

Egypt and Sumer

The concept of state religions was known as long ago as the empires of Egypt and Sumer, when every city state or people had its own god or gods. Many of the early Sumerian rulers were priests of their patron city god. Some of the earliest semi-mythological kings may have passed into the pantheon, like Dumuzid, and some later kings came to be viewed as divine soon after their reigns, like Sargon the Great of Akkad. One of the first rulers to be proclaimed a god during his actual reign was Gudea of Lagash, followed by some later kings of Ur, such as Shulgi. Often, the state religion was integral to the power base of the reigning government, such as in Egypt, where Pharaohs were often thought of as embodiments of the god Horus.

Sassanid Empire

Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the Sassanid dynasty which lasted until 651, when Persia was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate.

Greek city-states

Many of the Greek city-states also had a favored national god or goddess associated with that city. This would not be its only god or goddess, but the one that received special honors. In ancient Greece, the cities of

Roman religion and Christianity

In Rome, the office of Pontifex Maximus came to be reserved for the Emperor, who was occasionally declared a god posthumously, or sometimes during his reign. Failure to worship the Emperor as a god was at times punishable by death, as the Roman government sought to link emperor worship with loyalty to the Empire. Many Christians and Jews were subject to persecution, torture and death in the Roman Empire because it was against their beliefs to worship the Emperor.

In 311, Emperor Galerius, on his deathbed, declared a religious indulgence to Christians throughout the Roman Empire, focusing on the ending of anti-Christian persecution. Constantine I and Licinius, the two Augusti, by the Edict of Milan of 313, enacted a law allowing religious freedom to everyone within the Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Edict of Milan cited that Christians may openly practice their religion unmolested and unrestricted, and provided that properties taken from Christians be returned to them unconditionally. Although the Edict of Milan allowed religious freedom throughout the Empire, it did not abolish nor disestablish the Roman state cult (Roman polytheistic paganism). The Edict of Milan was written in such a way as to implore the blessings of the deity.

Constantine called up the First Council of Nicaea in 325, although he was not a baptized Christian until years later. Despite enjoying considerable popular support, Christianity was still not the official state religion in Rome, although it was in some neighboring states such as Armenia, Iberia, and Aksum.

Roman Religion (Neoplatonic Hellenism) was restored for a time by the Emperor Julian from 361 to 363. Julian does not appear to have reinstated the persecutions of the earlier Roman emperors.

Catholic Christianity, as opposed to Arianism and other ideologies deemed heretical, was declared to be the state religion of the Roman Empire on 27 February 380[178] by the decree De fide catolica of Emperor Theodosius I.[179]

Han dynasty Confucianism

In China, the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) advocated Confucianism as the de facto state religion, establishing tests based on Confucian texts as an entrance requirement into government service—although, in fact, the "Confucianism" advocated by the Han emperors may be more properly termed a sort of Confucian Legalism or "State Confucianism". This sort of Confucianism continued to be regarded by the emperors, with a few notable exceptions, as a form of state religion from this time until the collapse of the Chinese monarchy in 1912. Note, however, there is a debate over whether Confucianism (including Neo-Confucianism) is a religion or purely a philosophical system.[180]

Yuan dynasty Buddhism

During the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty of China (1271–1368 CE), Tibetan Buddhism was established as the de facto state religion by the Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty. The top-level department and government agency known as the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs (Xuanzheng Yuan) was set up in Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) to supervise Buddhist monks throughout the empire. Since Kublai Khan only esteemed the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism, other religions became less important. Before the end of the Yuan dynasty, 14 leaders of the Sakya sect had held the post of Imperial Preceptor (Dishi), thereby enjoying special power.[181]

Golden Horde and Ilkhanate

Shamanism and Buddhism were once the dominant religions among the ruling class of the Mongol khanates of Golden Horde and Ilkhanate, the two western khanates of the Mongol Empire. In the early days, the rulers of both khanates increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism, similar to the Yuan dynasty at that time. However, the Mongol rulers Ghazan of Ilkhanate and Uzbeg of Golden Horde converted to Islam in 1295 CE because of the Muslim Mongol emir Nawruz and in 1313 CE because of Sufi Bukharan sayyid and sheikh Ibn Abdul Hamid respectively. Their official favoring of Islam as the state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non-Mongol majority of the regions they ruled. In Ilkhanate, Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status with Muslims and again had to pay the poll tax; Buddhists had the starker choice of conversion or expulsion.[182] In Golden Horde, Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols were proscribed, and by 1315, Uzbeg had successfully Islamicized the Horde, killing Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy and succession of the throne.

Modern era

Protestant colonies
  • The colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven, and New Hampshire were founded by Puritan Calvinist Protestants, and had Congregational established churches.
  • The colonies of New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia maintained the Church of England as the established church.
  • The Colony of Maryland was founded by a charter granted in 1632 to George Calvert, secretary of state to Charles I, and his son Cecil, both recent converts to Roman Catholicism. Under their leadership, many English Catholic gentry families settled in Maryland. However, the colonial government was officially neutral in religious affairs, granting toleration to all Christian groups and enjoining them to avoid actions which antagonized the others. On several occasions, low-church dissenters led insurrections which temporarily overthrew the Calvert rule. In 1689, when William and Mary came to the English throne, they acceded to demands to revoke the original royal charter. In 1701, the Church of England was proclaimed, and in the course of the 18th century Maryland Catholics were first barred from public office, then disenfranchised, although not all of the laws passed against them (notably laws restricting property rights and imposing penalties for sending children to be educated in foreign Catholic institutions) were enforced, and some Catholics even continued to hold public office.
  • When Spanish Florida was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, the British divided Florida into two colonies, East and West Florida, which both continued a policy of toleration for the Catholic residents, but established the Church of England as the state church.
Colonies with no established church
  • The Province of Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers, but the colony never had an established church.
  • The Province of New Jersey, without official religion, had a significant Quaker lobby, but Calvinists of all types also had a presence.
  • Delaware Colony had no established church, but was contested between Catholics and Quakers.
  • The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, founded by religious dissenters forced to flee the Massachusetts Bay colony, is widely regarded as the first polity to grant religious freedom to all its citizens, although Catholics were barred intermittently. Baptists, Seekers/Quakers and Jews made this colony their home. The King Charles Charter of 1663 guaranteed "full liberty in religious concernments".
Tabular summary
ColonyDenominationDisestablished[n 1]
GeorgiaChurch of England1789[n 2]
MarylandChurch of England1776
MassachusettsCongregational1834 (parish church system)[n 3]
New HampshireCongregational1877[n 4]
North CarolinaChurch of England1776[n 5]
South CarolinaChurch of England1790
West FloridaChurch of England[n 6]1783[n 7]
East FloridaChurch of England[n 6]1783[n 7]
VirginiaChurch of England1786[n 8]
West IndiesChurch of England1868 (Barbados, not until 1969)
  1. In several colonies, the establishment ceased to exist in practice at the Revolution, about 1776;[191] this is the date of permanent legal abolition.
  2. In 1789 the Georgia Constitution was amended as follows: "Article IV. Section 10. No person within this state shall, upon any pretence, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping God in any manner agreeable to his own conscience, nor be compelled to attend any place of worship contrary to his own faith and judgment; nor shall he ever be obliged to pay tithes, taxes, or any other rate, for the building or repairing any place of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry, contrary to what he believes to be right, or hath voluntarily engaged. To do. No one religious society shall ever be established in this state, in preference to another; nor shall any person be denied the enjoyment of any civil right merely on account of his religious principles."
  3. From 1780 to 1824, Massachusetts residents were all required to attend a parish church, the denomination of which was chosen by majority vote of town residents, but in effect this de facto established Congregationalism as the state religion. For details see Constitution of Massachusetts.
  4. Until 1877 the New Hampshire Constitution required members of the State legislature to be of the Protestant religion. Until 1968 the Constitution allowed for state funding of Protestant classrooms but not Catholic classrooms.
  5. The North Carolina Constitution of 1776 disestablished the Anglican church, but until 1835 the NC Constitution allowed only Protestants to hold public office. From 1835 to 1876 it allowed only Christians (including Catholics) to hold public office. Article VI, Section 8 of the current NC Constitution forbids "any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God" from holding public office. Such clauses were held by the United States Supreme Court to be unenforceable in the 1961 case of Torcaso v. Watkins, when the court ruled unanimously that the First and Fourteenth Amendment protections prohibiting federal religious tests also applied to the states under the doctrine of incorporation.
  6. Religious tolerance for Catholics with an established Church of England was the policy in the former Spanish Colonies of East and West Florida while under British rule.
  7. In 1783 Peace of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War, the British ceded both East and West Florida back to Spain (see Spanish Florida).
  8. Tithes for the support of the Anglican Church in Virginia were suspended in 1776, and never restored. 1786 is the date of the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, which prohibited any coercion to support any religious body.

Non-British colonies

These areas were disestablished and dissolved, yet their presences were tolerated by the English and later British colonial governments, as Foreign Protestants, whose communities were expected to observe their own ways without causing controversy or conflict for the prevalent colonists. After the Revolution, their ethno-religious backgrounds were chiefly sought as the most compatible non-British Isles immigrants.

State of Deseret

The State of Deseret was a provisional state of the United States, proposed in 1849, by Mormon settlers in Salt Lake City. The provisional state existed for slightly over two years, but attempts to gain recognition by the United States government floundered for various reasons. The Utah Territory which was then founded was under Mormon control, and repeated attempts to gain statehood met resistance, in part due to concerns that the principle of separation of church and state conflicted with the practice of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints placing their highest value on "following counsel" in virtually all matters relating to their church-centered lives. The state of Utah was eventually admitted to the union on 4 January 1896, after the various issues had been resolved.[193]

Established churches and former state churches

AnhaltEvangelical State Church of Anhaltunited Protestant1918
ArmeniaArmenian Apostolic ChurchOriental Orthodox1921
AustriaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1918
BadenRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1918
United Evangelical Protestant State Church of Badenunited Protestant1918
BavariaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1918
Protestant State Church in the Kingdom of Bavaria right of the RhineLutheran and Reformed1918
United Protestant Evangelical Christian Church of the Palatinateunited Protestant1918
BarbadosChurch of EnglandAnglican1968
BoliviaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic2009
Brazil[note 3]Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic1890
BrunswickEvangelical Lutheran State Church in BrunswickLutheran1918
BulgariaBulgarian Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1946
Central African EmpireRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1979
ChileRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1925
ColombiaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1936[194]
CubaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1902
CyprusCypriot Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1977, following the death of the Ethnarch Makarios III
CzechoslovakiaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1920
DenmarkChurch of DenmarkLutheranCurrent
EnglandChurch of EnglandAnglicanCurrent
EthiopiaEthiopian Orthodox ChurchOriental Orthodox1974
Faroe IslandsChurch of the Faroe IslandsLutheranElevated from a diocese of the Church of Denmark in 2007 (the two remain in close cooperation)
FinlandEvangelical Lutheran Church of FinlandLutheran1867
Finnish Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1917
FranceCult of ReasonN/A1794 (established 1793)
Cult of the Supreme BeingN/A1794, officially banned in 1802
Roman Catholic Church[note 4]Catholic1830
GeorgiaGeorgian Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1921
GreeceGreek Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox[65]The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the "prevailing religion" in Greece.[65] However, this provision does not give official status to the Church of Greece, while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practiced freely.[68]
GreenlandChurch of DenmarkLutheranUnder discussion to be elevated from The Diocese of Greenland in the Church of Denmark to a state church for Greenland, along‐the‐lines the Faroese Church took in 2007
GuatemalaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1871
HaitiRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1987
HawaiiChurch of HawaiiAnglican1893
HesseEvangelical Church in Hesseunited Protestant1918
Hungary[note 5]Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic1946
IcelandLutheran Evangelical ChurchLutheranCurrent
IndonesiaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholicde facto official religion along with Protestantism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism
Protestant Churchde facto official religion along with Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism
Ireland[note 6]Church of IrelandAnglican1871
ItalyRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic18 February 1984 (into force 25 April 1985[201])
LiechtensteinRoman Catholic Church[49]CatholicCurrent
LippeChurch of LippeReformed1918
LithuaniaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1940
LübeckEvangelical Lutheran Church in the State of LübeckLutheran1918
LuxembourgRoman Catholic ChurchCatholicNot an official state church[202]
MaltaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholicCurrent
Mecklenburg-SchwerinEvangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg-SchwerinLutheran1918
Mecklenburg-StrelitzMecklenburg-Strelitz State ChurchLutheran1918
MexicoRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1857 (reestablished between 1864 and 1867)
MonacoRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1999 (reestablished again in 2020–present).
NetherlandsDutch Reformed ChurchReformed1795
NicaraguaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1987
North MacedoniaMacedonian Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1921
NorwayChurch of NorwayLutheranAs of 2012 the Constitution of Norway no longer names Lutheranism as the official religion of the state and in 2017 the church became an independent legal entity,[203][204][205] but article 16 says that "The Church of Norway [...] will remain the National Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State."[206] As of 1 January 2017 the Church of Norway is a legal entity independent of the state.[203][207]
OldenburgEvangelical Lutheran Church of OldenburgLutheran1918
PanamaRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1904
ParaguayRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1992[208]
PeruRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1993
Philippines[note 7]Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic1898
Poland[note 8]Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic1947
Portugal[note 9]Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic1910, 1976
pre 1866 provinces
Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces with nine ecclesiastical provincesunited Protestant1918
Province of Hanover
Evangelical Reformed State Church of the Province of HanoverReformed1918
Province of Hanover
Evangelical Lutheran State Church of HanoverLutheran1918
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical State Church of Frankfurt upon Mainunited Protestant1918
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical Church of Electoral Hesseunited Protestant1918
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical State Church in Nassauunited Protestant1918
Prov. of Schleswig-Holstein
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schleswig-HolsteinLutheran1918
RomaniaRomanian Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1947
RussiaRussian Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1917
Thuringiachurch bodies in principalities which merged in Thuringia in 1920Lutheran1918
SaxonyEvangelical Lutheran State Church of SaxonyLutheran1918
Schaumburg-LippeEvangelical State Church of Schaumburg-LippeLutheran1918
Scotland[209]Church of ScotlandPresbyterianRemains the national church; state control disclaimed since 1638. Formally recognised as not an established church by the Church of Scotland Act 1921.
SerbiaSerbian Orthodox ChurchEastern Orthodox1920
SpainRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1978
SwedenChurch of SwedenLutheran2000
Switzerlandseparate Cantonal Churches («Landeskirchen»)Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and CatholicDuring the 20th century
TuvaluChurch of TuvaluReformedCurrent
UruguayRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic1918 (into effect in 1919)
United States[note 10] none since 1776, which was made explicit in the Bill of Rights in 1792nonen/a; some state legislatures required all citizens in those states to be members of a church, and some had official churches, such as Congregationalism in some New England states such as Massachusetts. This eventually ended in 1833 when Massachusetts was the last state to disestablish its church.
WaldeckEvangelical State Church of Waldeck and Pyrmontunited Protestants1918
Wales[note 11]Church of EnglandAnglican1920
WürttembergEvangelical State Church in WürttembergLutheran1918

Former confessional states


KalmykTibetan Buddhism1771
LaosTheravada Buddhism1975[214]
MongoliaTibetan Buddhism1926
Siam (Thailand)Theravada Buddhism1932
TibetTibetan Buddhism1951
VietnamThiền1407 (de jure)
1413 (de facto)
YuanTibetan Buddhism1368


Nepal2015 (de jure)
2008 (de facto)
Hindu Shahi dynasty1026
Gangga Negara1026
Vijayanagara 1646


Khalsa Kingdom1849


KoreaKorean Confucianism1897
Vietnamese Confucianism1945


SudanSunni Islam2020
TurkeySunni Islam1928
TunisiaSunni Islam2022[216]


DenmarkNorse paganism960
IcelandNorse paganism1000
NorwayNorse paganism1015
SwedenNorse paganism1014


JapanState Shinto1947 (de facto)

The head of state, the Emperor of Japan is still Shinto as of 2023, as is the Prime minister Kishida, and the recent expensive coronation was paid for by the taxpayer, giving Shinto continued favored status.

State atheism

Bulgaria1991 (de facto)
Czechoslovak1990 (de jure)
Hungary1989 (de facto)
Mozambique1990 (de facto)
Poland1989 (de jure)
Soviet Union1991 (de facto)
Yugoslavia1992 (de facto)


Armenia301 AD
Medes (Iran)651 AD

See also


  1. Bhutan,[1] Mauritania,[2] Western Sahara (via Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[3] and Morocco,[4] which divide control), Morocco,[4] Tunisia,[5] Egypt,[6] England,[7] Jordan,[8] Iraq,[9] Pakistan,[10] Bangladesh,[11] United Arab Emirates,[12] Oman,[13] Yemen,[14] Maldives,[15] Iran,[16] Algeria,[17] Saudi Arabia,[18] Sri Lanka,[19] Afghanistan,[20] Somalia,[21] Malaysia,[22] Brunei,[23] Greece,[24] Denmark,[25] Costa Rica,[26] Zambia.[27] See also here.
  2. The Constitution also states that "Any matter relating to divorce, judicial separation or restitution of conjugal rights or to family relations of the members of the Greek-Orthodox Church, shall be cognizable by family courts each of which is composed: For a divorce trial, of three judges, one of which is a lawyer ecclesiastical officer appointed by the Greek Orthodox Church and presides over the Court and the other two of high professional and moral standard belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church are appointed by the Supreme Court among lawyers. If no ecclesiastical officer is appointed as above, the Supreme Court appoints the President of the Court as well."[70]
  3. Brazilian Laws – the Federal Constitution – The Organization of State. Retrieved 5 May 2012. Brazil had Roman Catholicism as the state religion from the country's independence, in 1822, until the fall of the Brazilian Empire. The new Republican government passed, in 1890, Decree 119-A "Decreto 119-A". Prohibits federal and state authorities to intervene on religion, granting freedom of religion. (still in force), instituting the separation of church and state for the first time in Brazilian law. Positivist thinker Demétrio Nunes Ribeiro urged the new government to adopt this stance. The 1891 Constitution, the first under the Republican system of government, abolished privileges for any specific religion, reaffirming the separation of church and state. This has been the case ever since the 1988 Constitution of Brazil, currently in force, does so in its Nineteenth Article. The Preamble to the Constitution does refer to "God's protection" over the document's promulgation, but this is not legally taken as endorsement of belief in any deity.
  4. In France the Concordat of 1801 made the Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran churches and Judaism state-sponsored religions until 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State.
  5. In Hungary the constitutional laws of 1848 declared five established churches on equal status: the Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox and Unitarian Church. In 1868 the law was ratified again after the Ausgleich. In 1895 Judaism was also recognized as the sixth established church. In 1948 every distinction between the different denominations were abolished.[195][196]
  6. In the Kingdom of Ireland the Church of Ireland was established in the Reformation.[197] The Act of Union 1800 created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the United Church of England and Ireland established outside Scotland. The Irish Church Act 1869 demerged and disestablished the Church of Ireland,[197] and the island was partitioned in 1922. The Republic of Ireland's 1937 constitution prohibits an established religion.[198] Originally, it recognized the "special position" of the Roman Catholic Church "as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens", and recognized "the Church of Ireland, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Methodist Church in Ireland, the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution".[199] These provisions were deleted in 1973.[200]
  7. The Philippines was among several possessions ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898; religious freedom was subsequently guaranteed in the archipelago. This was codified in the Philippine Organic Act (1902), section 5: "... That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed." A similarly-worded provision still exists in the present Constitution. Catholicism remains the predominant religion, wielding considerable political and cultural influence.
  8. Article 25 of the constitution states: "1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights. 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction". Article 114 of the Polish March Constitution of 1921 declared the Roman Catholic Church to hold "the principal position among religious denominations equal before the law" (in reference to the idea of first among equals). The article was continued in force by article 81 of the April Constitution of 1935. The Soviet-backed PKWN Manifesto of 1944 reintroduced the March Constitution, which remained in force until it was replaced by the Small Constitution of 1947.
  9. Until 1910 Roman Catholic Church was considered as state religion. Between 1951 and 1976 Catholic religion was considered as religion of the Portuguese Nation.
  10. The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution explicitly forbids the federal government from enacting any law respecting a religious establishment, and thus forbids either designating an official church for the United States, or interfering with State and local official churches—which were common when the First Amendment was enacted. It did not prevent state governments from establishing official churches. Connecticut continued to do so until it replaced its colonial Charter with the Connecticut Constitution of 1818; Massachusetts retained an establishment of religion in general until 1833.[210] Until its substitution by Article of Amendment XI in 1834, Article III of the Massachusetts constitution's bill of rights provided, "... the legislature shall, from time to time, authorize and require, the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of the public worship of God, and for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality, in all cases where such provision shall not be made voluntarily."[211] The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, makes no mention of religious establishment, but forbids the states to "abridge the privileges or immunities" of U.S. citizens, or to "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law". In the 1947 case of Everson v. Board of Education, the United States Supreme Court held that this later provision incorporates the First Amendment's Establishment Clause as applying to the States, and thereby prohibits state and local religious establishments. The exact boundaries of this prohibition are still disputed, and are a frequent source of cases before the U.S. Supreme Court—especially as the Court must now balance, on a state level, the First Amendment prohibitions on government establishment of official religions with the First Amendment prohibitions on government interference with the free exercise of religion. See school prayer for such a controversy in contemporary American politics. All current State constitutions do mention a Creator, but include guarantees of religious liberty parallel to the First Amendment. The constitutions of eight states (Arkansas, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas) also contain clauses that prohibit atheists from holding public office.[212][213] However, these clauses were held by the U.S. Supreme Court to be unenforceable in the 1961 case of Torcaso v. Watkins, where the court ruled unanimously that such clauses constituted a religious test incompatible with the religious test prohibition in Article 6 Section 3 of the United States Constitution. The Church of Hawaii was the state church of Hawaii from 1862–1893.
  11. The Church in Wales was split from the Church of England in 1920, by Welsh Church Act 1914; at the same time becoming disestablished.


  1. THE INSCRUTABLE GUARDIAN OF THUNDER AND SILENCE the Dragon (Druk) in Himalayan Symbology.
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  6. said, Ed O'Rourke on (9 February 2013). "The 2012 Constitution of Egypt, Translated by Nivien Saleh, with Index". Nivien Saleh. Retrieved 2 January 2023.
  7. United Kingdom’s Constitution of 1215 with Amandments through 2013
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  18. The Basic Law of Governance (Chapter one, Article one),, "The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a sovereign Arab Islamic State. Its religion is Islam. Its constitution is Almighty God's Book, The Holy Qur'an, and the Sunna (Traditions) of the Prophet (PBUH). Arabic is the language of the Kingdom. The City of Riyadh is the capital."
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  20. The Constitution of Afghanistan (Chapter one, Article two),
  21. "Somalia". CIA World Factbook. 19 November 2021.
  22. Federal Constitution,
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  29. The headship was administrative and jurisdictional but did not include the potestas ordinis (the right to preach, ordain, administer the sacraments and rites of the Church which were reserved to the clergy). Bray, Gerald. Documents of the English Reformation James Clarke & Cº (1994), p. 114
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  31. The concerned religious communities are the dioceses of Metz and of Strasbourg, the Lutheran EPCAAL and the Reformed EPRAL and the three Israelite consistories in Colmar, Metz and Strasbourg.
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    Article 3, Spiritual Heritage
    1. Buddhism is the spiritual heritage of Bhutan, which promotes the principles and values of peace, non-violence, compassion and tolerance.
    2. The Druk Gyalpo is the protector of all religions in Bhutan.
    3. It shall be the responsibility of religious institutions and personalities to promote the spiritual heritage of the country while also ensuring that religion remains separate from politics in Bhutan. Religious institutions and personalities shall remain above politics.
    4. The Druk Gyalpo shall, on the recommendation of the Five Lopons, appoint a learned and respected monk ordained in accordance with the Druk-lu, blessed with the nine qualities of a spiritual master and accomplished in ked-dzog, as the Je Khenpo.
    5. His Holiness the Je Khenpo shall, on the recommendation of the Dratshang Lhentshog, appoint monks blessed with the nine qualities of a spiritual master and accomplished in ked-dzog as the Five Lopons.
    6. The members of the Dratshang Lhentshog shall comprise:
       (a) The Je Khenpo as Chairman;
       (b) The Five Lopons of the Zhung Dratshang; and
       (c) The Secretary of the Dratshang Lhentshog who is a civil servant.
    7. The Zhung Dratshang and Rabdeys shall continue to receive adequate funds and other facilities from the State."Bhutan's Constitution of 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2017.
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  38. "Sri Lanka".
  39. Article 67:
    "The State should support and protect Buddhism. In supporting and protecting Buddhism, [...] the State should promote and support education and dissemination of dharmic principles of Theravada Buddhism [...], and shall have measures and mechanisms to prevent Buddhism from being undermined in any form. The State should also encourage Buddhists to participate in implementing such measures or mechanisms.""Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  40. "Lao People's Democratic Republic's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2017. Article 9: The State respects and protects all lawful activities of Buddhists and of followers of other religions, [and] mobilises and encourages Buddhist monks and novices as well as the priests of other religions to participate in activities that are beneficial to the country and people.
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  52. Temperman, Jeroen (2010). State–Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. BRILL. ISBN 9789004181496. ... guarantees the Roman Catholic Church free and public exercise of its activities and the preservation of the relations of special co-operation with the state in accordance with the Andorran tradition. The Constitution recognizes the full legal capacity of the bodies of the Roman Catholic Church which have legal status in accordance with their own rules.
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  56. "Guatemala's Constitution of 1985 with Amendments through 1993" (PDF). Constitution Project. The juridical personality of the Catholic Church is recognized. The other churches, cults, entities, and associations of religious character will obtain the recognition of their juridical personality in accordance with the rules of their institution[,] and the Government may not deny it[,] aside from reasons of public order. The State will extend to the Catholic Church, without any cost, [the] titles of ownership of the real assets which it holds peacefully for its own purposes, as long as they have formed part of the patrimony of the Catholic Church in the past. The property assigned to third parties or those
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  62. "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". 2 April 1997. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the Council of Ministers.
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Further reading

  • Rowlands, John Henry Lewis (1989). Church, State, and Society, 1827–1845: the Attitudes of John Keble, Richard Hurrell Froude, and John Henry Newman. Worthing, Eng.: P. Smith [of] Churchman Publishing; Folkestone, Eng.: distr. ... by Bailey Book Distribution. ISBN 1850931321
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