Miao people

The Miao are a group of linguistically-related peoples living in Southern China and Southeast Asia, who are recognized by the government of China as one of the 56 official ethnic groups. The Miao live primarily in southern China's mountains, in the provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong, and Hainan. Some sub-groups of the Miao, most notably the Hmong people, have migrated out of China into Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Northern Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand). Following the communist takeover of Laos in 1975, a large group of Hmong refugees resettled in several Western nations, mainly in the United States, France, and Australia.

Hmong / Hmub / Xongb / ab Hmaob
m̥oŋ˦˧ / m̥ʰu˧ / ɕoŋ˧˥ / a˥˧m̥ao˥˧
Headdress of the Long-horn Miao—one of the small branches of Miao living in the 12 villages near Zhijin County, Guizhou
Total population
11–12 million
Regions with significant populations
 China9,426,007 (2010)
 Vietnam1,393,547 (2019)
 Laos595,028 (2015)
 United States299,000 (2015)[1][2]
 Thailand250,070 (2015)
Hmongic languages, Kim Mun language, Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Tai–Kadai languages (Lao and Thai), French
Miao folk religion. Minorities: Taoism, Atheism, Irreligion, Christianity, Buddhism
Miao people
Miao folkdance - Guizhou, China

Miao is a Chinese term, while the component groups of people have their own autonyms, such as (with some variant spellings) Hmong, Hmu, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao. These people (except those in Hainan) speak Hmongic languages, a subfamily of the Hmong–Mien languages including many mutually unintelligible languages such as the Hmong, Hmub, Xong and A-Hmao.[4]

Not all speakers of the Hmongic languages belong to the Miao. For example, the speakers of the Bunu and Bahengic languages are designated as the Yao, and the speakers of the Sheic languages are designated as the She and the Yao.

The Kem Di Mun people in Hainan, despite being officially designated as Miao people, are linguistically and culturally identical to the Kim Mun people in continental China who are classified as a subgroup of the Yao.[5]

Nomenclature: Miao or Hmong

Miao musicians from the Langde Miao Ethnic Village, Guizhou.
Miao girls also from Lang De, Guizhou, awaiting their turn to perform.
Young Miao woman in Yangshuo County.

The term "Miao" gained official status in 1949 as a minzu (ethnic group) encompassing a group of linguistically-related ethnic minorities in Southwest China. This was part of a larger effort to identify and classify minority groups to clarify their role in the national government, including establishing autonomous administrative divisions and allocating the seats for representatives in provincial and national government.[6]

Historically, the term "Miao" had been applied inconsistently to a variety of non-Han peoples. Early Chinese-based names use various transcriptions: Miao, Miao-tse, Miao-tsze, Meau, Meo, mo, Miao-tseu etc. In Southeast Asian contexts, words derived from the Chinese "Miao" took on a sense which was perceived as derogatory by the subgroups living in that region. The term re-appeared in the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), by which time it had taken on the connotation of "barbarian." Being a variation of Nanman, it was used to refer to the indigenous people in southern China who had not been assimilated into Han culture. During this time, references to “raw” (生 Sheng) and ”cooked” (熟 Shu) Miao appear, referring to the level of assimilation and political cooperation of the two groups, making them easier to classify. Not until the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) do more finely grained distinctions appear in writing. Even then, discerning which ethnic groups are included in various classifications can be complex. There has been a historical tendency by the Hmong, who resisted assimilation and political cooperation, to group all Miao peoples together under the term Hmong because of the potential derogatory use of the term Miao. In modern China, however, the term continues to be used regarding the Miao people there.[7]

Though the Miao themselves use various self-designations, the Chinese traditionally classify them according to the most characteristic color of the women's clothes. The list below contains some of these self-designations, the color designations, and the main regions inhabited by the four major groups of Miao in China:

  • Ghao Xong/Qo Xiong; Xong; Red Miao; Qo Xiong Miao: West Hunan
  • Gha Ne/Ka Nao; Hmub; Black Miao; Mhub Miao: Southeast Guizhou
  • A-Hmao; Big Flowery Miao: West Guizhou and Northeast Yunnan
  • Gha-Mu; Hmong, Mong; White Miao, Green/Blue Miao, Small Flowery Miao; South and East Yunnan, South Sichuan and West Guizhou

Gender roles

Young women from a Miao tribe performing a traditional group dance in Guizhou
Miao girls from Guizhou wearing traditional silver jewelry headdresses

Women's status

Compared to the Confucian principles traditionally exercised over women in some regions of China, the Miao culture is generally less strict in categorization of women’s roles in society. Miao women exercise relatively more independence, mobility and social freedom.[8] They are known to be strong willed and politically minded. They actively contribute to their communities in social welfare, education, arts and culture, and agricultural farming.

Miao women demonstrate great skill and artistry when making traditional clothing and handicrafts. They excel at embroidering, weaving, paper-cutting, batik, and intricate jewelry casting. From vests, coats, hats, collars and cuffs, to full skirts, and baby carriers, the patterns on their clothes are extremely complicated and colorful with clean lines. Girls of around seven will learn embroidering from mothers and sisters, and by the time they are teenagers, they are quite deft. Additionally, Miao silver jewelry is distinctive for its design, style and craftsmanship. Miao silver jewelry is completely handmade, carved with fine decorative patterns. It’s not easy to make and there is not one final masterpiece exactly the same as another. The Miao embroidery and silver jewelry are highly valued, delicate and beautiful.

Silver jewelry is a highly valuable craftwork of the Miao people. Apart from being a cultural tradition, it also symbolises the wealth of Miao women.[9] As a Miao saying goes, “decorated with no silver or embroidery, a girl is not a girl”, Miao women are occasionally defined by the amount of silver jewelry she wears or owns.[9] It is especially important to wear heavy and intricate silver headdresses and jewelry during significant occasions and festivals, notably during weddings, funerals and springtime celebration.[9] Silver jewelry is an essential element of Miao marriages, particularly to the bride.[9] Miao families would begin saving silver jewellery for the girls at an early age, wishing their daughters could marry well with the large amount of silver jewelry representing the wealth of the family.[9] Although a growing Miao population is moving from rural Miao regions to cities, the new generation respects the families' silver heritage and is willing to pass on the practice as a cultural tradition more than a showcase of family wealth.[9]

Workforce and income

Although Miao women are not strictly-governed, their social status is often seen as lower than that of men, as in most patriarchal societies. Be it in the subsistence economy or otherwise, men are the main economic force and provide the stable source of income for the family. Women are primarily involved in social welfare, domestic responsibilities, and additionally earn supplementary income.[8]

As tourism became a major economic activity to this ethnic group, Miao women gained more opportunities to join the labor force and earn an income. Women mostly take up jobs that require modern day customer service skills; for example, working as tour guides, selling craftwork and souvenirs, teaching tourists how to make flower wreaths, and even renting ethnic costumes.[8] These jobs require soft skills and hospitality and more visibility in public, but provide a low income.[8] On the contrary, Miao men take up jobs that require more physical strengths and less visibility in public, such as engineering roads, building hotels, boats and pavilions. These jobs generally provide a more stable and profitable source of income.[8]

The above example of unequal division of labor demonstrates, in spite of socioeconomic changes in China, men are still considered the financial backbone of the family.[8]

Marriage and family

While the Miao people have had their own unique culture, the Confucian ideology exerted significant influences on this ethnic group. It is expected that men are the dominant figures and breadwinners of the family, while women occupy more domestic roles (like cooking and cleaning).[8] There are strict social standards on women to be “virtuous wives and good mothers”, and to abide by “three obediences and four virtues”, which include cultural moral specifications of women’s behavior.[8]

A Miao woman has some cultural freedom in marrying a man of her choice.[8] However, like many other cultures in Asia, there are strict cultural practices on marriage, one being clan exogamy. It is a taboo to marry someone within the same family clan name, even when the couple are not blood related or from the same community.[8]

In contrast to the common practice of the right of succession belonging to the firstborn son, the Miao’s inheritance descends to the youngest son.[8] The older sons leave the family and build their own residences, usually in the same province and close to the family.[8] The youngest son is responsible for living with and caring for the aging parents, even after marriage.[8] He receives a larger share of the family’s inheritance and his mother’s silver jewelry collection, which is used as bridal wealth or dowry.[8]

Some imperially commissioned Han Chinese chieftaincies assimilated with the Miao. Those became the ancestors of a part of the Miao population in Guizhou.[10]

The Hmong Tian clan in Sizhou began in the seventh century as a migrant Han Chinese clan.[11]

The origin of the Tunbao people traces back to the Ming dynasty when the Hongwu Emperor sent 300,000 Han Chinese male soldiers in 1381 to conquer Yunnan, with some of the men marrying Yao and Miao women.[12][13]

The presence of women presiding over weddings was a feature noted in "Southeast Asian" marriages, such as in 1667 when a Miao woman in Yunnan married a Chinese official.[14] Some Sinicization occurred, in Yunnan a Miao chief's daughter married a scholar in the 1600s who wrote that she could read, write, and listen in Chinese and read Chinese classics.[15]


The migration of the Hmong according to legend.[16]

Legend of Chiyou and origins

According to a Tang dynasty Chinese legend, the Miao who descended from the Jiuli tribe led by Chiyou (Chinese: 蚩尤; pinyin: Chīyóu) were defeated at the Battle of Zhuolu (涿鹿; Zhuōlù, a defunct prefecture on the border of present provinces of Hebei and Liaoning) by the military coalition of Huang Di (黃帝; Huángdì) and Yan Di, leaders of the Huaxia (華夏; Huáxià) tribe as the two tribes struggled for supremacy of the Yellow River valley.

The San Miao, according to legend, are the descendants of the Jiuli Tribe. Chinese records record a San Miao (三苗, Three Miao) kingdom around Dongting Lake. It was defeated by Yu the Great. Another Miao kingdom may have emerged in Yunnan around 704 BC that was subjugated by the Chinese in the 3rd century BC.[17] In 2002, the Chu language has been identified as perhaps having influence from Tai–Kam and Miao–Yao languages by researchers at University of Massachusetts Amherst.[18]


The Miao were not mentioned again in Chinese records until the Tang dynasty (618–907). In the following period, the Miao migrated throughout southern China and Southeast Asia. They generally inhabited mountainous or marginal lands and took up swidden or slash-and-burn cultivation techniques to farm these lands.

During the Miao Rebellions of the Ming dynasty, thousands of Miao were killed by the imperial forces.[19][20] Mass castrations of Miao boys also took place.[21]

A Qing-era painting depicting a government campaign against the Miao in Hunan, 1795.

During the Qing Dynasty the Miao fought three wars against the empire.[22] The issue was so serious that the Yongzheng emperor sent one of his most important officials, Ortai, to be the Viceroy of the provinces with significant Miao populations in 1726, and through 1731, he spent his time putting down rebellions.[23] In 1735 in the southeastern province of Guizhou, the Miao rose up against the government's forced assimilation. Eight counties involving 1,224 villages fought until 1738 when the revolt ended. According to Xiangtan University Professor Wu half the Miao populations were affected by the war.

The second war (1795–1806) involved the provinces of Guizhou and Hunan. Shi Sanbao and Shi Liudeng led this second revolt. Again, it ended in failure, but it took 11 years to quell the uprising.[24]

The greatest of the three wars occurred from 1854 to 1873. Zhang Xiu-mei led this revolt in Guizhou until his capture and death in Changsha, Hunan. This revolt affected over one million people and all the neighbouring provinces. By the time the war ended Professor Wu said only 30 percent of the Miao were left in their home regions. This defeat led to the Hmong people migrating out of China into Laos and Vietnam.

During Qing times, more military garrisons were established in southwest China. Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and the children were brought up as Miao.[25][26] In spite of rebellion against the Han, Hmong leaders made allies with Han merchants.[27]

The imperial government had to rely on political means to bring in Hmong people into the government: they created multiple competing positions of substantial prestige for Miao people to participate and assimilate into the Qing government system. During the Ming and Qing times, the official position of Kiatong was created in Indochina. The Miao would employ the use of the Kiatong government structure until the 1900s when they entered into French colonial politics in Indochina.

20th century

During the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Miao played an important role in its birth when they helped Mao Zedong to escape the Kuomintang in the Long March with supplies and guides through their territory.

In Vietnam, a powerful Hmong named Vuong Chinh Duc, dubbed the king of the Hmong, aided Ho Chi Minh's nationalist move against the French, and thus secured the Hmong's position in Vietnam.[28] In Điện Biên Phủ, Hmongs fought on the side of the communist Viet Minh against the pro-French Tai Dam aristocrats. During the Vietnam War, Miao fought on both sides, the Hmong in Laos primarily for the US, across the border in Vietnam for the North-Vietnam coalition, the Chinese-Miao for the Communists. However, after the war the Vietnamese were very aggressive towards the Hmong who suffered many years of reprisals. Most Hmong in Thailand also supported a brief Communist uprising during the war.

Miao clans with Han origins

Some of the origins of the Hmong and Miao clan names are a result of the marriage of Hmong women to Han Chinese men,[29][30] with distinct Han Chinese-descended clans and lineages practicing Han Chinese burial customs.[31] These clans were called "Han Chinese Hmong" ("Hmong Sua") in Sichuan, and were instructed in military tactics by fugitive Han Chinese rebels.[32] Such Chinese "surname groups" are comparable to the patrilineal Hmong clans and also practice exogamy.[33][34][35][36][37]

Han Chinese male soldiers who fought against the Miao rebellions during the Qing and Ming dynasties were known to have married with non-Han women such as the Miao because Han women were less desirable.[38][39][40] The Wang clan, founded among the Hmong in Gongxian county of Sichuan's Yibin district, is one such clan and can trace its origins to several such marriages around the time of the Ming dynasty suppression of the Ah rebels.[41] Nicholas Tapp wrote that, according to The Story of the Ha Kings in the village, one such Han ancestor was Wang Wu.[42] It is also noted that the Wang typically sided with the Chinese, being what Tapp calls "cooked" as opposed to the "raw" peoples who rebelled against the Chinese.[43][41]

Hmong women who married Han Chinese men founded a new Xem clan among Northern Thailand's Hmong. Fifty years later in Chiangmai two of their Hmong boy descendants were Catholics.[44] A Hmong woman and Han Chinese man married and founded northern Thailand's Lau2, or Lauj, clan, [44], with another Han Chinese man of the family name Deng founding another Hmong clan. Some scholars believe this lends further credence to the idea that some or all of the present day Hmong clans were formed in this way.[45]

Jiangxi Han Chinese are claimed by some as the forefathers of the southeast Guizhou Miao, and Miao children were born to the many Miao women married Han Chinese soldiers in Taijiang in Guizhou before the second half of the 19th century.[46]

Xijiang, a Miao-majority township in Guizhou


Rice terrace farming in Longji, Guangxi.

According to André-Georges Haudricourt and David Strecker's claims based on limited secondary data, the Miao were among the first people to settle in present-day China.[47] They claim that the Han borrowed a lot of words from the Miao in regard to rice farming. This indicated that the Miao were among the first rice farmers in China. In addition, some have connected the Miao to the Daxi Culture (5,300 – 6,000 years ago) in the middle Yangtze River region.[48] The Daxi Culture has been credited with being amongst the first cultivators of rice in the Far East by Western scholars. However, in 2006 rice cultivation was found to have existed in the Shandong province even earlier than the Daxi Culture.[49] Though the Yuezhuang culture has cultivated rice, it is more of collected wild rice and not actual cultivated and domesticated rice like that of the Daxi.

A western study mention that the Miao (especially the Miao-Hunan) has its origins in southern China but have some DNA from the Northeast people of China. Recent DNA samples of Miao males contradict this theory. The White Hmong have 25% C, 8% D, & 6% N(Tat)[50] yet they have the least contact with the Han population.


Miao women during market day in Laomeng village, Yuanyang County, Yunnan
Detail from Stielers Hand-Atlas, 1891, showing a "Miao-tse" enclave between Guiyang and Guilin. The enclave corresponds to modern Congjiang and Rongjiang counties.

According to the 2000 census, the number of Miao in China was estimated to be about 9.6 million. Outside of China, members of the Miao sub-group or nations of the Hmong live in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma due to outward migrations starting in the 18th century. As a result of recent migrations in the aftermath of the Indochina and Vietnam Wars from 1949–75, many Hmong people now live in the United States, French Guiana, France and Australia. Altogether, there are approximately 10 million speakers in the Miao language family. This language family, which consists of 6 languages and around 35 dialects (some of which are mutually intelligible) belongs to the Hmong/Miao branch of the Hmong–Mien (Miao–Yao) language family.

A large population of the Hmong have emigrated to the northern mountainous reaches of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma. However, many continue to live in far Southwest China mostly in the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi and to a very limited extent in Guizhou.

Note: The Miao areas of Sichuan province became part of the newly created Chongqing Municipality in 1997.

Most Miao currently live in China. Miao population growth in China:

  • 1953: 2,510,000
  • 1964: 2,780,000
  • 1982: 5,030,000
  • 1990: 7,390,000

3,600,000 Miao, about half of the entire Chinese Miao population, were in Guizhou in 1990. The Guizhou Miao and those in the following six provinces make up over 98% of all Chinese Miao:

In the above provinces, there are 6 Miao autonomous prefectures (shared officially with one other ethnic minority):

There are in addition 23 Miao autonomous counties:

Most Miao reside in hills or on mountains, such as

  • Wuling Mountain by the Qianxiang River (湘黔川边的武陵山; Xiāngqián Chuān Biān Dí Wǔlíng Shān)
  • Miao Mountain (苗岭; Miáo Líng), Qiandongnan
  • Yueliang Mountain (月亮山; Yuèliàng Shān), Qiandongnan
  • Greater and Lesser Ma Mountain (大小麻山; Dà Xiǎo Má Shān), Qiannan
  • Greater Miao Mountain (大苗山; Dà Miáo Shān), Guangxi
  • Wumeng Mountain by the Tianqian River (滇黔川边的乌蒙山; Tiánqián Chuān Biān Dí Wūmēng Shān)

Several thousands of Miao left their homeland to move to larger cities like Guangzhou and Beijing. There are 789,000 Hmong spread throughout northern Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and on other continents. 174,000 live in Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes.


By province

The 2000 Chinese census recorded 8,940,116 Miao in mainland China.

Provincial distribution of the Miao in mainland China
Province-level division % of mainland China's
Miao population
 % of provincial total
Guizhou Province48.10%12.199%
Hunan Province21.49%3.037%
Yunnan Province11.67%2.463%
Chongqing Municipality5.62%1.647%
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region5.18%1.056%
Hubei Province2.40%0.360%
Sichuan Province1.65%0.179%
Guangdong Province1.35%0.142%
Hainan Province0.69%0.810%

By county

County-level distribution of the Miao in mainland China

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.25% of mainland China's Miao population.)

Province-level division Prefecture-level division County-level division Miao population  % of population  % of mainland China's
Miao population
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Kaili City (凯里市) 274,238 49.5% 3.07%
Chongqing Municipality Pengshui Miao and Tujia A. C. (彭水苗族土家族自治县) 273,488 50.2% 3.06%
Hunan Huaihua City Mayang Miao A. C. (麻阳苗族自治县) 263,437 76.7% 2.95%
Guizhou Tongren City Songtao Miao A. C. (松桃苗族自治县) 228,718 47% 2.56%
Hunan Huaihua City Yuanling County (沅陵县) 217,613 37.4% 2.43%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Huayuan County (花垣县) 192,138 66.7% 2.15%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Fenghuang County (凤凰县) 185,111 52.9% 2.07%
Hunan Shaoyang City Suining County (绥宁县) 184,784 51.8% 2.07%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Liuzhou City Rongshui Miao A. C. (融水苗族自治县) 168,591 41.9% 1.89%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Huangping County (黄平县) 161,211 61.3% 1.8%
Guizhou Zunyi City Wuchuan Gelao and Miao A. C. (务川仡佬族苗族自治县) 157,350 48.9% 1.76%
Hunan Shaoyang City Chengbu Miao A. C. (城步苗族自治县) 136,943 46.9% 1.53%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Taijiang County (台江县) 135,827 81.2% 1.52%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Congjiang County (从江县) 129,626 44.6% 1.45%
Guizhou Liupanshui City Shuicheng County (水城县) (incl. Zhongshan District) 126,319 17.9% 1.41%
Hunan Huaihua City Jingzhou Miao and Dong A. C. (靖州苗族侗族自治县) 114,641 46.8% 1.28%
Guizhou Anshun City Ziyun Miao and Buyei A. C. (紫云苗族布依族自治县) 114,444 42.3% 1.28%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Jianhe County (剑河县) 112,950 62.6% 1.26%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Jishou City (吉首市) 112,856 37.4% 1.26%
Guizhou Tongren City Sinan County (思南县) 112,464 22.5% 1.26%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Leishan County (雷山县) 110,413 93.0% 1.24%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Luxi County (泸溪县) 107,301 39.3% 1.2%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Tianzhu County (天柱县) 106,387 40.3% 1.19%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Danzhai County (丹寨县) 104,934 85.7% 1.17%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Rongjiang County (榕江县) 96,503 27.5% 1.08%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Huishui County (惠水县) 91,215 26.6% 1.02%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Guangnan County (广南县) 88,444 11.2% 0.99%
Chongqing Municipality Youyang Tujia and Miao A. C. (酉阳土家族苗族自治县) 85,182 14.7% 0.95%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Bose City Longlin Various Nationalities A. C. (隆林各族自治县) 84,617 19.3% 0.95%
Guizhou Bijie City Zhijin County (织金县) 81,029 10.3% 0.91%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai A. C. (金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县) 80,820 22.7% 0.9%
Guizhou Anshun City Xixiu District (西秀区) 79,906 10.4% 0.89%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Jinping County (锦屏县) 78,441 22.7% 0.88%
Guizhou Zunyi City Daozhen Gelao and Miao A. C. (道真仡佬族苗族自治县) 76,658 31.4% 0.86%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Liping County (黎平县) 75,718 14.1% 0.85%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Maguan County (马关县) 73,833 20.1% 0.83%
Guizhou Bijie City Nayong County (纳雍县) 72,845 10.9% 0.81%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Duyun City (都匀市) 71,011 14.4% 0.79%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Laifeng County (来凤县) 70,679 29.1% 0.79%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Majiang County (麻江县) 68,847 41.1% 0.77%
Chongqing Municipality Xiushan Tujia and Miao A. C. (秀山土家族苗族自治县) 66,895 13.3% 0.75%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Shibing County (施秉县) 66,890 51.3% 0.75%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Qiubei County (丘北县) 66,826 14% 0.75%
Guizhou Guiyang City Huaxi District (花溪区) 62,827 10.3% 0.7%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Longshan County (龙山县) 61,709 12.3% 0.69%
Guizhou Bijie City Qianxi County (黔西县) 60,409 8.7% 0.68%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Pingbian Miao A. C. (屏边苗族自治县) 60,312 39.2% 0.67%
Guizhou Bijie City Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao A. C. (威宁彝族回族苗族自治县) 60,157 4.8% 0.67%
Chongqing Municipality Qianjiang District (黔江区) 59,705 13.4% 0.67%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Baojing County (保靖县) 57,468 20.7% 0.64%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Wenshan County (文山县) 57,303 11.9% 0.64%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Guzhang County (古丈县) 54,554 37.7% 0.61%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Lichuan City (利川市) 53,590 8.2% 0.6%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Qinglong County (晴隆县) 53,205 21.6% 0.6%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Liuzhou City Sanjiang Dong A. C. (三江侗族自治县) 53,076 17.9% 0.59%
Guizhou Bijie City Dafang County (大方县) 52,547 6.8% 0.59%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Yanshan County (砚山县) 51,624 11.1% 0.58%
Guizhou Liupanshui City Liuzhi Special District (六枝特区) 50,833 10.3% 0.57%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Changshun County (长顺县) 48,902 25.6% 0.55%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Fuquan City (福泉市) 48,731 17.2% 0.55%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Mengzi County (蒙自县) 48,132 11.5% 0.54%
Guizhou Tongren City Bijiang District (碧江区) 47,080 13% 0.53%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Malipo County (麻栗坡县) 45,655 16.4% 0.51%
Yunnan Zhaotong City Yiliang County (彝良县) 44,736 8.6% 0.5%
Guizhou Anshun City Pingba County (平坝县) 44,107 14.8% 0.49%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Sandu Shui A. C. (三都水族自治县) 43,464 15.4% 0.49%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Guiding County (贵定县) 42,450 18.4% 0.47%
Guizhou Tongren City Yinjiang Tujia and Miao A. C. (印江土家族苗族自治县) 42,431 14.9% 0.47%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Longli County (龙里县) 40,096 22.2% 0.45%
Guizhou Guiyang City Qingzhen City (清镇市) 39,845 8.5% 0.45%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Wangmo County (望谟县) 39,491 15.7% 0.44%
Guizhou Bijie City Qixingguan District (七星关区) 38,508 3.4% 0.43%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Yongshun County (永顺县) 37,676 8.8% 0.42%
Guizhou Bijie City Hezhang County (赫章县) 37,128 5.7% 0.42%
Yunnan Zhaotong City Weixin County (威信县) 36,293 9.4% 0.41%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Sansui County (三穗县) 35,745 23% 0.4%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Luodian County (罗甸县) 35,463 13.8% 0.4%
Guizhou Anshun City Zhenning Buyei and Miao A. C. (镇宁布依族苗族自治县) 34,379 12.1% 0.38%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Xuan'en County (宣恩县) 34,354 9.6% 0.38%
Hunan Huaihua City Huitong County (会同县) 33,977 10.7% 0.38%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Anlong County (安龙县) 32,926 9.2% 0.37%
Guizhou Bijie City Jinsha County (金沙县) 31,884 5.7% 0.36%
Sichuan Luzhou City Xuyong County (叙永县) 30,362 5.2% 0.34%
Guizhou Anshun City Puding County (普定县) 30,254 8% 0.34%
Sichuan Yibin City Xingwen County (兴文县) 30,020 8% 0.34%
Guizhou Anshun City Guanling Buyei and Miao A. C. (关岭布依族苗族自治县) 29,746 9.9% 0.33%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Bose City Xilin County (西林县) 28,967 19.25 0.32%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Guilin City Ziyuan County (资源县) 27,827 16.4% 0.31%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Xianfeng County (咸丰县) 27,668 9.2% 0.31%
Guizhou Guiyang City Nanming District (南明区) 27,460 3.3% 0.31%
Yunnan Zhaotong City Zhenxiong County (镇雄县) 26,963 1.8% 0.3%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Funing County (富宁县) 26,396 6.5% 0.3%
Guangdong Dongguan City Dongguan District (东莞市辖区) 26,241 <1% 0.29%
Guizhou Tongren City Jiangkou County (江口县) 25,588 14.8% 0.29%
Guizhou Liupanshui City Pan County (盘县) 25,428 2.5% 0.28%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Guilin City Longsheng Various Nationalities A. C. (龙胜各族自治县) 24,841 14.7% 0.28%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Xingren County (兴仁县) 24,130 5.8% 0.27%
Hunan Huaihua City Zhijiang Dong A. C. (芷江侗族自治县) 23,698 7% 0.27%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Kaiyuan City (开远市) 23,504 7.9% 0.26%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Zhenfeng County (贞丰县) 23,054 7.6% 0.26%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Pingtang County (平塘县) 22,980 10.1% 0.26%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Zhenyuan County (镇远县) 22,883 11.2% 0.26%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Pu'an County (普安县) 22,683 8.9% 0.25%
Guizhou Guiyang City Wudang District (乌当区) 22,468 6% 0.25%
Other areas of mainland China 1,246,040 13.94%


Miao Fish (苗鱼 miáo yǘ)

Miao fish is a dish made by steaming fish with a mixture of fresh herbs, green peppers, ginger slices and garlic.[51]

See also



  1. Hoeffel, Elizabeth M.; Rastogi, Sonya; Kim, Myoung Ouk; Shaid, Hasan (2012). "The Asian Population: 2010" (PDF) (Brief). U.S. Census Bureau.
  2. </
  3. Coughlan, James E. (2010). "The Countries of Birth and Ethnicities of Australia's Hmong and Lao Communities: An Analysis of Recent Australian Census Data" (PDF). Journal of Lao Studies. 1 (1): 55–85.
  4. Ratliff, Martha. "Hmong-Mien Languages". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2021-04-17. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  5. Huang, Guifang 黄贵方 (2016-09-22). 探访海南苗族"金第璊". Wénshān xīnwén wǎng 文山新闻网 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  6. Schein, Louisa (1986). "The Miao in Contemporary China". In Hendricks, Glenn L.; Downing, Bruce T.; Deinard, Amos S. (eds.). The Hmong in Transition (PDF). Staten Island, New York: Center for Migration Studies of New York. pp. 73–85. ISBN 0-913256-94-3 via ERIC.
  7. Tapp, Nicholas (2002). "Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: The "Han Miao" and Problems in the Ethnography of the Hmong". Asian Folklore Studies. 61 (1): 77–104. doi:10.2307/1178678. JSTOR 1178678.
  8. Feng, Xianghong (2013). "Women's Work, Men's Work: Gender and Tourism among the Miao in Rural China". Anthropology of Work Review. 34 (1): 4–10. doi:10.1111/awr.12002.
  9. Yu, Runze (13 October 2017). "Where Women Can't Marry without Silver". BBC Travel.
  10. Elvin, Mark (2008). The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 216–. ISBN 978-0-300-13353-0.
  11. Hudson, Wm. Clarke (2008). Spreading the Dao, Managing Mastership, and Performing Salvation: The Life and Alchemical Teachings of Chen Zhixu. Indiana University. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-0-549-44283-7.
  12. "Tunbao People Spring Performance". People's Daily Online. February 27, 2005.
  13. James Stuart Olson (1998). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 340–. ISBN 978-0-313-28853-1.
  14. Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1.
  15. Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1.
  16. Yang, Kou (2010). "Commentary: Challenges and Complexity in the Re-Construction of Hmong History". Hmong Studies Journal. 10 (1): 1–17. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  17. West 2009, p. 286.
  18. Chu Language Rhymes at University of Massachusetts Amherst
  19. Chih-yu Shih; Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN 0415283728. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  20. Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Presslocation=. p. 380. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  21. Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  22. Xiong, Yuepheng L. "Chinese Odyssey: Summer Program offers Students rare opportunity to learn Hmong history in China", HmongNet.org
  23. Guy, R. Kent. Qing Governors and Their Provinces: The Evolution of Territorial Administration in China, 1644–1796. ProQuest Ebooks: University of Washington Press. pp. 335–342.
  24. Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). "The Miao Revolt (1795–1806)". Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989. London: Routledge. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0415214742.
  25. Contributions to Southeast Asian ethnography, Issue 7. Board of Editors, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography. 1988. p. 99. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  26. Dan Jin; Xueliang Ma; Mark Bender (2006). Butterfly mother: Miao (Hmong) creation epics from Guizhou, China. Hackett Publishing. p. xvii. ISBN 0872208494. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  27. Lee, Mai Na M. (2005). The dream of the Hmong kingdom: resistance, collaboration, and legitimacy under French colonialism (1893–1955). University of Wisconsin—Madison. p. 149. ISBN 9780542282768. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  28. Nevison, Leslie. "In Search of a Hmong King"
  29. Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4.
  30. Nicholas Tapp (2010). The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-3-643-10258-4.
  31. Stephan Feuchtwang (2004). Making Place: State Projects, Globalisation and Local Responses in China. Psychology Press. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-1-84472-010-1.
  32. Nicholas Tapp (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary. BRILL. pp. 204–. ISBN 0-391-04187-8.
  33. Narendra Singh Bisht; T. S. Bankoti (2004). Encyclopaedia of the South East Asian Ethnography. Vol. 1. Global Vision Publishing House. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-81-87746-96-6.
  34. Narendra S. Bisht; T. S. Bankoti (2004). Encyclopaedia of the South-east Asian Ethnography: A-L. Global Vision. p. 243. ISBN 978-81-87746-97-3.
  35. David Levinson (1993). Encyclopedia of world cultures. G.K. Hall. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8168-8840-5.
  36. Timothy J. O'Leary (1991). Encyclopedia of world cultures: North America. Hall. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8168-8840-5.
  37. Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember (1999). Cultures of the world: selections from the ten-volume encyclopedia of world cultures. Macmillan Library Reference. p. 252. ISBN 9780028653679.
  38. Louisa Schein (2000). Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 0-8223-2444-X.
  39. Susan Brownell; Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom (2002). Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. University of California Press. pp. 392–. ISBN 978-0-520-21103-2.
  40. Brackette Williams (2013). Women Out of Place: The Gender of Agency and the Race of Nationality. Routledge. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-1-135-23476-8.
  41. Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4.
  42. Nicholas Tapp (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary. BRILL. pp. 327–. ISBN 0-391-04187-8.
  43. Nicholas Tapp (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary. BRILL. pp. 333–. ISBN 0-391-04187-8.
  44. Nicholas Tapp (1989). Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern Thailand. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-588912-3.
  45. Asian Folklore Studies. Nanzan University Institute of Anthropology. 2002. p. 93.
  46. Mark Bender (2006). Butterfly Mother: Miao (Hmong) Creation Epics from Guizhou, China. Hackett Publishing. pp. xvii–. ISBN 1-60384-335-3.
  47. Haudricourt, Andre; Strecker (1991). "Hmong–Mien (Miao–Yao) Loans in Chinese". T'oung Pao. 77 (4–5): 335–341. doi:10.1163/156853291X00073.
  48. Wen, Bo; Li, Hui; Gao, Song; Mao, Xianyun; Gao, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Feng; He, Yungang; Dong, Yongli; Zhang, Youjun; Huang, Wenju; Jin, Jianzhong; Xiao, Chunjie; Lu, Daru; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Su, Bing; Deka, Ranjan; Jin, Li (2005). "Genetic Structure of (H)mong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages". Oxford Journal of Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (3): 725–734. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi055. PMID 15548747.
  49. Crawford, G. W.; X. Chen; J. Wang (2006). "Houli Culture Rice from the Yuezhuang Site, Jinan". Kaogu [Archaeology] (in Chinese). 3: 247–251.
  50. "a topology table showing the hierarchy for Table 1". doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282.s003. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. "舌尖上的中国:正宗苗家古法腌鱼,可保存上10年不变质". 3g.163.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019-03-10.


Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.