The Chams (Cham: ꨌꩌ, Čaṃ) or Champa people (Cham: ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, Urang Campa;[5] Vietnamese: Người Chăm or Người Chàm; Khmer: ជនជាតិចាម, Chónchèat Cham) are an Austronesian ethnic group in Southeast Asia, and indigenous people of Central Vietnam.[6][7] The Cham people are largely Muslims in predominantly Buddhist countries of Vietnam and Cambodia.[8] From 2nd century to 1832 the Cham populated Champa, a collection of independent principalities in what is now central and southern Vietnam.[9] The Cham people speak the Cham language and the Tsat language (the latter is spoken by the Utsul, a Cham sub-group on China's Hainan Island), the two Chamic languages from the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family.[10]

Traditional Cham woman clothes

ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ
Urang Campa
Cham women performing a traditional dance in Nha Trang, Vietnam
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 United States3,000
Cham, Tsat, Haroi, Vietnamese, Khmer
Predominantly Sunni Islam (Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Southern Vietnam and Hainan, China)
Minorities of Shi'a Bani Islam and Hinduism (Central Vietnam)[4]
Related ethnic groups
Utsuls, and other Austronesian peoples
(especially Jarai, Rade, Acehnese)


Historical extent of the Kingdom of Champa (in green) around 1100 CE
Depiction of fighting Cham naval soldier against the Khmer, stone relief at the Bayon

For a long time, researchers believed that the Chams had arrived by sea in the first millennium BC from Sumatra, Borneo and the Malay Peninsula, eventually settling in central modern Vietnam.[11]

The original Cham are therefore the likely heirs of Austronesian navigators from Taiwan and Borneo, whose main activities are commerce, transport and perhaps also piracy. Austronesian Chamic peoples might have migrated into present-day Central Vietnam around 3 kya to 2.5 kya (1,000 to 500 BC). With having formed a thalassocracy leaving traces in written sources, they invested the ports at the start of important trade routes linking India, China and Indonesian islands. Historians are now no longer disputing in associating the Sa Huynh culture (1000 BC–200 AD) with the ancestors of the Cham people and other Chamic-speaking groups.

Patterns, chronology of migration remain debated and it is assumed, that the Cham people, the only Austronesian ethnic group originated from South Asia, arrived later in peninsular Southeast Asia via Borneo.[12][13] Mainland Southeast Asia had been populated on land routes by members of the Austroasiatic language family, such as the Mon people and the Khmer people around 5,000 years ago. The Cham were accomplished Austronesian seafarers, that from centuries populated and soon dominated maritime Southeast Asia.[14] Earliest known records of Cham presence in Indochina date back to the second century CE. Population centers were located on the river outlets along the coast. As they controlled the import/export trade of continental Southeast Asia, they enjoyed a prosperous maritime economy.[15][16][17]

Cham folklore includes a creation myth in which the founder of the Cham people was a certain Lady Po Nagar. According to Cham mythology Lady Po Nagar was born out of sea foam and clouds in the sky. However in Vietnamese mythology which adopted the goddess after taking over the Champa kingdom her name is Thiên Y A Na and she instead came from a humble peasant home somewhere in the Dai An Mountains, Khánh Hòa Province, spirits assisted her as she traveled to China on a floating log of sandalwood where she married a man of royalty and had two children. She eventually returned to Champa "did many good deeds in helping the sick and the poor" and "a temple was erected in her honor".[18][19][20]

Early history

The Cham decorated their temples with stone reliefs depicting the gods such as garuda fighting the nāga (12th-13th century CE)

Like countless other political entities of Southeast Asia, the Champa principalities underwent the process of Indianization since the early common era as a result of centuries of socio-economic interaction adopted and introduced cultural and institutional elements of India. From the 8th century onward Muslims from such regions as Gujarat began to increasingly appear in trade and shipping of India. Islamic ideas became a part of the vast tide of exchange, treading the same path as Hinduism and Buddhism centuries before. Cham people picked up these ideas by the 11th century. This can be seen in the architecture of Cham temples, which shares similarities with the one of the Angkor Temples. Ad-Dimashqi writes in 1325, "the country of Champa... is inhabited by Muslims and idolaters. The Muslim religion came there during the time of Caliph Uthman... and Ali, many Muslims who were expelled by the Umayyads and by Hajjaj, fled there".

The Daoyi Zhilüe records that at Cham ports, Cham women were often married to Chinese merchants, who frequently came back to them after trading voyages.[21][22][23] A Chinese merchant from Quanzhou, Wang Yuanmao, traded extensively with Champa and married a Cham princess.[24]

In the 12th century, the Cham fought a series of wars with the Khmer Empire to the west. In 1177, the Cham and their allies launched an attack from the lake Tonlé Sap and managed to sack the Khmer capital of Angkor. In 1181, however, they were defeated by the Khmer King Jayavarman VII.

Encounter with Islam

Depiction of Cham people in the Boxer Codex from 1590

Islam first arrived in Champa around the ninth century; however, it did not become significant among the Cham people until after the eleventh century.[25]

Cham who migrated to Sulu were Orang Dampuan.[26] Champa and Sulu engaged in commerce with each other which resulted in merchant Chams settling in Sulu where they were known as Orang Dampuan from the 10th-13th centuries. The Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious native Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan.[27] The Buranun were then subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was later restored.[28] The Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based Orang Dampuan who came to Sulu from Champa.[26] Sulu received civilization in its Indic form from the Orang Dampuan.[29]

A number of Cham also fled across the sea to the Malay Peninsula and as early as the 15th century, a Cham colony was established in Malacca. The Chams encountered Sunni Islam there as the Malacca Sultanate was officially Muslim since 1414. The King of Champa then became an ally of the Johor Sultanate; in 1594, Champa sent its military forces to fight alongside Johor against the Portuguese occupation of Malacca.[30] Between 1607 and 1676, one of the Champa kings converted to Islam and it became a dominant feature of Cham society. The Chams also adopted the Jawi alphabet.[31]

A Cham Muslim woman in Chau Doc, Vietnam

Historical records in Indonesia showed the influence of Queen Dwarawati, a Muslim princess from the kingdom of Champa, toward her husband, Kertawijaya, the Seventh King of Majapahit Empire, so that the royal family of the Majapahit Empire eventually converted to Islam, which finally led to the conversion to Islam of the entire region.[32][33][34] Chams Princess tomb can be found in Trowulan, the site of the capital of the Majapahit Empire.[35] In Babad Tanah Jawi, it is said that the king of Brawijaya V has a wife named Dewi Anarawati (or Dewi Dwarawati), a Muslim daughter of the King of Champa (Chams).[32][33][34] Chams had trade and close cultural ties with the maritime kingdom of Srivijaya, and Majapahit then in the Malay Archipelago.

Another significant figure from Champa in the history of Islam in Indonesia is Raden Rakhmat (Prince Rahmat) who's also known as Sunan Ampel, one of Wali Sanga (Nine Saints), who spread Islam in Java. He is considered as a focal point of the Wali Sanga, because several of them were actually his descendants and/or his students. His father is Maulana Malik Ibrahim also known as Ibrahim as-Samarkandy ("Ibrahim Asmarakandi" to Javanese ears), and his mother is Dewi Candrawulan, a princess of Champa (Chams) who's also the sister of Queen Dwarawati. Sunan Ampel was born in Champa in 1401 CE. He came to Java in 1443 CE, in order to visit his aunt Queen Dwarawati, a princess of Champa who married to Kertawijaya (Brawijaya V), the King of Majapahit Empire.[32][33][34] Local legend says that he built the Great Mosque of Demak (Masjid Agung Demak) in 1479 CE, but other legends attribute that work to Sunan Kalijaga. Sunan Ampel died in Demak in 1481 CE, but is buried in Ampel Mosque at Surabaya, East Java.[36]

Wars with the Vietnamese

Between the rise of the Khmer Empire around 800 and the Vietnamese's territorial push south from Jiaozhi and, later, Đại Việt, Champa began to shrink. At a disadvantage against Dai Viet's army of 300,000 troops, the Cham army of 100,000 were overwhelmed.[37] In the Cham–Vietnamese War (1471), Champa suffered serious defeats at the hands of the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 people were either captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha Trang with many Chams fleeing to Cambodia.[38][30] Champa was no longer a threat to Vietnam, and some were even enslaved by their victors.[39]

The Cham were matrilineal and inheritance passed through the mother.[40] Because of this, in 1499 the Vietnamese enacted a law banning marriage between Cham women and Vietnamese men, regardless of class.[41](Tạ 1988, p. 137)[42][43][44] The Vietnamese also issued instructions in the capital to kill all Chams within the vicinity.[45] More attacks by the Vietnamese continued and in 1693 the Champa Kingdom's territory was integrated as part of Vietnamese territory.[38]

The trade in Vietnamese ceramics was damaged due to the plummet in trade by Cham merchants after the Vietnamese invasion.[46] Vietnam's export of ceramics was also damaged by its internal civil war, the Portuguese and Spanish entry into the region and the Portuguese conquest of Malacca which caused an upset in the trading system, while the carracks ships in the Malacca to Macao trade run by the Portuguese docked at Brunei due to good relations between the Portuguese and Brunei after the Chinese permitted Macao to be leased to the Portuguese.[47]

When the Ming dynasty in China fell, several thousand Chinese refugees fled south and extensively settled on Cham lands and in Cambodia.[48] Most of these Chinese were young males, and they took Cham women as wives. Their children identified more with Chinese culture. This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries.[49]

Chams participated in defeating the Spanish invasion of Cambodia. Cambodian king Cau Bana Cand Ramadhipati, also known als 'Sultan Ibrahim', launched the Cambodian–Dutch War to expel the Dutch. The Vietnamese Nguyen Lords toppled Ibrahim from power to restore Buddhist rule.

In the 1700s and 1800s, Cambodian-based Chams settled in Bangkok.[50]

Fall of the Champa kingdom

Further expansion by the Vietnamese in 1692 resulted in the total annexation of the Champa kingdom Panduranga and dissolution by the 19th century Vietnamese Emperor, Minh Mạng. In response, the last Cham Muslim king, Pô Chien, gathered his people in the hinterland and fled south to Cambodia, while those along the coast migrated to Trengganu (Malaysia). A small group fled northward to the Chinese island of Hainan where they are known today as the Utsuls. The king and his people who took refuge in Cambodia were scattered in communities across the Mekong Basin. Those who remained in the Nha Trang, Phan Rang, Phan Rí, and Phan Thiết provinces of central Vietnam were absorbed into the Vietnamese polity. Cham provinces were seized by the Nguyen Lords.[51]

After Vietnam invaded and conquered Champa, Cambodia granted refuge to Cham Muslims escaping from Vietnamese conquest.[52]

In 1832, the Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mang annexed the last Champa Kingdom. This resulted in the Cham Muslim leader Katip Sumat, who was educated in Kelantan, declaring a Jihad against the Vietnamese.[53][54][55][56] The Vietnamese coercively fed lizard and pig meat to Cham Muslims and cow meat to Cham Hindus against their will to punish them and assimilate them to Vietnamese culture.[57] The second revolt led by Ja Thak Wa, a Bani cleric, resulting in the establishment of a Cham resistance which lasted from 1834 to 1835 until it was bloody crushed by Minh Mang's forces in July 1835. Only 40,000 Cham remained in the old Panduranga territory in 1885.[58]

20th century

Flag of the FLC – Front de Libération du Champa, which was active during the Vietnam War

In the 1960s various movements emerged calling for the creation of a separate Cham state in Vietnam. The Front for the Liberation of Champa (FLC – Le Front pour la Libération de Cham) and the Front de Libération des Hauts plateaux dominated. The latter group sought greater alliance with other hill tribe minorities. Initially known as "Front des Petits Peuples" from 1946 to 1960, the group later took the designation "Front de Libération des Hauts plateaux" and joined, with the FLC, the "Front unifié pour la Libération des Races opprimées" (FULRO) at some point in the 1960s. Since the late 1970s, there has been no serious Cham secessionist movement or political activity in Vietnam or Cambodia.

During the Vietnam War, a sizable number of Chams migrated to Peninsular Malaysia, where they were granted sanctuary by the Malaysian government out of sympathy for fellow Muslims; most of them have now assimilated with Malay cultures.[38]

The Cham community suffered a major blow during the Cambodian genocide perpetrated by Democratic Kampuchea. The Khmer Rouge targeted ethnic minorities like Chinese, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese and Cham people, though the Cham suffered the largest death toll in proportion to their population. Around 80,000 to 100,000 Cham out of a total Cham population of 250,000 people in 1975, died in the genocide.[59][60][61]

21st century

Young Cham girl in Châu Đốc
Cham Muslims in Cambodia
Chams villages in An Giang Province (An Phú, Châu Phú, Châu Thành district, Tân Châu town).

The Cham in Vietnam are officially recognized by the Vietnamese government as one of 54 ethnic groups. There has also been wide-reaching recognition of the historical Champa Kingdom.

An attempt at Salafist expansion among the Cham in Vietnam has been halted by Vietnamese government controls; however, the loss of the Salafis among Chams has been to the benefit of Tablighi Jamaat.[62]

The Muslim Acehnese people of Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia, are the descendants of Cham refugees who fled after defeat by the Vietnamese polity in the 15th century.[5][63]


Map of the distribution of the Cham in southeast Asia today

Cham people represent the core of the Muslim communities in both Cambodia and Vietnam. Their contemporary population is concentrated between the Kampong Cham Province in Cambodia and Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Phan Thiết, Ho Chi Minh City and An Giang Province in Southern Vietnam. Including the diaspora, their total is about 400,000. An additional 4,000 Chams live in Bangkok, Thailand, whose ancestors migrated there during Rama I's reign. Recent immigrants to Thailand are mainly students and workers, who preferably seek work and education in the southern Islamic Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala and Songkhla provinces.[64][65][66]

After the fall of Saigon in Vietnam and Phnom Penh in Cambodia in 1975, 9,704 Cham refugees made their way to Malaysia and were allowed to stay, unlike 250,000 other refugees that fled to Malaysia. Most of the Cham refugees came from Cambodia and were Muslims, known as Melayu Kemboja and Melayu Champa in Malay. Many of these Cham refugees chose to settle in Malaysia, as they preferred to live in an Islamic country and had family ties in the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu. Kelantan served as a center of Islamic teachings for Chams in Cambodia for three to four centuries and many Cambodian Chams had relatives living there, subsequently many Chams chose to settle in Kelantan. By 1985, around 50,000 or more Chams were living in Malaysia. As of 2013, many have been integrated into Malaysian society.[67]


While historically complicated, the modern Chams of Cambodia and Vietnam have had friendly relationships with the Khmer and Vietnamese majority. Despite ethnic and religious differences, the majority people of Cambodia and Vietnam have accepted the Cham as closer to them than other minorities.[25] Some Muslim Cham report a friendly attitude of both Cambodians and Vietnamese toward the Chams and little harassment against them from locals.[68] However, between government and people, it is difficult to categorize. According to Cham human rights activists, the Vietnamese regime, the fears of historical influence has evolved into suppression of Islam among Muslims Chams. For example, there is an unofficial ban on distributing the Quran and other Islamic scripture.[69] Meanwhile, due to Vietnam's growing relations with Muslim states like Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey and Egypt, the regime discourages growth of Islam because the Vietnamese government distrusts the Cham Muslims.[70]

"Relations between the Hanoi government and ethnic minorities are sensitive. In 2001 and 2004 massive human rights protests by hill tribes resulted in deaths and mass imprisonments. For some time after that, the Central Highlands were sealed off to foreigners."[71]

The Vietnamese Muslim Association is the official association representing Muslim interests, including the Chams, in the country. The Cambodian Islamic Association is the official representation of Cambodian Muslims of Cham ethnicity. The Hindus are also represented from various Cham and Indian organizations across both countries.


Cham musical drum

The Cham culture is diverse and rich because of the combination of indigenous cultural elements (plains culture, maritime culture, and mountain culture) and foreign cultural features (Indian cultures and religions such as Buddhism; early Han Chinese influences; Islam) (Phan Xuan Bien et al. 1991:376). The blend of indigenous and foreign elements in Cham culture is a result of ecological, social, and historical conditions. The influences of various Indian cultures produced similarities among many groups in Southeast Asia such as the Cham, who traded or communicated with polities on the Indian subcontinent. However, the indigenous elements also allow for cultural distinctions. As an example, Brahmanism became the Ahier religion, while other aspects of influence were changed, to adapt to local Ahier characteristics and environment. The blending of various cultures has produced its own unique form through the prolific production of sculptures and architecture only seen at the Champa temple tower sites. The Champa temples provide a wealth of information about Cham history, art, and construction techniques, through analysis and interpretation of architecture, styles, and inscriptions.

The Cham shielded and always observed their girls attentively, placing great importance on their virginity. A Cham saying said "As well leave a man alone with a girl, as an elephant in a field of sugarcane."[72]

The Cham Muslims view the karoeh (also spelled karoh) ceremony for girls as very significant. This symbolic ceremony marks the passage of a girl from infancy to puberty (the marriageable age), and usually takes place when the girl is aged fifteen and has completed her development.[73] If it has not taken place, the girl cannot marry since she is "tabung". After the ceremony is done the girl can marry. Circumcision to the Cham was less significant than karoeh.[74] It is not practiced, only symbolic and performed with a toy wooden knife.

Important festivals include Kate, celebrated mainly by the Cham of central Vietnam. The festival venerates ancient Cham royalty gods. Among Cham Muslims, Ramadan, El Fitri, and the Hajj are important celebrations. However, the Cham (regardless of faith) all have a very rich tradition of dance, arts, music, costumes, poetry, and more.


The Cham language is part of the Austronesian language family. Cham is very rich with many loan words and terminology influenced by many other languages it came into contact with. Most Cham speak the language though many also speak the dominant language of the nation they reside in like Vietnamese, Khmer, Malay and others. Some Cham can also speak and write Arabic.[25]

Cham is written in Eastern Cham script in Central Vietnam while the language is predominantly written in Jawi Arabic script around the Mekong Delta.[25] Western Cham script, used in Cambodia, is different enough from Eastern Cham's to be under review by the Unicode Consortium for inclusion as its own block — as of 2022, the character set is still being revised.[75]

The Kan Imam San sect, accounting for about 10% of the Cambodian Cham minority and mainly centered around a few villages in the Tralach District of Kampong Chhnang Province and their historic mosque atop Phnom Oudong, have kept the use of the Western Cham script, akhar srak, alive — with grants from the US embassy for about a decade starting in 2007, the written form of Western Cham has moved from the preserve of a few elders to being taught in close to 20 classrooms with thousands of students exposed to some degree, albeit limited.[76][77]

Almost all of the existing texts are housed at two Kan Imam San mosques in Kampong Tralach, primarily at the Au Russey mosque.[78]


The temples at Mỹ Sơn are one of the holiest of Cham sites

The first recorded religion of the Champa was a form of Shaiva Hinduism, brought by sea from India. Hinduism was the predominant religion among the Cham people until the sixteenth century. Numerous temples dedicated to Shiva were constructed in the central part of what is now Vietnam. The jewel of such temple is Mỹ Sơn. It is often compared with other historical temple complexes in Southeast Asia, such as Borobudur of Java in Indonesia, Angkor Wat of Cambodia, Bagan of Myanmar and Ayutthaya of Thailand. As of 1999, Mỹ Sơn has been recognised by UNESCO as a world heritage site.

Religiously and culturally, the Chams were grouped into two major religio-cultural groups; the Balamon Chams that adhere to an indigenized form of Hinduism, and Cham Bani that adhere to an indigenized form of Shi'a Islam. The term "Balamon" derived from "Brahmana, the priests. The term "Bani" on the other hand is derived from Arabic term "bani" (بني) which means "people". Balamon Chams adhere to the old religion of their ancestor, an indigenized form of Hinduism that thrived since the ancient era of Kingdom of Champa in 5th century AD, whereas Cham Bani are adherents of a localized version of Shi'a Islam, including a minor element of Sufism, endured with Hindu-Chamic customs as early as around the 11th–13th century. However, it was not until 17th century that Islam began to attract large numbers of Chams, when some members of the Cham royalty converted to Islam. These two groups mostly live in separate villages. Intermarriage was prohibited in former times, and remains rare even nowadays. Both groups are matrilineal and conform to matrilocal residence practice.[79]

A mosque in Da Phuoc village, An Phu district, An Giang province.
Inside Cham temple in Nha Trang

As Muslim merchants of Arab and of Persian origin stopped along the Vietnam coast en route to China, Islam began to influence Cham civilization. The exact date that Islam came to Champa is unknown; however, the religion first arrived around the ninth century.[25] It is generally assumed that Islam came to mainland Southeast Asia much later than its arrival in China during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and that Arab traders in the region came into direct contact only with the Cham and not others. Islam began making headway among the Chams beginning in the eleventh century. The version of Islam practiced by the Vietnamese Chams in Central Vietnam is often called Bani which contains many pre-Islamic beliefs and rituals such as magic, spirit worship, and propitiation of the souls of former kings, something mistaken to Hinduism. Cambodian and Southern Vietnamese Cham Muslims practice Sunni Islam though it has many indigenous, magical and Buddhist elements to it; while some practice a more centralized form of Sunni Islam and some reformist movements like Salafism can also be found.[25]

Bani Islam is the syncretic form of Shi'a Islam (including minor influences from Sunni and Sufism teaching) that blends indigenous cultural beliefs that ate practiced by the Cham Bani, who predominantly live in Vietnam's Bình Thuận and Ninh Thuận Provinces, and is considered unorthodox from mainstream Islam.[80]

The Cham Bani worship in mosques which are where the main communal setting for prayers and religious rituals take place among the Bani Cham[80] They also celebrate the month of Ramuwan (Ramadan), during which they pray to Allah for their deceased ancestors in the hereafter and pray for good fortune in the lives, and the acar (Imams) stay at the thang magik (Mosques) for one month and pray to God the practice is known as Iʿtikāf. In general, the Bani Muslims are not willing to identify themselves as Shi'a or even Muslims, but as Bani Muslims instead.[80]

However, a small band of Chams, who called themselves Kaum Jumaat, follow a localized adaptation of Islamic theology, according to which they pray only on Fridays and celebrate Ramadan for only three days. Some members of this group have joined the larger Muslim Cham community in their practices of Islam in recent years. One of the factors for this change is the influence by members of their family who have gone abroad to study Islam.


The number of Balamon Cham Hindus in Vietnam were declared at 64,547 (36%) out of a total Cham population of 178,948 according to the 2019 population census.[81] They do not have a caste system, although previously they may have been divided between the Nagavamshi Kshatriya[82] and the Brahmin castes, the latter of which would have represented a small minority of the population.[83]

Hindu temples are known as Bimong in Cham language, but are commonly referred to as tháp "stupa", in Vietnamese. The priests are divided into three levels, where the highest rank are known as Po Adhia or Po Sá, followed by Po Tapáh and the junior priests Po Paséh. By the 17th century, due to pressures from king Po Rome, the Ahier (Balamon) were forced to accept Allah as the most supreme God while retaining the worships of other Balamon deities in their faiths.

The majority of Hindu Chams in Vietnam (also known as the Eastern Chams) are syncretic Ahiér Hindu and Bani Muslims and they mostly live in Central Vietnam, while Southern Vietnam's Chams and their Cambodian counterparts are largely Sunni Muslim, as Islamic conversion happened relatively late.[84][85] A number emigrated to France in the late 1960s during the Vietnam War. In the Mekong Delta, the Sunni community (which mainly Chams) has a population of around 25,000 in 2006.[80]


Cham Saraman curry

Nowadays, Cham cuisine is classified as one of the ethnic cuisines of Cambodia, Vietnam and Hainan.

Cham cuisine is diversified and is distinguished by the food prohibitions in two of the main religions practised by Chams: Hindus not eating beef, and Muslims not eating pork, while Buddhists cook both of these two types of meat.

The typical Cham meal consists of plain or fried jasmine rice, served with a broth soup, grilled meat and vegetables, steamed dishes, stews, curry and salad. Desserts are only eaten at snack time or during traditional festivals. Fresh fruits are preferred at the end of the meal, as for all Southeast Asian peoples. Some notable Cham dishes:

  • Saraman curry (Khmer: ការីសារ៉ាម៉ាន់, cari saraman) is a beef, lamb or goat curry with Cham curry paste (consisting of coriander seeds and root, cumin seeds, star anise, cloves, green cardamoms, cinnamon, dried red chillis, caraway seeds, lemongrass, shallots, garlic, galangal, kaffir lime zest, turmeric, grated coconut dry roasted); coconut milk; palm sugar; shrimp paste; fish sauce; tamarind juice and roasted cashews or peanuts. Served with crudités or grilled vegetables and steamed Cambodian jasmine rice, rice vermicelli or baguettes.
  • Har pak (Khmer: ហាបាក); a flower-shaped braided donut made during Cham ceremonies, translated into nom phka cham (នំផ្កាចាម).

Notable Chams

In accordance with Cham custom, the surname is followed by the given name.

  • Po Tisuntiraidapuran : ruler of Champa from 1780 to 1793
  • Les Kosem : Cambodian-Cham activist leader in FULRO
  • Po Dharma : Vietnamese-Cham activist leader of FULRO, he was also a Cham cultural historian
  • Sos Math : Cambodian-Cham singer, songwriter from the 1950s to the 1970s ; his son Sos Mach is also a popular singer from the 90's still today
  • Has Salan : Cambodian-Cham classical violinist, composer and actor from the 1950s to 1970s
  • Musa Porome : Cham rights activist
  • Maha Sajan : King of Champa
  • Amu Nhan : expert on Cham music
  • Po Binasuor : the last strong King of Champa
  • Chế Linh : Vietnamese-Cham singer
  • Dang Nang Tho : Vietnamese-Cham sculptor and director of Cham Cultural Center, Phan Rang, Ninh Thuan Province
  • Inrasara (Mr Phu Tram) : poet & author
  • H.E. Othsman Hassan (អូស្មាន ហាស្សាន់៖) : Cambodian-Cham politician ; secretary of state at the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training of Cambodia, Advisor and Special Envoy to Prime Minister Hun Sen, President of Cambodian Muslim Development Foundation (CMDF), Secretary General of the Foundation for Cambodian People’s Poverty Alleviation (PAL), Vice-Director of Cambodian Islamic Center (CIC), Patron of Islamic Medical Association of Cambodia (IMAC) ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Nos Sles (ណុះ ស្លេះ) : Cambodian-Cham politician ; secretary of state at the Ministry of Education and Sport of Cambodia ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Amath Yashya also transliterated Amadh Yahya : Cambodian-Cham politician ; ex-Member of Parliament, deputy in the National Assembly of Cambodia representing Kampong Cham province, President of Cambodian Islamic Development Association (CIDA) ; Candlelight Party and Cambodia National Rescue Party
  • H.E. Zakarya Adam : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Secretary of State at Ministry of Cults and Religion, Vice President of CMDF, General Secretary of CIC & Vice-Chairperson of IWMC ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Sith Ibrahim : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Secretary of State at Ministry of Cults and Religion ; FUNCINPEC
  • H.E. Dr. Sos Mousine : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Under Secretary of State at Ministry of Rural Development, President of Cambodian Muslim Students Association and IMAC, Member of CMDF, Under-General Secretary of CIC ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Sman Teath : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Member of Parliament representing Pursat, Member of CMDF, Under-General Secretary of CIC ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Sem Sokha : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Under Secretary of State at Ministry of Social Affairs and Veterans, member of CMDF ; Cambodian People's Party
  • Her E. Kob Mariah : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Under Secretary at Ministry of Women, General Secretary of Cambodian Islamic Women Development & Cambodian Islamic Women’s Development Organization Association, member of CMDF ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Msas Loh : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Under Secretary of State at Office of the Council of Ministers, Patron of Cambodian Islamic Association ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Paing Punyamin : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Member of Parliament representing Kampong Chhnang, Member of CMDF, Executive Member of CIC ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Wan Math : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Member of the Senate, President of Cambodian Islamic Association ; Cambodian People's Party
  • H.E. Sabo Bacha : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Member of the Senate ; FUNCINPEC
  • Mr. Sem Soprey : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Vice Governor of Kampong Cham province & Member of CMDF ; Cambodian People's Party
  • Mr. Saleh Sen : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Vice Governor of Kampong Chhnang province & Member of CMDF
  • H.E. Ismail Osman : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Advisor to His Royal Highness Prince Norodom Ranariddh (នរោត្តម រណឫទ្) of the Kingdom of Cambodia, President of the National Assembly ; FUNCINPEC
  • General Chao Tol : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Assistant to the Prime Minister Hun Sen ; Cambodian People's Party
  • General Sen Komary : Cambodian-Cham politician ; Head of Department of Health at Ministry of National Defense, Member of IMAC ; Cambodian People's Party
  • Samd Bounthong : Cham-American soccer player[86]

Data tables

Admixture analysis of the two populations from southern Vietnam.
Admixed populationsParental populations
MSEA1 (n = 890)WISEA2 (n = 983)
Cham (n = 59)0.62405
0.629437 ± 0.256634
0.370563 ± 0.256634
Vietnamese (n = 70)0.842972
0.839953 ± 0.56035
0.160047 ± 0.56035
admixture coefficient;
bootstrap average and standard deviation of the admixture coefficient were obtained by bootstrap with 1000 replications.
1 MSEA: Mainland Southeast Asia
2 WISEA: western island Southeast Asia
Source: Table 2, Page 7, He Jun-dong et al. (2012)[87]

See also


  1. Leonie Kijewski (13 December 2019). "'Beautifying Phnom Penh': Muslim Cham face eviction in Cambodia". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  2. "Report on Results of the 2019 Census". General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  3. "Western Cham in Laos". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  4. "Cham". 19 June 2015.
  5. Andaya, Leonard Y. (2008). Leaves of the same tree: trade and ethnicity in the Straits of Melaka. University of Hawaii Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8248-3189-9.
  6. Quang, Tuyen; Noseworthy, William B.; Paulson, Dave (7 September 2022). "Rising tensions: heritage-tourism development and the commodification of "Authentic" culture among the Cham community of Vietnam". Leisure and Tourism. Cogent Social Sciences. 8: 1–23. doi:10.1080/23311886.2022.2116161.
  7. Wu, Chihkang Kenny; Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Dang, T. Q. T.; Nguyen, Mai-Uyen (14 December 2022). "The Impact of COVID-19 on Ethnic Business Households Involved in Tourism in Ninh Thuan, Vietnam". Sustainability. MDPI. 14 (16800): 1–15. doi:10.3390/su142416800.
  8. Kijewski, Leonie. "'Beautifying Phnom Penh': Muslim Cham face eviction in Cambodia". Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  9. "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers of South China Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines". Science. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  10. Project, Joshua. "Utsat in China".
  11. V. Higham, Early Mainland Southeast Asia, River Books Co. Ltd., Bangkok 2014.
  12. "Origins and diversification: the case of Austroasiatic groups" (PDF). Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  13. Anne-Valérie Schweyer Le Viêtnam ancien (Les Belles Lettres, 2005) p.6
  14. "Genetic ancestry highly correlated with ethnic and linguistic groups in Asia". eurekalert. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  15. "The Cham People - Cambodian Village Scholars Fund". Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  17. Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David (19 August 2014). "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia". Nature Communications. 5 (1): 4689. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.4689L. doi:10.1038/ncomms5689. PMC 4143916. PMID 25137359.
  18. Buu, Tri (2 April 2014). "Holy Mother Thien YA Na - Mother of the Land". Buddhist portal of the Vietnam Buddhist Sangha. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  19. Chapuis 1995, p. 39.
  20. "Vietnamese History & Legends". Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  21. Derek Heng (15 November 2009). Sino–Malay Trade and Diplomacy from the Tenth through the Fourteenth Century. Ohio University Press. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-0-89680-475-3.
  22. Heng 2009, p. 133.
  23. "島夷誌略 - 維基文庫,自由的圖書館".
  24. Wicks 1992, p. 215.
  25. Skutsch, Carl, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. New York: Routledge. pp. 276, 277. ISBN 1-57958-468-3.
  26. Maria Christine N. Halili (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 46ff. ISBN 978-9712339349.
  27. The Filipino Moving Onward 5' 2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-971-23-4154-0.
  28. Philippine History Module-based Learning I' 2002 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-971-23-3449-8.
  29. Study Skills in English for a Changing World' 2001 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-971-23-3225-8.
  30. Schliesinger 2015, p. 18.
  31. Davidson 1991, p. 105.
  32. Philip Taylor (2007). Cham Muslims of the Mekong Delta: place and mobility in the cosmopolitan periphery. NUS Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-9971-69-361-9. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  33. Agus Sunyoto (2014). Atlas Wali Songo (The Atlas of Nine Saint). Mizan. ISBN 978-602-8648-09-7. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  34. John Renard (2009). Tales of God's Friends: Islamic Hagiography in Translation. University of California Press. p. 343. ISBN 9780520258969. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  35. Slamet Muljana (2005). Runtuhnya kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan timbulnya negara-negara Islam di Nusantara. PT LKiS Pelangi Aksara. p. 68. ISBN 978-979-8451-16-4. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  36. id:Sunan Ampel
  37. Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  38. Juergensmeyer & Roof 2011, p. 1210.
  39. Ben Kiernan (2009). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-300-14425-3. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  40. Hooker 2002, p. 75.
  41. Kiernan 2008, p. 111.
  42. Watson Andaya 2006, p. 82.
  43. Yale University, Southeast Asia Studies (1985). The Vietnam forum, Issues 5-7. Council on Southeast Asia Studies at Yale University. p. 28. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  44. Teresa A. Meade, Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (2006). A companion to gender history. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-4051-4960-0. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  45. Victor B. Lieberman (2003). Strange parallels: Southeast Asia in global context, c 800-1830, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  46. Angela Schottenhammer; Roderich Ptak (2006). The Perception of Maritime Space in Traditional Chinese Sources. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-447-05340-2.
  47. Minh Trí Bùi; Kerry Nguyễn Long (2001). Vietnamese Blue & White Ceramics. Khoa học xã hội. p. 176.
  48. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc (2003). The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 8. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 669. ISBN 978-0-85229-961-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  49. Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The flaming womb: repositioning women in early modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1. Retrieved 28 June 2010. southern vietnam thousands of young chinese males brides cham communities.
  50. Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown (1 October 2013). Islam in Modern Thailand: Faith, Philanthropy and Politics. Routledge. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-134-58389-8.
  51. Elijah Coleman Bridgman; Samuel Wells Willaims (1847). The Chinese Repository. proprietors. pp. 584–.
  52. Dr. Mark Phoeun. "PO CEI BREI FLED TO CAMBODIA IN 1795-1796 TO FIND SUPPORT". Cham Today. Translated by Musa Porome. IOC-Champa. Archived from the original on 2006.
  53. Jean-François Hubert (8 May 2012). The Art of Champa. Parkstone International. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-78042-964-9.
  54. "The Raja Praong Ritual: A Memory of the Sea in Cham- Malay Relations". Cham Unesco. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  55. (Extracted from Truong Van Mon, "The Raja Praong Ritual: a Memory of the sea in Cham- Malay Relations", in Memory And Knowledge of the Sea in South Asia, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Monograph Series 3, pp, 97-111. International Seminar on Maritime Culture and Geopolitics & Workshop on Bajau Laut Music and Dance", Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences and the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya, 23-24/2008)
  56. Dharma, Po. "The Uprisings of Katip Sumat and Ja Thak Wa (1833-1835)". Cham Today. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  57. Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820-1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-0-87727-138-3.
  58. Lafont, Pierre-Bernard (2007). Le Campā: Géographie, population, histoire. Indes savantes. p. 224. ISBN 978-2-84654-162-6.
  59. Kiernan, Ben (1988). "Orphans of genocide: The Cham muslims of Kampuchea under Pol Pot". Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars. Ben Kiernan, Department of History and Politics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, N.S.W., Australia. 20 (4): 2–33. doi:10.1080/14672715.1988.10412580. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  60. Gellately, Robert; Kiernan, Ben (7 July 2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. ISBN 9780521527507. Retrieved 17 June 2014 via Google Books.
  61. Coz, Clothilde Le. "The question of genocide and Cambodia's Muslims". Al Jazeera.
  62. Féo, Agnès De (2009). "Les musulmans de Châu Đốc (Vietnam) à l'épreuve du salafisme" [The Muslims of Châu Đốc (Vietnam) put to the test by Salafism]. Recherches en Sciences Sociales Sur l'Asie du Sud-Est (in French). moussons (13–14): 359–372. doi:10.4000/moussons.976.
  63. Reid, Anthony (2006). Verandah of violence: the background to the Aceh problem. NUS Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-9971-69-331-2.
  64. "Thailand's World : Cham People Thailand". Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  65. "MISSIONS ATLAS PROJECT SOUTHEAST ASIA CAMBODIA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  66. "Cham students caught up in Thailand's troubled south, National, Phnom Penh Post". Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  67. Wong, Danny, Tze Ken (2013). "The Cham Arrivals in Malaysia: Distant Memories and Rekindled Links". Archipel. 85: 151–165. doi:10.3406/arch.2013.4389.
  68. Nguyen, Maira (20 December 2018). "Meet the Vietnamese Muslims of Hanoi - TMV".
  69. "Only Few Know Of The Cham Muslims – Vietnam's Isolated Islamic Community". 18 November 2018.
  70. Willoughby, J. (1999). "The Cham Muslims of Vietnam". ISIM Newsletter. 2 (1): 14. hdl:1887/17164.
  71. "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers of South China Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines". Science. 18 June 2014.
  72. (the University of Michigan)Alan Houghton Brodrick (1942). Little China: the Annamese lands. Oxford university press. p. 264. ISBN 9780598750839. Retrieved 28 November 2011. The Cham women have a high reputation for chastity, and, at any rate, they are closely watched and guarded. 'As well leave a man alone with a girl,' runs their proverb, 'as an elephant in a field of sugarcane.' There are, indeed, traces of matriarchate in the Cham customs, and women play an important part in their religious life. At her first menstruation a Cham girl goes into the
  73. Special Operations Research Office. "Selected Groups in the Republic of Vietnam - The Cham". Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  74. (the University of Michigan)Henri Parmentier; Paul Mus; Etienne Aymonier (2001). Cham sculpture of the Tourane Museum, Da Nang, Vietnam: religious ceremonies and superstitions of Champa. White Lotus Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-974-7534-70-2. Retrieved 28 November 2011. A much more important ceremony than circumcision is celebrated by these Muslim Cham when their daughters reach the age of about fifteen. It is called karoeh (closing, closure). Until her karoeh has taken place, a girl is tabung, and cannot think of marriage or its equivalent.
  75. "ScriptSource - Entry - Unicode Status (Western Cham)". Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  76. Gluck, Caroline. "Islam, the ancient way, lives on in Oudong". Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  77. Bruckmayr, Philipp (1 January 2019). "The Changing Fates of the Cambodian Islamic Manuscript Tradition". Journal of Islamic Manuscripts. 10 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1163/1878464X-01001001. S2CID 167038700. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  78. Mag. Philipp Bruckmayr. "DISSERTATION : The Contentious Pull of the Malay Logosphere: Jawization and Factionalism among Cambodian Muslims (late 19th to early 21st centuries)". Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  79. Phuong, Tran Ky; Lockhart, Bruce (1 January 2011). The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society and Art. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-459-3.
  80. Yoshimoto, Yasuko (December 2012). "A Study of the Hồi giáo Religion in Vietnam: With a Reference to Islamic Religious Practices of Cham Bani" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. 1 (3).
  81. "Completed Results of the 2019 Vietnam population and housing census" (PDF). 2020.
  82. India's interaction with Southeast Asia, Volume 1, Part 3 By Govind Chandra Pande, Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and Culture, Centre for Studies in Civilizations (Delhi, India) p.231,252
  83. "Vietnam". 22 October 2002. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  84. "Cham - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage, Relationships, Living conditions". Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  85. The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music By Terry E. Miller, Sean Williams. p. 326
  86. "Samad Bounthong". Lao American Sports. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  87. He, Jun-Dong; Peng, Min-Sheng; Quang, Huy Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wu, Shi-Fang; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Murphy, Robert W.; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ya-Ping (7 May 2012). Kayser, Manfred (ed.). "Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e36437. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...736437H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036437. PMC 3346718. PMID 22586471.


This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.