Differential algebra is the study of differential rings and fields and related structures.

In mathematics, differential rings, differential fields, and differential algebras are rings, fields, and algebras equipped with finitely many derivations, which are unary functions that are linear and satisfy the Leibniz product rule. Differential algebra refers then to the area of mathematics consisting in the study of these algebraic objects and their use for an algebraic study of the differential equations.

One of the main objects of differential algebra is the algebra of differential polynomials $\mathscr{F}(Y_1,\ldots, Y_n)$, which is the analogue of the ring of polynomials in commutative algebra.