Coefficients involved in the Binomial Theorem. $ \dbinom{n}{k}$ counts the subsets of size $k$ of a set of size $n$.

The binomial coefficient $\dbinom{n}{k}$ can be defined in several equivalent ways for $n$ and $k$ non-negative integers:

- The number of subsets of size $k$ of a set of size $n$.
- Element $k$ of row $n$ in Pascal's triangle (counting the first element or row as $0$).
- The coefficient of $x^k$ in $(1+x)^n$.
- $\dfrac{n!}{k!(n-k)!}$

The binomial theorem says that $$(x+y)^n=\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}x^{n-k}y^k$$ using the convention that $0^0=1$.

Binomial coefficients can be extended for arbitrary complex $\alpha$ through the formula: $$\binom{\alpha}{k}=\frac{\alpha(\alpha-1)(\alpha-2)\dots(\alpha-k+1)}{k(k-1)(k-2)\dots1}$$