Pontianak Sultanate

The Pontianak Sultanate (Malay: كسلطانن ڤونتيناك, Kesultanan Pontianak) was an Islamic Malay state that existed on the western coast of the island of Borneo from the late 18th century until its disestablishment in 1950. The Sultanate was located at the mouth of the Kapuas river in what is today the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, and the Sultan's residential palace was situated in what later grew to become the modern-day Indonesian city of Pontianak.

Pontianak Sultanate
كسلطانن ڤونتيناك
Kesultanan Pontianak
Flag
Coat of arms
StatusPart of the Dutch East Indies (from 1779)
CapitalPontianak
Common languagesMalay
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentIslamic Absolute Monarchy
Sultan 
 2017 - present
Syarif Machmud Alkadrie
History 
 Established
23 October 1771
 Coronation
1 September 1778
 Integration with Indonesia
17 August 1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mempawah Kingdom
Indonesia

History

The Pontianak Sultanate was founded in 1771 by explorers from Hadhramaut led by al-Sayyid Syarif Abdurrahman al-Kadrie, descendant of Imam Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq. He had two political marriages in Kalimantan, first with the daughter of Panembahan Mempawah and then with the daughter of the Sultan of Banjar.

After the explorers arrived in Pontianak, they established the Kadariah Palace and received endorsement as the Sultan of Pontianak by the Dutch East India Company in 1779.[1]

The Pontianak Sultanate had friendly relations with the Lanfang Republic.

Pontianak Sultan Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie was executed by the Japanese in the Pontianak incident along with all the other Malay Sultans of Kalimantan. Two of his sons were also beheaded by the Japanese.

The last Sultan was Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, had earlier been interned by the occupying Japanese forces. He supported Federal state of RIS, with his design of Garuda Pancasila adopted as National emblem of Indonesia. He was deposed when he was involved in a coup d'état attempt of APRA led by Raymond Westerling.[2]

List of Sultans of Pontianak

Sultan of Pontianak
Royal Coat of arms
Details
First monarchSyarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie
Last monarchSyarif Machmud Alkadrie
Formation23 October 1771
ResidenceKadriyah Palace
AppointerHereditary
Photo Sultan Reign
1 Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie 1771–1808
2 Syarif Kasim Alkadrie 1808–1819
3 Syarif Osman Alkadrie 1819–1855
4 Syarif Hamid I Alkadrie 1855–1872
5 Syarif Yusuf Alkadrie 1872–1895
6 Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie 1895–1944
7 Syarif Hamid II Alkadrie
(Sultan Hamid II)
1945–1978
8 Syarif Abubakar Alkadrie 2004–2017 [3][4]
9 Syarif Machmud Alkadrie 2017–present[3][4]

Family Tree

Alkadrie Dynasty
Abdurrahman
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1771-1808
1729/30-1808
Osman
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1819-1855
Kasim
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1808-1819
Hamid I
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1855-1872
Yusuf
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1872-1895
Muhammad
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1895-1944
Hamid II
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 1945-1978
1913-1978
Syarif Mahmud
Abubakar
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 2004-2017
1944-2017
Machmud
Sultan of Pontianak
r. 2017-present

References

  1. "Aku Menulis Maka Aku Ada - Menengok Sisa Kejayaan Keraton Kadriah". ahmadiftahsidik.page.tl.
  2. Setiawan, Oleh Andri (22 June 2020). "Sultan Hamid II dan Polemik Gelar Pahlawan Nasional". Historia - Majalah Sejarah Populer Pertama di Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  3. "Syarif Mahmud Alkadrie Jadi Sultan Pontianak". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). 17 April 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  4. "Di Balik Istana-Istana yang Dihidupkan Kembali". Indonesia.co.id (in Indonesian). 1 August 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2021.

Further reading

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