Perth (Nyungar: Boorloo) is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.[8] It is the fourth most populous city in Australia and Oceania, with a population of 2.1 million (80% of the state) living in Greater Perth in 2020.[1] Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the Swan Coastal Plain between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp. The city has expanded outward from the original British settlements on the Swan River, upon which the city's central business district and port of Fremantle are situated. Perth is located on the traditional lands of the Whadjuk Noongar people, where Aboriginal Australians have lived for at least 45,000 years.[9]

Western Australia
Clockwise from top: Perth's skyline viewed across the Swan River from South Perth; Perth Stadium; Elizabeth Quay; the Crawley Edge Boatshed; Kings Park; Cottesloe Beach; and WA Museum Boola Bardip
Coordinates31°57′21″S 115°51′38″E
Population2,192,229 (2021)[1] (4th)
 • Density341.5804/km2 (884.689/sq mi)
Established4 June 1829
Area6,417.9 km2 (2,478.0 sq mi)(GCCSA)[2]
Time zoneAWST (UTC+08:00)
State electorate(s)Perth (and 41 others)[7]
Federal division(s)Perth (and 10 others)
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
24.8 °C
77 °F
12.8 °C
55 °F
730.9 mm
28.8 in

Captain James Stirling founded Perth in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. It was named after the city of Perth in Scotland, due to the influence of Stirling's patron Sir George Murray, who had connections with the area. It gained city status in 1856, although the Perth City Council currently governs only a small area around the central business district. The city's population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century. It has grown steadily since World War II due to a high net migration rate. Post-war immigrants were predominantly from the British Isles and Southern Europe, while more recent arrivals see a growing population of Asian descent. Several mining booms in other parts of Western Australia in the late 20th and early 21st centuries saw Perth become the regional headquarters for large mining operations.

Perth contains a number of important public buildings as well as cultural and heritage sites. Notable government buildings include Parliament House, Government House, the Supreme Court Buildings and the Perth Mint. The city is served by Fremantle Harbour and Perth Airport. It was a naval base for the Allies during World War II and today, the Royal Australian Navy's Fleet Base West is located on Garden Island. All five of Western Australia's universities are based in Perth.

The city has been ranked as one of the world's most liveable cities, and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2020 as a Beta global city.[10]

As of 2021, Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and consists of more than 350 suburbs. The metropolitan boundaries stretch 123 kilometres (76 mi) from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south,[11] and 62 kilometres (39 mi) east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the central business district, important urban centres within the metropolitan area include Armadale, Fremantle, Joondalup, Midland, and Rockingham. Most of those were originally established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, forms a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city.


The name Perth was selected in recognition of Perth, Scotland[12][13] as the birthplace of the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons, Sir George Murray. It was included in Stirling's proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, which ended "Given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor".[14] The only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Charles Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August 1829, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".[15][16][17]

There is no equivalent Noongar terminology for the Perth metropolitan area; it is sited primarily on Whadjuk country, which extends approximately[note 1] north to Two Rocks, south to Mandurah, and east as far as York.[18][19][20] Boorloo (also transcribed as Boorlo or Burrell) referred to Point Fraser[21][22] in East Perth, and means "big swamp",[22] which describes the whole chain of lakes where the CBD and Northbridge are sited.[23] However Boorloo is also used to denote the central business district,[24][25] the local government area,[26] or the capital city in general.[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]



Perth is located on the traditional land of the Whadjuk people, one of several groups in south-western Western Australia that make up the Noongar people.

Archaeological evidence demonstrates that the Noongar people have inhabited the Perth area for at least 45,000 years.[9] Noongar country encompasses the southwest corner of Western Australia. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were particularly important to them, both spiritually (featuring in local mythology) and as a source of food.[35]

The present-day location of the CBD forms part of the traditional territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, who at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader. The Mooro was one of several Noongar clans based around the Swan River, known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar (meaning "the people" in their language), also sometimes called the Bibbulmun.[36]

On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment finding that Noongar native title continued to exist over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia [2006] FCA 1243.[37] An appeal was subsequently lodged and in 2008 the Full Court of the Federal Court upheld parts of the appeal by the Western Australian and Commonwealth governments.[38] Following this appeal, the WA Government and the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council negotiated the South West Native Title Settlement, including the Whadjuk Indigenous Land Use Agreement over the Perth region, which was finalised by the Federal Court on 1 December 2021.[39] As part of reaching this agreement, the Noongar (Koorah, Nitja, Boordahwan) (Past, Present, Future) Recognition Act was passed in 2016, recognising the Noongar people as the traditional owners of the south west region of Western Australia.[40]

Early European sightings and exploration

The Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew made the first documented sighting of the present-day Perth region by Europeans on 10 January 1697. They initially explored the area on foot, reaching what is now central Perth,[41] having travelled up the Swan River.[42] They named the river Swarte Swaene-Revier after the black swans of the area.[42] Other Europeans made subsequent sightings and undertook further voyages of exploration of the area between this date and 1829, but as in the case of the observations made by Vlamingh, they adjudged the area inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a European-style settlement.[43]

Swan River Colony

The Foundation of Perth 1829 by George Pitt Morison is a historical reconstruction of the official ceremony by which Perth was founded, although not everyone depicted may have actually been present.

Although the Colony of New South Wales established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound (later Albany) on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that France intended to annex the area, Perth became the first "full-scale" settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent of Australia in 1829. The British colony would be officially designated "Western Australia" in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the "Swan River Colony" after the area's major watercourse.[44]

On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, and Western Australia has subsequently celebrated a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, noted that the site was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had ever witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, Sulphur, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town. Beginning in 1831, hostile encounters between the British settlers and the Noongar people – both large-scale land users, with conflicting land-value systems – increased considerably as the colony grew. The hostile encounters between the two groups of people resulted in multiple events, including the murder of settlers (such as Thomas Peel's servant Hugh Nesbitt[45]), the execution of the Whadjuk elder Midgegooroo, the death of his son Yagan in 1833, and the Pinjarra massacre in 1834.

The relations between the Noongar people and the Europeans became strained due to these events. The increasing use of the land for agricultural purposes restricted the hunter-gatherer practices of the native Whadjuk Noongar. They were forced to camp around prescribed areas, including the swamps and lakes north of the European settlement area. Third Swamp, known to them as Boodjamooling, continued to be a main campsite for the remaining Noongar people in the Perth region and was also used by travellers, itinerants, and homeless people. By the gold-rush days of the 1890s, they were joined by miners who were en route to the goldfields.[46]

Perth Town Hall, with the David Malcolm Justice Centre behind, was, like many colonial buildings in Perth, built using convict labour.

Convict era and gold rushes

In 1850, at a time when penal transportation to Australia's eastern colonies had ceased, Western Australia was opened to convicts at the request of farming and business people due to a shortage of labour.[47] Over the next eighteen years, 9,721 convicts arrived in Western Australia aboard 43 ships.

Queen Victoria announced the city status of Perth in 1856.[48] Despite this proclamation, Perth was still a quiet town, described in 1870 by a Melbourne journalist as:

"...a quiet little town of some 3000 inhabitants spread out in straggling allotments down to the water's edge, intermingled with gardens and shrubberies and half rural in its aspect ... The main streets are macadamised, but the outlying ones and most of the footpaths retain their native state from the loose sand — the all pervading element of Western Australia — productive of intense glare or much dust in the summer and dissolving into slush during the rainy season."[49]

With the discovery of gold at Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in the late 19th century, Western Australia experienced a mining boom,[50] and Perth's population grew from approximately 8,500 in 1881 to 61,000 in 1901.[51]

Federation and beyond

Looking across Perth railway station c.1955

After a referendum in 1900,[52] Western Australia joined the Federation of Australia in 1901.[48] It was the last of the Australian colonies to agree to join the Federation, and it did so only after the other colonies had offered several concessions, including the construction of a transcontinental railway line from Port Augusta in South Australia to Kalgoorlie to link Perth with the eastern states.[53]

In 1927, Indigenous people were prohibited from entering large swathes of Perth under penalty of imprisonment, a ban that lasted until 1954.[54]

In 1933, two-thirds of Western Australians voted in a referendum to secede from the Australian Federation. However, the state general election held at the same time as the referendum had voted out the incumbent "pro-independence" government, replacing it with a government that did not support the independence movement. Respecting the result of the referendum, the new government nonetheless petitioned the Imperial Parliament at Westminster. The House of Commons established a select committee to consider the issue but after 18 months of negotiations and lobbying, finally refused to consider the matter, declaring that it could not legally grant secession.[52][55]

Perth entered the post-war period with a population of approximately 280,000 and an economy that had not experienced sustained growth since the 1920s. Successive state governments, beginning with the Willcock Labor Government (1936-1945), determined to change this. Planning for post-war economic development was initially driven by Russell Dumas, who as Director of Public Works (1941-1953) drew up plans for Western Australia's major post-war public-works projects, including the raising of the Mundaring and Wellington Dams, the development of the new Perth Airport, and the development of a new industrial zone centred on Kwinana. The advent of the McLarty Liberal Government (1947-1953) saw the emergence of something of a consensus on the need for continuing economic development. Economic growth was fuelled by large-scale public works, the post-war immigration program, and the success that various state governments had in attracting substantial foreign investment into the state, beginning with the construction of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Refinery at Kwinana in 1951–52.[56]

Construction of the Narrows Bridge nearing completion in 1959

The result of this economic activity was the rapid growth of the population of Perth and a marked change in its urban design. Commencing in the 1950s, Perth began to expand along an extensive highway network laid out in the Stephenson-Hepburn Report, which noted that Perth was beginning to resemble a pattern of development less in line with the British experience and more in line with North America.[57] This was encouraged by the opening of the Narrows Bridge and the gradual closure of the Perth-Fremantle Tramways. The mining-pastoral boom of the 1960s only accelerated the pace of urban growth in Perth.

In 1962, Perth received global media attention when city residents lit their house lights and streetlights as American astronaut John Glenn passed overhead while orbiting the earth on Friendship 7. This led to its being nicknamed the "City of Light".[58][59][60] The city repeated the act as Glenn passed overhead on the Space Shuttle in 1998.[61][62]

Perth's development and relative prosperity, especially since the mid-1960s,[63] has resulted from its role as the main service centre for the state's resource industries, which extract gold, iron ore, nickel, alumina, diamonds, mineral sands, coal, oil, and natural gas.[64] Whilst most mineral and petroleum production takes place elsewhere in the state, the non-base services provide most of the employment and income to the people of Perth.[65]


Central business district

The central business district of Perth is bounded by the Swan River to the south and east, with Kings Park on the western end and the railway reserve as the northern border. A state and federally funded project named Perth City Link sank a section of the railway line to allow easy pedestrian access between Northbridge and the CBD. The Perth Arena is an entertainment and sporting arena in the city link area that has received several architectural awards from institutions such as the Design Institute of Australia, the Australian Institute of Architects, and Colorbond.[66] St Georges Terrace is the area's prominent street, with a large amount of office space in the CBD. Hay Street and Murray Street have most of the retail and entertainment facilities. The city's tallest building is Central Park, the twelfth tallest building in Australia.[67] The CBD until 2012 was the centre of a mining-induced boom, with several commercial and residential projects being built, including Brookfield Place, a 244 m (801 ft) office building for Anglo-Australian mining company BHP.[68]

Perth CBD skyline from Kings Park, 2019

Metropolitan area

Area of the Perth Metropolitan Region Scheme

Perth's metropolitan area extends along the coast to Two Rocks in the north and Singleton to the south,[69] a distance of approximately 125 kilometres (80 mi).[70] From the coast in the west to Mundaring in the east is a distance of approximately 50 km (30 mi). The Perth metropolitan area covers 6,418 km2 (2,478 sq mi).[2]

The metropolitan region is defined by the Planning and Development Act 2005 to include 30 local government areas, with the outer extent being the City of Wanneroo and the City of Swan to the north, the Shire of Mundaring, City of Kalamunda and the City of Armadale to the east, the Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale to the southeast and the City of Rockingham to the southwest, and including Rottnest Island and Garden Island off the west coast.[71] This extent correlates with the Metropolitan Region Scheme, and the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Perth (Major Statistical Division).[71]

The metropolitan extent of Perth can be defined in other ways – the Australian Bureau of Statistics Greater Capital City Statistical Area, or Greater Perth in short, consists of that area, plus the City of Mandurah and the Pinjarra Level 2 Statistical Area[72] of the Shire of Murray,[73][74] while the Regional Development Commissions Act 1993 includes the Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale in the Peel region.[75]

Geology and landforms

Perth is on the Swan River, named for the native black swans by Willem de Vlamingh, captain of a Dutch expedition and namer of WA's Rottnest Island, who discovered the birds while exploring the area in 1697.[76] This water body was known by Aboriginal inhabitants as Derbarl Yerrigan.[77] The city centre and most of the suburbs are on the sandy and relatively flat Swan Coastal Plain, which lies between the Darling Scarp and the Indian Ocean. The soils of this area are quite infertile.

Much of Perth was built on the Perth Wetlands, a series of freshwater wetlands running from Herdsman Lake in the west through to Claisebrook Cove in the east.[78]

To the east, the city is bordered by a low escarpment called the Darling Scarp. Perth is on generally flat, rolling land, largely due to the high amount of sandy soils and deep bedrock. The Perth metropolitan area has two major river systems, one made up of the Swan and Canning Rivers, and one of the Serpentine and Murray Rivers, which discharge into the Peel Inlet at Mandurah. The Perth-Gingin Shrublands and Woodlands and Banksia Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain straddle the metropolitan area.


Sunset over the Indian Ocean at City Beach

Perth receives moderate, though highly seasonal, winter-based rainfall. Summers are generally hot, sunny and dry, lasting from December to March, with February generally the hottest month. Winters are relatively cool and wet, giving Perth a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).[79][80] Perth has an average of 8.8 hours of sunshine per day, which equates to around 3,200 hours of sunshine and 138.7 clear days annually, making it Australia's sunniest capital city.[81]

Summers are dry but not completely devoid of rain, with sporadic rainfall in the form of short-lived thunderstorms, weak cold fronts and on occasions decaying tropical cyclones from Western Australia's northwest, which can bring heavy rain. Temperatures above 40 °C (104 °F) are fairly common in the summer months. The highest temperature recorded in Perth was 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) on 23 February 1991, although Perth Airport recorded 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on the same day.[81][82] On most summer afternoons a sea breeze, known locally as the "Fremantle Doctor", blows from the southwest, providing relief from the hot northeasterly winds. Temperatures often fall below 30 °C (86 °F) a few hours after the arrival of the wind change.[83] In the summer, the 3 p.m. dewpoint averages at around 12 °C (54 °F).[81]

Winters are cool and wet, with most of Perth's annual rainfall between May and September. Winters see significant rainfall as frontal systems move across the region, interspersed with clear and sunny days where minimum temperatures tend to drop below 5 °C (41 °F). The lowest temperature recorded in Perth was −0.7 °C (30.7 °F) on 17 June 2006.[82] The lowest temperature within the Perth metropolitan area was −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) on the same day at Jandakot Airport, although temperatures at or below zero are rare occurrences. The lowest maximum temperature recorded in Perth is 8.8 °C (47.8 °F) on 26 June 1956. It occasionally gets cold enough for frost to form.[84] While snow has never been recorded in the Perth CBD, light snowfalls have been reported in outer suburbs of Perth in the Perth Hills around Kalamunda, Roleystone and Mundaring. The most recent snowfall was in 1968.

The rainfall pattern has changed in Perth and southwest Western Australia since the mid-1970s. A significant reduction in winter rainfall has been observed with a greater number of extreme rainfall events in the summer,[85] such as the slow-moving storms on 8 February 1992 that brought 120.6 millimetres (4.75 in) of rain,[82][83] heavy rainfall associated with a tropical low on 10 February 2017, which brought 114.4 millimetres (4.50 in) of rain,[86] and the remnants of ex-Tropical Cyclone Joyce on 15 January 2018 with 96.2 millimetres (3.79 in).[87] Perth was also hit by a severe thunderstorm on 22 March 2010, which brought 40.2 mm (1.58 in) of rain and large hail and caused significant damage in the metropolitan area.[88]

The average sea temperature ranges from 18.9 °C (66.0 °F) in October to 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) in March.[89]

Climate data for Perth
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 45.8
Average high °C (°F) 31.2
Average low °C (°F) 18.1
Record low °C (°F) 8.9
Average rainfall mm (inches) 19.1
Average precipitation days 2.9 2.3 4.5 6.8 11.2 14.5 17.2 15.9 14.6 9.2 5.5 3.5 108.1
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) (at 15:00) 39 38 40 46 50 56 57 54 53 47 44 41 47
Mean monthly sunshine hours 356.5 319.0 297.6 249.0 207.0 177.0 189.1 223.2 231.0 297.6 318.0 356.5 3,221.5
Percent possible sunshine 83 83 74 70 63 57 57 63 64 72 77 79 70
Average ultraviolet index 12 11 9 6 4 3 3 4 6 8 10 12 7
Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology[90][91]
Temperatures: 1993–2020; Extremes: 1897–2020; Rain data: 1993–2020; Relative humidity: 1994–2011
Source 2: Time and Date[92]
Dew point: 1985-2015


With more than two million residents, Perth is one of the most isolated major cities in the world. The nearest city with a population of more than 100,000 is Adelaide, over 2,100 km (1,305 mi) away.[93] Perth is geographically closer to both East Timor (2,800 km or 1,700 mi), and Jakarta, Indonesia (3,000 km or 1,900 mi), than to Sydney (3,300 km or 2,100 mi).[93]


Perth population density by mesh blocks (MB), according to the 2016 census

Perth is Australia's fourth-most-populous city, having overtaken Adelaide's population in 1984.[97] In June 2018 there were an estimated 2,059,484[1] residents in the Greater Perth area, representing an increase of approximately 1.1% from the 2017 estimate of 2,037,902.[1]

Ancestry and immigration

Country of birth (2021)[98]
Birthplace[note 2]Population
New Zealand59,459
South Africa38,793
Mainland China27,237

At the 2021 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[98]

Perth's population is notable for the high proportion of British- and Irish-born residents. At the 2021 Census, 169,938 England-born Perth residents were counted,[98] ahead of even Sydney (151,614),[100] despite the latter having well over twice the population.

Russell Square, Northbridge - historically the favoured meeting place of the Italian community of "Little Italy"[101]

The ethnic make-up of Perth changed in the second part of the 20th century when significant numbers of continental European immigrants arrived in the city. Prior to this, Perth's population had been almost completely Anglo-Celtic in ethnic origin. As Fremantle was the first landfall in Australia for many migrant ships coming from Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, Perth started to experience a diverse influx of people, including Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Germans, Turks, Croats, and Macedonians. The Italian influence in the Perth and Fremantle area has been substantial, evident in places like the "Cappuccino strip" in Fremantle featuring many Italian eateries and shops. In Fremantle, the traditional Italian blessing of the fleet festival is held every year at the start of the fishing season. In Northbridge every December is the San Nicola (Saint Nicholas) Festival, which involves a pageant followed by a concert, predominantly in Italian. Suburbs surrounding the Fremantle area, such as Spearwood and Hamilton Hill, also contain high concentrations of Italians, Croatians, and Portuguese. Perth has also been home to a small Jewish community since 1829[102]  – numbering 5,082 in 2006 – who have emigrated primarily from Eastern Europe and more recently from South Africa.

Chinatown entry on Roe Street

A more recent wave of arrivals includes White South Africans. South Africans overtook those born in Italy as the fourth-largest foreign group in 2001. By 2016, there were 35,262 South Africans residing in Perth.[103] Many Afrikaners and Anglo-Africans emigrated to Perth during the 1980s and 1990s, with the phrase "packing for Perth" becoming associated with South Africans who choose to emigrate abroad, sometimes regardless of the destination.[104][105] As a result, the city has been described as "the Australian capital of South Africans in exile".[106] The reason for Perth's popularity among white South Africans has often been attributed to the location, the vast amount of land, and the slightly warmer climate compared to other large Australian cities – Perth has a Mediterranean climate reminiscent of Cape Town.

Since the end of the White Australia policy in 1973, Asia has become an increasingly important source of migrants, with communities from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and India all now well-established. There were 112,293 persons of Chinese descent in Perth in 2016 – 5.3% of the city's population.[98] These are supported by the Australian Eurasian Association of Western Australia,[107] which also serves a community of Portuguese-Malacca Eurasian or Kristang immigrants.[108]

Middle Eastern immigrants have a presence in Perth. They come from a variety of countries, including Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, The United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, and Afghanistan.

Perth also has one of the largest Latin American populations in Australia, with Brazilians and Chileans being the largest Latin American groups in Perth.[109]

The Indian community includes a substantial number of Parsees who emigrated from Bombay – Perth being the closest Australian city to India – in 2021 those with Indian ancestry accounted for 3.5% of Perth's population[98] Perth is also home to the largest population of Anglo-Burmese in the world; many settled here following the independence of Burma in 1948 with immigration taking off after 1962. The city is now the cultural hub for Anglo-Burmese worldwide.[110] There is also a substantial Anglo-Indian population in Perth, who also settled in the city following the independence of India.

At the 2021 census, 2% of Perth's population identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander.[note 5][111]


At the 2016 census, 73.5% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin (2.3%), Italian (1.4%), Vietnamese (1.0%), Cantonese (1.0%) and Arabic (0.7%).[103]


32.1% of the 2016 census respondents in Perth had no religion,[112] as against 29.6% of national population.[113] In 1911, the national figure was 0.4%.[114]

Catholics are the largest single Christian denomination in the Greater Perth area at 22%.[115] The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross claims over 2,000 members.[116] Perth is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Perth.[117] Anglicans are 13.8% of the population.[115] Perth is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Perth.[118]

Buddhism and Islam each claim more than 40,000 adherents. Over 39,000 members of the Uniting Church in Australia live in Perth.[119] Perth has the third largest Jewish population in Australia,[120] numbering approximately 20,000,[119] with both Orthodox and Progressive synagogues and a Jewish Day School.[121] The Baháʼí community in Perth numbers around 1,500.[119] Hinduism has over 20,000 adherents in Perth;[119] the Diwali (festival of lights) celebration in 2009 attracted over 20,000 visitors. There are Hindu temples in Canning Vale, Anketell and a Swaminarayan temple in Bennett Springs.[122] Hinduism is the fastest growing religion in Australia.[123] Perth is also home to 12,000 Latter-day Saints[124] and the Perth Australia Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.


Perth, like the rest of Australia, is governed by three levels of government: local, state, and federal.[125]


The Perth metropolitan area is divided into thirty local government bodies, including the City of Perth which administers Perth's central business district. The outer extent of the administrative region of Perth comprises the City of Wanneroo and the City of Swan to the north, the Shire of Mundaring, City of Kalamunda and the City of Armadale to the east, the Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale to the southeast and the City of Rockingham to the southwest, and including the islands of Rottnest Island and Garden Island off the west coast.[126]


Perth houses the Parliament of Western Australia and the Governor of Western Australia. As of the 2008 state election, 42 of the Legislative Assembly's 59 seats and 18 of the Legislative Council's 36 seats are based in Perth's metropolitan area.

The state's highest court, the Supreme Court, is located in Perth,[127] along with the District[128] and Family[129] Courts. The Magistrates' Court has six metropolitan locations.[130]


Perth is represented by 10 full seats and significant parts of three others in the Federal House of Representatives, with the seats of Canning, Pearce, and Brand including some areas outside the metropolitan area.

The Federal Court of Australia and the Federal Circuit Court of Australia (previously the Federal Magistrates Court)[131][132] occupy the Commonwealth Law Courts building on Victoria Avenue,[133] which is also the location for annual Perth sittings of Australia's High Court.[134]


Fremantle Harbour

By virtue of its population and role as the administrative centre for business and government, Perth dominates the Western Australian economy, despite the major mining, petroleum, and agricultural export industries being located elsewhere in the state.[135] Perth's function as the state's capital city, its economic base and population size have also created development opportunities for many other businesses oriented to local or more diversified markets. Perth's economy has been changing in favour of the service industries since the 1950s. Although one of the major sets of services it provides is related to the resources industry and, to a lesser extent, agriculture, most people in Perth are not connected to either; they have jobs that provide services to other people in Perth.[136]

As a result of Perth's relative geographical isolation, it has never had the necessary conditions to develop significant manufacturing industries other than those serving the immediate needs of its residents, mining, agriculture and some specialised areas, such as, in recent times, niche shipbuilding and maintenance. It was simply cheaper to import all the needed manufactured goods from either the eastern states or overseas.

Industrial employment influenced the economic geography of Perth. After WWII, Perth experienced suburban expansion aided by high levels of car ownership. Workforce decentralisation and transport improvements made it possible for the establishment of small-scale manufacturing in the suburbs. Many firms took advantage of relatively cheap land to build spacious, single-storey plants in suburban locations with plentiful parking, easy access and minimal traffic congestion. "The former close ties of manufacturing with near-central and/or rail-side locations were loosened."[135]

Industrial estates such as Kwinana, Welshpool and Kewdale were post-war additions contributing to the growth of manufacturing south of the river. The establishment of the Kwinana industrial area was supported by standardisation of the east–west rail gauge linking Perth with eastern Australia. Since the 1950s the area has been dominated by heavy industry, including an oil refinery, steel-rolling mill with a blast furnace, alumina refinery, power station, and a nickel refinery. Another development, also linked with rail standardisation, was in 1968 when the Kewdale Freight Terminal was developed adjacent to the Welshpool industrial area, replacing the former Perth railway yards.[135]

With significant population growth post-WWII,[137] employment growth occurred not in manufacturing but in retail and wholesale trade, business services, health, education, community and personal services, and in public administration. Increasingly it was these services sectors, concentrated around the Perth metropolitan area, that provided jobs.[135]

Perth has also become a hub of technology-focused startups since the early 2000s that provide a pool of highly skilled jobs to the Perth community. Companies such as Appbot, Agworld, Touchgram, and Healthengine all hail from Perth and have made headlines internationally. Programs like StartupWA and incubators such as Spacecubed and Vocus Upstart are all focused on creating a thriving startup culture in Perth and growing the next generation of Perth-based employers.


Education is compulsory in Western Australia between the ages of six and seventeen, corresponding to primary and secondary school.[138] Tertiary education is available through several universities and technical and further education (TAFE) colleges.

Primary and secondary

Students may attend either public schools, run by the state government's Department of Education, or private schools, usually associated with a religion.

The Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) is the credential given to students who have completed Years 11 and 12 of their secondary schooling.[139]

In 2012 the minimum requirements for students to receive their WACE changed.[140]


The University of Western Australia, located in Crawley

Perth is home to four public universities: the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Murdoch University, and Edith Cowan University. There is also one private university, the University of Notre Dame Australia, and a local campus of the Melbourne-based University of Divinity.

The University of Western Australia, which was founded in 1911,[141] is renowned as one of Australia's leading research institutions.[142] The university's monumental neo-classical architecture, most of which is carved from white limestone, is a notable tourist destination in the city. It is the only university in the state to be a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the Sandstone universities. It is also the state's only university to have produced a Nobel Laureate:[143] Barry Marshall, who graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in 1975 and was awarded a joint Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 2005 with Robin Warren.

Curtin University, previously known as Western Australian Institute of Technology (1966-1986) and Curtin University of Technology (1986-2010), is Western Australia's largest university by student population.

Murdoch University was founded in 1973 and incorporates Western Australia's only veterinary school and, until its controversial closure in 2020, Australia's only theology programme to be completely integrated into a secular university.

Edith Cowan University was established in 1991 from the existing Western Australian College of Advanced Education which itself was formed on 11 December 1981 from the existing Teachers Colleges at Claremont, Nedlands, Churchlands, and Mount Lawley after Graylands had merged into Claremont, Churchlands and Mount Lawley in 1979. It incorporates the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts.

The University of Notre Dame Australia was established in 1990. Notre Dame was established as a Catholic university with its lead campus in Fremantle and a large campus in Sydney. Its campus is in the west end of Fremantle, using historic port buildings built in the 1890s, giving Notre Dame a distinct European university atmosphere.

The Melbourne-based University of Divinity established a campus in Perth in 2022 through its admission of Wollaston College, the theological college of the Anglican Diocese of Perth, as a collegiate college of the University.

Colleges of TAFE provide trade and vocational training, including certificate- and diploma-level courses. TAFE began as a system of technical colleges and schools under the Education Department, from which they were separated in the 1980s and ultimately formed into regional colleges. Two are in the Perth metropolitan area: North Metropolitan TAFE (formerly Central Institute of Technology and West Coast Institute of Training); and South Metropolitan TAFE (formerly Polytechnic West and Challenger Institute of Technology).



The main newspapers for Perth are The West Australian and The Sunday Times. Localised free community papers cater to each local government area. The local business paper is Western Australian Business News.


Radio stations are on AM, FM and DAB+ frequencies. ABC stations include ABC News (585AM), 720 ABC Perth, Radio National (810AM), Classic FM (97.7FM) and Triple J (99.3FM). The six local commercial stations are 882 6PR and 1080 6IX on AM; Triple M Perth (92.9FM), Nova 93.7, Mix94.5, and 96FM on FM. DAB+ has mostly the same as both AM and FM plus national stations from the ABC/SBS, Radar Radio and Novanation, along with local stations My Perth Digital, Hot Country Perth, and 98five Christian radio. Major community radio stations include RTRFM (92.1FM), Sonshine FM (98.5FM),[144] SportFM (91.3FM)[145] and Curtin FM (100.1FM).[146]


Perth is served by thirty digital free-to-air television channels:

ABC Perth studios in East Perth, home of 720 ABC Perth radio and ABC television in Western Australia

ABC, SBS, Seven, Nine and 10 were also broadcast in an analogue format until 16 April 2013, when the analogue transmission was switched off.[147] Community station Access 31 closed in August 2008. In April 2010 a new community station, West TV, began transmission (in digital format only). West TV ceased broadcasting in February 2020.

Channel 9's Perth Studio

Foxtel provides a subscription-based satellite and cable television service. Perth has its own local newsreaders on ABC (Pamela Medlen), Seven (Rick Ardon, Susannah Carr), Nine (Michael Thomson, Monika Kos) and Ten (Narelda Jacobs).

An annual telethon has been broadcast since 1968 to raise funds for charities including Princess Margaret Hospital for Children. The 24-hour Perth Telethon claims to be "the most successful fundraising event per capita in the world"[148]


Online news media covering the Perth area include backed by The West Australian, Perth Now from the newsroom of The Sunday Times, and WAToday from Nine Entertainment.

Culture and sport

Arts and entertainment

Scene from the inauguration of the 2015 Perth Festival, Australia's oldest continuously-running cultural festival

A number of annual cultural events are held in Perth. Held annually since 1953, Perth Festival is Australia's longest running annual cultural festival, and includes the Perth Writers Festival and the Winter Arts Festival. The Fringe World Festival has been held annually across January and February in Perth since 2012.[149] Perth also hosts annual music festivals including Listen Out, Origin and St Jerome's Laneway Festival. The Perth International Comedy Festival features a variety of local and international comedic talent, with performances held at the Astor Theatre and nearby venues in Mount Lawley, and regular night food markets throughout the summer months across Perth and its surrounding suburbs. Sculpture by the Sea showcases a range of local and international sculptors' creations along Cottesloe Beach. There is also a wide variety of public art and sculptures on display across the city, throughout the year.

The Perth Cultural Centre is home to many of the city's major arts, cultural and educational institutions, including the Art Gallery of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, State Library of Western Australia, State Records Office, and Perth Institute of Contemporary Arts (PICA).[150] The State Theatre Centre of Western Australia is also located there,[150] and is the home of the Black Swan State Theatre Company[151] and the Perth Theatre Company.[152] Other performing arts companies based in Perth include the West Australian Ballet, the West Australian Opera and the West Australian Symphony Orchestra, all of which present regular programmes.[153][154][155] The Western Australian Youth Orchestras provide young musicians with performance opportunities in orchestral and other musical ensembles.[156]

Perth is also home to the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts at Edith Cowan University, from which many actors and broadcasters have launched their careers.[157][158] The city's main performance venues include the Riverside Theatre within the Perth Convention Exhibition Centre,[159] the Perth Concert Hall,[160] the historic His Majesty's Theatre,[161] the Regal Theatre in Subiaco[162] and the Astor Theatre in Mount Lawley.[163] Perth Arena can be configured as an entertainment or sporting arena, and concerts are also hosted at other sporting venues, including Optus Stadium, HBF Stadium, and nib Stadium. Outdoor concert venues include Quarry Amphitheatre, Supreme Court Gardens, Kings Park and Russell Square.

Perth actor Heath Ledger, namesake of the Heath Ledger Theatre

The largest performance area within the State Theatre Centre, the Heath Ledger Theatre, is named in honour of Perth-born film actor Heath Ledger. Other performers born and raised in Perth include Judy Davis[164] and Melissa George.[165][166] Performers raised in Perth include Tim Minchin,[167] Lisa McCune,[168] Troye Sivan and Isla Fisher.[169] Performers that studied in Perth at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts include Hugh Jackman and Lisa McCune.[170]

Due to Perth's relative isolation from other Australian cities, overseas performing artists sometimes exclude it from their Australian tour schedules. This isolation, however, has helped foster a strong local music scene, with many local music groups. Famous musical performers from Perth include the late AC/DC frontman Bon Scott, whose heritage-listed grave at Fremantle Cemetery is reportedly the most visited grave in Australia.[171] Perth-born performer and artist Rolf Harris became known by the nickname "The Boy From Bassendean".[172] Further notable music acts from Perth include The Triffids,[173] The Scientists,[174] The Drones,[175] Tame Impala,[176] Karnivool,[177] Little Birdy, Make Them Suffer, The Decline (band), Timothy Nelson, Birds of Tokyo, Pendulum, Gyroscope, End Of Fashion, Tired Lion, Psychedelic Porn Crumpets, Sly Withers and The Novocaines.

Perth has inspired various artistic and cultural works. John Boyle O'Reilly, a Fenian convict transported to Western Australia, published Moondyne in 1879, the most famous early novel about the Swan River Colony. Perth is also the setting for various works by novelist Tim Winton, most notably Cloudstreet (1991). Songs that refer to the city include "I Love Perth" (1996) by Pavement, "Perth" (2011) by Bon Iver, and "Perth" (2015) by Beirut. Films shot or set in Perth include Japanese Story (2003), These Final Hours (2013), Kill Me Three Times (2014) and Paper Planes (2015).

Tourism and recreation

The Fremantle West End Heritage area is home to hundreds of Victorian and Edwardian era buildings.

Tourism is an important part of Perth's economy, with approximately 2.8 million domestic visitors and 0.7 million international visitors in the year ending March 2012.[178] Tourist attractions are generally focused around the city centre, Fremantle, the coast, and the Swan River. In addition to the Perth Cultural Centre, there are dozens of museums across the city. The Scitech Discovery Centre in West Perth is an interactive science museum, with regularly changing exhibitions on a large range of science and technology-based subjects. Scitech also conducts live science demonstration shows and operates the adjacent Horizon planetarium. The Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle displays maritime objects from all eras. It houses Australia II, the yacht that won the 1983 America's Cup, as well as a former Royal Australian Navy submarine. Also in Fremantle is the Army Museum of Western Australia, situated within a historic artillery barracks. The museum consists of several galleries that reflect the Army's involvement in Western Australia and the military service of Western Australians.[179] The museum holds numerous items of significance, including three Victoria Crosses.[180] Aviation history is represented by the Aviation Heritage Museum in Bull Creek, with its significant collection of aircraft, including a Lancaster bomber and a Catalina of the type operated from the Swan River during WWII.[181]

There are many heritage sites in Perth's CBD, Fremantle, and other parts of the metropolitan areas. Some of the oldest remaining buildings, dating back to the 1830s, include the Round House in Fremantle, the Old Mill in South Perth, and the Old Court House in the city centre. Registers of important buildings are maintained by the Heritage Council of Western Australia and local governments. A late heritage building is the Perth Mint.[182] Yagan Square connects Northbridge and the Perth CBD, with a 45-metre-high digital tower and the 9-metre statue "Wirin" designed by Noongar artist Tjyllyungoo. Elizabeth Quay is also a notable attraction in Perth, featuring Swan Bells, a panoramic view of Swan River, and the sculpture Spanda by artist Christian de Vietri.

The "Wirin" sculpture at Yagan Square

Retail shopping in the Perth CBD is focused around Murray Street and Hay Street. Both these streets are pedestrian malls between William Street and Barrack Street. Forrest Place is another pedestrian mall, connecting the Murray Street mall to Wellington Street and the Perth railway station. A number of arcades run between Hay Street and Murray Street, including the Piccadilly Arcade, which housed the Piccadilly Cinema until it closed in late 2013. Other shopping precincts include Watertown in West Perth, featuring factory outlets for major brands, the historically significant Fremantle Markets, which date to 1897, and the Midland townsite on Great Eastern Highway, combining historic development around the Town Hall and Post Office buildings with the modern Midland Gate shopping centre further east. Joondalup's central business district is largely a shopping and retail area lined with townhouses and apartments, and also features Lakeside Joondalup Shopping City. Joondalup was granted the status of "tourism precinct" by the State Government in 2009, allowing for extended retail trading hours.

Forrest Place, a pedestrianised square, hosts many cultural events.

Restaurants, bars and nightclubs can be found in the entertainment hubs of Northbridge (just north of the Perth CBD), the west end of the CBD itself, Elizabeth Quay, Leederville, Scarborough and Fremantle. The Crown casino and resort is located at Burswood.

The Swan Valley, with fertile soil, uncommon in the Perth region, features numerous wineries, such as the large complex at Houghtons, the state's biggest producer, Sandalfords and many smaller operators, including microbreweries and rum distilleries. The Swan Valley also contains specialised food producers, many restaurants and cafes, and roadside local produce stalls that sell seasonal fruit throughout the year. Tourist Drive 203 is a circular route in the Swan Valley, passing by many attractions on West Swan Road and Great Northern Highway.

Kings Park, in central Perth between the CBD and the University of Western Australia, is one of the world's largest inner-city parks,[183] at 400.6 hectares (990 acres).[184] It has many landmarks and attractions, including the State War Memorial Precinct on Mount Eliza, Western Australian Botanic Garden, and children's playgrounds. Other features include DNA Tower, a 15 m (49 ft) high double helix staircase that resembles the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule,[185] and Jacob's Ladder, comprising 242 steps that lead down to Mounts Bay Road.

Hyde Park is another inner-city park 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the CBD. It was gazetted as a public park in 1897, created from 15 ha (37 acres) of a chain of wetlands known as Third Swamp.[186] Avon Valley, John Forrest and Yanchep national parks are areas of protected bushland at the northern and eastern edges of the metropolitan area. Within the city's northern suburbs is Whiteman Park, a 4,000-hectare (9,900-acre) bushland area, with bushwalking trails, bike paths, sports facilities, playgrounds, a vintage tramway, a light railway on a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) track, motor and tractor museums, and Caversham Wildlife Park.

Perth Zoo, in South Perth, houses a variety of Australian and exotic animals from around the globe. The zoo is home to highly successful breeding programs for orangutans and giraffes, and participates in captive breeding and reintroduction efforts for a number of Western Australian species, including the numbat, the dibbler, the chuditch, and the western swamp tortoise.[187]

More wildlife can be observed at the Aquarium of Western Australia in Hillarys, Australia's largest aquarium, specialising in marine animals that inhabit the 12,000-kilometre-long (7,500 mi) western coast of Australia. The northern Perth section of the coastline is known as Sunset Coast; it includes numerous beaches and the Marmion Marine Park, a protected area inhabited by tropical fish, Australian sea lions and bottlenose dolphins, and traversed by humpback whales. Tourist Drive 204, also known as Sunset Coast Tourist Drive, is a designated route from North Fremantle to Iluka along coastal roads.


Optus Stadium hosts cricket and Australian rules football, Perth's most popular spectator sports
The exterior of Perth Arena

The climate of Perth allows for extensive outdoor sporting activity, and this is reflected in the wide variety of sports available to residents of the city. Perth was host to the 1962 Commonwealth Games and the 1987 America's Cup defence (based at Fremantle). Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in Perth – nearly 23% of Western Australians attended a match at least once in 2009–2010.[188] The two Australian Football League teams located in Perth, the West Coast Eagles and the Fremantle Football Club, have two of the largest fan bases in the country. The Eagles, the older club, is one of the most successful teams in the league, and one of the largest sporting clubs in Australia. The next level of football is the Western Australian Football League, comprising nine clubs each having a League, Reserves, and Colts team. Each of these clubs has a junior football system for ages 7 to 17. The next level of Australian rules football is the Perth Football League, comprising 68 clubs servicing senior footballers within the metropolitan area. Other popular sports include cricket, basketball, soccer, and rugby union.[189]

Active sports teams in Perth
Club League Sport Venue Established
Fremantle Dockers AFL/AFL Women's Australian rules football Optus Stadium 1994
West Coast Eagles AFL/AFL Women's/WAFL Australian rules football Optus Stadium 1986
Perth Wildcats National Basketball League Basketball RAC Arena 1982
Perth Lynx Women's NBL Basketball Bendat Basketball Centre 1988
Perth Glory A-League Men Soccer HBF Park 1995
Perth Glory Women A-League Women Soccer Dorrien Gardens
HBF Park
Western Force Super Rugby Rugby union HBF Park 2005
Western Force Super W Super W Rugby union Harvey Field
Kingsway Reserve
Perth Heat Australian Baseball League Baseball Harley-Davidson Ballpark 1989
West Coast Fever Suncorp Super Netball Netball RAC Arena 1997
West Coast Pirates S.G. Ball Cup Rugby league HBF Park 2012
Western Australia Men Sheffield Shield Cricket WACA Ground 1893
Perth Scorchers Big Bash/Women's Big Bash Cricket Optus Stadium 2011
Western Australia Women Women's National Cricket League Cricket WACA Ground 1934
Perth Thunder Australian Ice Hockey League Ice hockey Perth Ice Arena 2010

Perth has hosted numerous state and international sporting events. Ongoing international events include the ATP Cup (replacing the Hopman Cup in 2020) during the first week of January at the Perth Arena, and the Perth International golf tournament at Lake Karrinyup Country Club. In addition to these Perth has hosted the Rally Australia of the World Rally Championships from 1989 to 2006, international Rugby Union games, including qualifying and pool stage matches for the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the Bledisloe Cup in 2019. The 1991 and 1998 FINA World Championships were held in Perth.[190] Four races (2006, 2007, 2008, and 2010) in the Red Bull Air Race World Championship have been held on a stretch of the Swan River called Perth Water, using Langley Park as a temporary airfield.[191] Several motorsport facilities exist in Perth including Perth Motorplex, catering to drag racing and speedway, and Wanneroo Raceway for circuit racing and drifting, which hosts a V8 Supercars round. Perth also has two thoroughbred racing facilities: Ascot, home of the Railway Stakes and Perth Cup; and Belmont Park. Daniel Ricciardo is a Perth-born Formula 1 driver who most recently raced for the McLaren Formula 1 team and is currently the test and reserve driver for Red Bull Racing.[192]

The WACA Ground opened in the 1890s and has hosted Test cricket since 1970. The Western Australian Athletics Stadium opened in 2009.



Perth Children's Hospital

Perth has ten large hospitals with emergency departments. As of 2013, Royal Perth Hospital in the city centre is the largest, with others spread around the metropolitan area: Armadale Kelmscott District Memorial Hospital, Joondalup Health Campus, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women in Subiaco, Rockingham General Hospital, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Nedlands, St John of God Murdoch and Subiaco Hospitals, Midland Health Campus in Midland, and Fiona Stanley Hospital in Murdoch. Perth Children's Hospital is the state's only specialist children's hospital, and Graylands Hospital is the only public stand-alone psychiatric teaching hospital. Most of these are public hospitals, with some operating under public-private partnerships. St John of God Murdoch and Subiaco Hospitals, and Hollywood Hospital are large privately owned and operated hospitals.

A number of other public and private hospitals operate in Perth.[193]


The Public Transport Centre, adjacent to East Perth railway station

Perth is served by Perth Airport in the city's east for regional, domestic and international flights and Jandakot Airport in the city's southern suburbs for general aviation and charter flights.

Perth has a road network with three freeways and nine metropolitan highways. The Northbridge tunnel, part of the Graham Farmer Freeway, is the only significant road tunnel in Perth.

Perth metropolitan public transport, including trains, buses and ferries, are provided by Transperth, with links to rural areas provided by Transwa. There are 75 railway stations and 13 bus-only stations on the Transperth network.[194]

Perth provides zero-fare bus and train trips around the city centre (the "Free Transit Zone"), including four high-frequency CAT bus routes.

The Indian Pacific passenger rail service connects Perth with Adelaide and Sydney once per week in each direction. The Prospector passenger rail service connects Perth with Kalgoorlie via several Wheatbelt towns, while the Australind connects to Bunbury, and the AvonLink connects to Northam.

Rail freight terminates at the Kewdale Rail Terminal, 15 km (9 mi) south-east of the city centre.

Perth's main container and passenger port is at Fremantle, 19 km (12 mi) south west at the mouth of the Swan River.[195] The Fremantle Outer Harbour at Cockburn Sound is one of Australia's major bulk cargo ports.[196]


Perth's electricity is predominantly generated, supplied, and retailed by three Western Australian Government corporations. Verve Energy operates coal and gas power generation stations, as well as wind farms and other power sources.[197] The physical network is maintained by Western Power,[198] while Synergy, the state's largest energy retailer, sells electricity to residential and business customers.[199]

Alinta Energy, which was previously a government owned company, had a monopoly in the domestic gas market since the 1990s. However, in 2013 Kleenheat Gas began operating in the market, allowing consumers to choose their gas retailer.[200]

The Water Corporation is the dominant supplier of water, as well as wastewater and drainage services, in Perth and throughout Western Australia. It is also owned by the state government.[201]

Perth's water supply has traditionally relied on both groundwater and rain-fed dams. Reduced rainfall in the region over recent decades had greatly lowered inflow to reservoirs and affected groundwater levels. Coupled with the city's relatively high growth rate, this led to concerns that Perth could run out of water in the near future.[202] The Western Australian Government responded by building desalination plants, and introducing mandatory household sprinkler restrictions. The Kwinana Desalination Plant was opened in 2006,[203][204] and Southern Seawater Desalination Plant at Binningup (on the coast between Mandurah and Bunbury) began operating in 2011. A trial winter (1 June – 31 August) sprinkler ban was introduced in 2009 by the State Government, a move which the Government later announced would be made permanent.[205]

See also

  • 1955 Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle
  • List of islands of Perth, Western Australia
  • List of Perth suburbs


  1. Sources differ slightly on the extents.
  2. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.
  3. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group.[99]
  4. Those who nominated their ancestry as "Aboriginal". Does not include Torres Strait Islanders. This relates to nomination of ancestry and is distinct from persons who identify as Indigenous (Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) which is a separate question.
  5. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.


  1. "Greater Perth". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 August 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  2. "Greater Perth: Basic Community Profile" (XLS). 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  3. "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and ADELAIDE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  4. "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and DARWIN CITY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  5. "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and MELBOURNE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  6. "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and SYDNEY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  7. "2011 Electoral Boundaries". State of Western Australia – Office of the Electoral Distribution Commissioners. 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  8. Radcliffe, John C. (2019). "History of Water Sensitive Urban Design/Low Impact Development Adoption in Australia and Internationally". Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design. Elsevier. pp. 1–24. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-812843-5.00001-0. ISBN 9780128128435. S2CID 135280650. Much of Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is built on a sand plain so that stormwater infiltration to groundwater is the default stormwater management.
  9. "Noongar History". Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  10. "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC – Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  11. Holland, Steve (8 August 2015). "Why Perth could soon be the world's longest city". WAtoday. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  12. Kimberly, W. B. (1897). History of West Australia . Melbourne: F. W. Niven & Co. p. 44.
  13. Crowley, Francis K. (1960). Australia's Western Third. London: Macmillan & Co.
  14. James Stirling. Lieutenant-Governor Stirling's Proclamation of the Colony 18 June 1829  via Wikisource.
  15. Fremantle, John (1928). Diary & Letters of Admiral Sir C. H. Fremantle, G.C.B. Relating the Founding of the Colony of Western Australia 1829. London: Hazell, Watson & Viey.
  16. Uren, Malcolm J. L. (1948). Land Looking West. London: Oxford University Press.
  17. Statham, Pamela (1981). "Swan River Colony". In Stannage, Tom (ed.). A New History of Western Australia. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-181-9.
  18. "Whadjuk Boodjar". Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  19. "Map of Indigenous Australia". Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  20. Norman Tindale (1940). "Map showing the distribution of the Aboriginal tribes of Australia". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 8 May 2022 via Trove.
  21. Forster, Pat (2018). "Noongar place names: Swan-Canning Estuary and environs" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  22. Forster, Pat (2020). "Noongar Placenames With Connections To Water" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2021. The practice identified by Collard et. al. of having multiple names for the same place is evidenced with Boorlo, meaning big swamp and Boodjargabbeelup, meaning the place where water meets the land, both referring to Point Fraser.
  23. Harben, Sandra (2019). "Whadjuk Oral History recordings". WA Museum Boola Bardip.
  24. "Gnarla Boodja Mili Mili (Our Country on Paper)". Department of Local Government, Sport and Cultural Industries. 15 September 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2021. the Perth CBD area, also known as Boorlo or Burrell in the Noongar language
  25. Coates, Erin; James, Stuart; Devenish, Louise (1 January 2020), Alluvium, Edith Cowan University, Research Online, Perth, Western Australia, retrieved 13 April 2022
  26. "Minutes of the Ordinary Council Meeting". City of Perth. 6 July 2021. Attachment 12.1A – Yacker Danjoo Ngala Bidi (Working Together Our Way). Retrieved 24 April 2022. The City of Perth (Boorloo)
  27. "Tourism Australia adopts Aboriginal dual naming". Tourism Australia. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2023. a dual-naming approach for capital cities
  28. Cartwright, Lexie (5 July 2021). "Channel 10 commended for NAIDOC weather segment using traditional names for Australian cities". Retrieved 29 January 2023. traditional names for Australian capital cities
  29. "Living in Perth". Curtin University. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2023. state capital city
  30. Boorloo Kworp : 'Perth is Good', Committee for Perth, June 2020, retrieved 29 January 2023, Western Australia's capital
  31. "Conferences". Australian Museums and Galleries Association. Retrieved 29 May 2022. AMaGA holds a National Conference at a different Capital City ... The 2022 AMaGA National Conference will be held in Boorloo Perth
  32. "National Invasion Day rallies adapt in face of COVID-19". Special Broadcasting Service. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2023. some capital cities ... Boorloo/Perth
  33. "The Bachelorette Brooke Blurton thanks supporters from quarantine as she mourns death of her sister". PerthNow. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2023. tagging WA's capital city by its Aboriginal dual name, Boorloo
  34. "Easy to promote a place like no other". Business News. 24 August 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2023. Boorloo's (Perth's) ... As the state's capital city
  35. Sandra Bowdler. "The Pleistocene Pacific". Published in 'Human settlement', in D. Denoon (ed) The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. pp. 41–50. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. University of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  36. "Nyungar Boodjar – People's Country". Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  37. "Bennell v State of Western Australia [2006] FCA 1243". Federal Court of Australia Decisions. Australasia Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  38. "Newsletter: Single Noongar appeal—Perth: Bodney v Bennell 2008" (PDF). National Native Title Tribunal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2014.
  39. "South West Native Title Settlement timeline". Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  40. "South West Native Title Settlement - Noongar recognition through an Act of Parliament". Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  41. Major, Richard Henry (1859). "Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia". Project Gutenberg of Australia. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  42. Fraser, Gina (November 2015). "A HERITAGE IN NAMES – the Origin and Meaning of Street and Place Names in the City of South Perth" (PDF). City of South Perth. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  43. Appleyard, Reginald T.; Manford, Toby (1979). The Beginning: European Discovery and Early Settlement of Swan River, Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-146-0. OCLC 6423026.
  44. "King George's Sound Settlement". State Records. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  45. Compare: Journal and Proceedings. Royal Australian Historical Society. 37: 346. 1951 Retrieved 11 January 2023. The cruel murder of Hugh Nesbit, a nineteen-year-old member of the 21st Regiment Royal Scots Fusiliers near Mandurah on April 16, 1834, was sufficient to touch off the demand for punitive action. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  46. "Town of Vincent – History". Adapted from 'History of the Town of Vincent', from Town of Vincent 2001 Annual Report, p.52 (possibly based on J. Gentili and others). Town of Vincent. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  47. ":: REGIONAL WA:: Western Australia: History". Regional Web Australia. 23 December 2003. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  48. "History of the City of Perth" (PDF). City of Perth. 23 March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  49. 'Western Australia. (From the Argyle's Special Correspondent) IV-Perth' (1870, March 18). The Perth Gazette and West Australian Times, p. 3.
  50. "The Goldrush". The Constitutional Centre of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  51. Abjorensen, Norman; Docherty, James C. Historical Dictionary of Australia. Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. ISBN 9781442245020, p. 292.
  52. "Collections in Perth: 4. Colonial Administration". Collections in Perth. National Archives of Australia. 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  53. Howell, Peter (2002). South Australia and Federation. Adelaide: Wakefield Press. p. 288. ISBN 1-86254-549-9.
  54. Carmody, Rebecca (29 December 2019). "The forbidden city: When Indigenous people were banned from Perth". ABC News. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  55. "Deputy Premier 2nd Collier Government 1933–1935". John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library. 11 May 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  56. "Agreement On Oil". West Australian. 4 March 1952. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  57. Stephenson, Gordon; Hepburn, J. A. (1955). Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle. Western Australia: Government of Western Australia.
  58. (1970) Perth – a city of light Perth, W.A. Brian Williams Productions for the Government of WA, 1970 (Video recording) The social and recreational life of Perth. Begins with a 'mock-up' of the lights of Perth as seen by astronaut John Glenn in February 1962
  59. Gregory, Jenny. "Biography – Sir Henry Rudolph (Harry) Howard – Australian Dictionary of Biography". Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  60. "City of light - 50 years in Space". Western Australian Museum. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  61. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (15 February 2008). "Moment in Time – Episode 1". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  62. Moore, Charles (5 November 1998). "Grandfather Glenn's blast from the past". The Daily Telegraph (UK). London. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  63. "WA Statistical Indicators June 2002". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 11 July 2002. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
  64. "Australia's identified mineral resources, 2002" (PDF). Geoscience Australia. 31 October 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2004. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  65. "Discussion Paper: Greater Perth Economy And Employment" (PDF). Department for Planning and Infrastructure. 25 August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
  66. "Venue Awards". Perth Arena. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  67. "Central Park Tower". The Skyscraper Centre — The Global Tall Building Database of the CTBUH. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  68. Allan-Petale, David (25 January 2017). "Boom town to ghost town: Perth CBD vacancies hit 25-year high". WA Today. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  69. Perth Metropolitan Region: Local Governments and Localities (PDF) (Map). Cartography by Location Knowledge Services, Landgate. Western Australian Land Information Authority. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  70. "About Us". 720 ABC Perth. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  71. Metropolitan Local Government Review Panel (September 2011). Defining What we mean by "Perth Metropolitan Area" (Report). Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  72. "2011 Census QuickStats: Pinjarra". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  73. "Greater Capital City Statistical Areas" (PDF). Australian Bureau Statistics. Commonwealth of Australia. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  74. Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Greater Perth (Greater Capital City Statistical Area)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  75. "Metropolitan Local Government Review, Final Report of the Independent Panel" (PDF). City of Kalamunda. July 2012. p. 56. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  76. "175th Anniversary of Western Australia – Heritage Icons: January – The Swan River". Department of the Premier and Cabinet. 31 December 2004. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
  77. "History of the North Metro Region". Department of Education. Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  78. Godfrey, Norm (July 1989). The Value of Wetlands (PDF). Planning and Management for Wetland Conservation Conference, 15 June 1988. Vol. 372. Perth, Western Australia: Environmental Protection Authority. pp. 4–11. ISBN 0-7309-1911-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  79. Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen (ed.). The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-19-553393-3.
  80. Linacre, Edward; Geerts, Bart (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7.
  81. "Perth Airport climate statistics". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  82. "Annual Climate Summary for Perth: Near average rainfall with warmer days for Perth in 2008". Bureau of Meteorology. 2 January 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  83. Courtney, Joe; Middelmann, Miriam (2005). "Meteorological hazards" (PDF). Natural hazard risk in Perth, Western Australia – Cities Project Perth Report. Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  84. "Jandakot Airport climate statistics". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  85. "How extreme south-west rainfalls have changed". Indian Ocean Climate Initiative. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  86. "Perth, Western Australia February 2017 Daily Weather Observations". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  87. "Perth, Western Australia January 2018 Daily Weather Observations". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018..
  88. O'Connell, Ronan; McPhee, Lindsay; Hiatt, Bethany (23 March 2010). "Storm brings huge damage bill". The West Australian. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
  89. Copyright Global Sea Temperatures — A-Connect Ltd. "Perth Sea Temperature | Australia Water Temperatures". 31.952240;115.861400: Retrieved 23 September 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  90. "Climate statistics for Australian locations – Perth Metro". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  91. "Climate statistics for Australian locations – Perth Regional Office". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  92. "Climate & Weather Averages in Perth, Western Australia, Australia". Time and Date. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  93. Gill, Nicholas (19 August 2019). "Where is the world's most remote city?". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  94. "3218.0 Historical Population Estimates by Australian Statistical Geography Standard, 1971 to 2011" (XLS). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  95. "2016 Census QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 October 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  96. "Greater Perth". 2011 Census QuickStats. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  97. "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2012-13". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  98. "2021 Greater Perth, Census Community Profiles | Australian Bureau of Statistics". Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  99. "Feature Article - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Australia (Feature Article)".
  100. "2016 Census Community Profiles: Greater Sydney". Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  101. "Russell Square". Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  102. "The Jewish Community of Perth". Beit Hatfutsot Open Databases Project. The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  103. "2016 Census Community Profiles: Greater Perth". Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  104. Debates of Parliament, Government Printer, 1988, page 1787
  105. Packing for Perth: The Growth of a Southern African Diaspora, Eric Louw, Gary Mersham, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2001 303
  106. Yeld, John (6 March 2006). "Packing for Perth because of the poo!". IOL. Cape Argus. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  107. Australian Eurasian Association of WA Inc. Official site
  108. 500th Anniversary of Portuguese Landing in Malacca 1511, October 2011, at Australian Eurasian Association of WA Inc. Archived from the original Archived 10 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine on 10 October 2011.
  109. "2016 Census QuickStats: South Perth". Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  110. Kei, Nemoto (2014). "The Anglo-Burmese in the 1940s: To become Burmese or not" (PDF). The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies. 32: 18.
  111. "2021 Greater Perth, Census All persons QuickStats | Australian Bureau of Statistics". Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  112. "2016 Census QuickStats: Greater Perth". Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  113. "2016 Census QuickStats: Greater Perth". Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  114. "Main Features — Losing my religion?". Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  115. "2016 Census QuickStats: Greater Perth". Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  116. Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross at Catholic
  117. "Overview". Archdiocese of Perth. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  118. "Anglican Diocese of Perth". Anglican Diocese of Perth. Anglican Diocese of Perth. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  119. "Religion | Australia | Community profile". Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  120. "The Jewish population of Australia: Key findings from the 2011 Census". Gen08: the Australian and New Zealand Jewish Population Study. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  121. The Carmel School 2015 Handbook, Dianella, Western Australia: Carmel School, p. 7, archived from the original on 4 September 2015, retrieved 2 July 2015
  122. "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  123. Statistics. "2011 Census reveals Hinduism". Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  124. "LDS Church Statistics". Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  125. "Three levels of government: governing Australia - Parliament... - Archived Website". Parliament Education Office. Government of Australia. 7 November 2019. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  126. Metropolitan Local Government Review Panel (September 2011). Defining What we mean by "Perth Metropolitan Area" (Report). Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  127. "Jurisdiction". Supreme Court of WA. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  128. "About the District Court". District Court of WA. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  129. "About the Family Court". Family Court of WA. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  130. "Magistrate Court Locations". Department of Justice. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  131. "Introduction to the Federal Circuit Court of Australia". Federal Circuit Court of Australia. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  132. Federal Circuit Court of Australia Legislation Amendment Act 2012 on 12 April 2013
  133. "WA Registry". Federal Court of Australia. 2 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  134. "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). High Court of Australia. 18 March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  135. "Greater Perth Economy and Employment" (PDF). WA Department of Planning and Infrastructure. 25 August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  136. "Structure of the WA Economy" (PDF). WA Department of Treasury and Finance. 24 January 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
  137. "Australian Historical Population Statistics 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  138. Department of Education. "Pre-compulsory and compulsory education period". Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  139. School Curriculum and Standards Authority. "WACE requirements and certification". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  140. "WACE Requirements 2012 and Beyond". School Curriculum and Standards Authority. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  141. "Visitors – History of the University". University of Western Australia. Retrieved 14 April 2007. The University of Western Australia has helped to shape the careers of more than 75,000 graduates since it was established in 1911.
  142. "Rankings of Australian Universities 2016-2017 n". Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  143. "Australia's Nobel Laureates and the Nobel Prize". Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  144. "98five Sonshine FM". Sonshine FM. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  145. "91.3 SportFM Perth". SportFM 91.3 Perth. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  146. "Curtin FM 100.1". Curtin FM. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  147. "Digital TV Switchover Australia  – Perth and surrounding areas". Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  148. "About Telethon", Archived from the original Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine on 8 July 2009.
  149. "Media Statements - WA welcomes biggest Fringe World Festival yet". Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  150. "Perth Cultural Centre: About". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  151. "About Black Swan State Theatre Company". Black Swan State Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  152. "Company History". About. Perth Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  153. "About Us – Our Story". West Australian Ballet. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  154. "History". West Australian Opera. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  155. "About WASO". West Australian Symphony Orchestra. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  156. "About". WA Youth Music Association. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  157. Appelo, Tim (4 May 2012). "The Hollywood Reporter's List of the 25 Top Drama Schools". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  158. "Welcome to WAAPA". Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts. Edith Cowan University. 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  159. "Concerts". Plan an event. Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  160. "About Perth Concert Hall". Perth Concert Hall. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  161. Department of Culture and the Arts. "His Majesty's Theatre". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  162. "Welcome to the Regal Theatre". The Regal Theatre. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  163. "About the Venue". Live at the Astor. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  164. McRae, Ross (29 October 2015). "The power and passion of Judy Davis". The West Australian. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  165. Albert, Jane (13 April 2018). "Australian actress Melissa George talks home, hardship and her career". Vogue Australia. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  166. Barlow, Helen (15 November 2017). "Melissa George Breaks Her Silence: "I've Spent One Year Alone And I'm Doing Okay"". whimn. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  167. "About Tim". Tim August 2018. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  168. Thomson, Chris (22 November 2013). "Perth actor now honorary Perth citizen". Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  169. Mitchell, Peter (14 June 2018). "Isla Fisher recalls "chasey" in Perth". The Young Witness. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  170. "Welcome to WAAPA". Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA) at Edith Cowan University. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  171. "Tourists flock to grave of rock stars and icons" (20 December 2013), Courier Mail. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  172. "Rolf Harris". State Library of Western Australia. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  173. Ray Purvis (10 February 2016). "Triffic Triffids come Home for festival". The West Australian. Seven West Media. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  174. "'80s Post-Punk Band The Scientists Announce First-Ever US Tour". Stereogum. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  175. "The Drones: Now and Then". Alternative Frequencies. RTRFM. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  176. Moskovitch, Greg (2 October 2017). "Watch Tame Impala play to almost nobody in 2008". Tone Deaf. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  177. Macgregor, Jody (2018). "Karnivool". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  178. Tourism Western Australia (June 2012). "Quarterly Visitor Snapshot – Year Ending March 2012" (PDF). Government of Western Australia. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  179. "Museum History". Army Museum of Western Australia. 4 April 2010. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  180. "The Collection – Items of significance". Army Museum of Western Australia. 4 April 2010. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  181. "Aviation Heritage Museum". Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  182. "The Perth Mint". State Heritage Office. 19 September 2014. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  183. "Kings Park". Experience Perth. Perth Region Tourism Organisation Inc. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  184. "Kings Park and Botanic Garden". Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority. Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  185. "DNA Tower Climb". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  186. "History". City of Vincent. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  187. "Native Species Breeding Program, Perth Zoo". Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  188. "Spectator Attendance at Sporting Events" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Commonwealth of Australia. 21 December 2010. p. 11. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  189. "Main Features — Most popular sports attended". 21 December 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  190. Marsh, David (28 May 1997). "'New Era' For Swimming". The West Australian. West Australian Newspapers Ltd. p. 139.
  191. "Perth won't' bid for Red Bull Air Race over costs". 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  192. "Daniel Ricciardo returns to Red Bull as third driver for 2023 Formula 1 season". Sky Sports. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  193. National Health Performance Authority. "Hospitals in Perth". My Hospitals. Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  194. "Transperth Zone Map" (PDF). Transperth. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  195. "Port Information". Fremantle Ports. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  196. "Fremantle Ports Profile" (PDF). Fremantle Ports Western Australia. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  197. "About Us". Verve Energy. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  198. "About us". Western Power. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  199. "Who we are". Synergy. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  200. "Kleenheat Gas gives West Australians a choice of gas supplier". Perth Now. 24 March 2013. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  201. "The way we work". Water Corporation. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  202. Dortch, Eloise (7 May 2005). "Plan for a second desalination plant". The West Australian. West Australian Newspapers Ltd. p. 1. A document dated 12 January obtained by The West Australian under Freedom of Information laws shows that the Water Corporation fears Perth will begin running out of water by late 2008 without one of the two developments.
  203. "Premier opens Australia's first major desalination plant". Water Corporation. 19 November 2006. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2007. When fully operational it will produce on average 130 million litres per day and supply 17 per cent of Perth's needs.
  204. "Kwinana desalination plant open in months". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 September 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  205. "Winter sprinkler ban made permanent". ABC News. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.