Midway Atoll

Midway Atoll (colloquial: Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Kauihelani, lit.'the backbone of heaven'; Pihemanu, 'the loud din of birds')[2][3] is a 2.4 sq mi (6.2 km2) atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. Midway Atoll is an insular area of the United States and is an unorganized and unincorporated territory. The largest island is Sand Island, which has housing and an airstrip. Immediately to the east of Sand Island across the narrow Brooks Channel is Eastern Island, which is uninhabited and no longer has any facilities. Forming a rough, incomplete circle around the two main islands and creating Midway Lagoon is Spit Island, a narrow reef.[1]

Midway Atoll
Native name:
Kauihelani (Hawaiian) Pihemanu (Hawaiian)
Nickname: Midway Islands
Satellite image of Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll northwest of Hawaii
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll (North Pacific )
LocationNorth Pacific Ocean
Coordinates28°12′27″N 177°21′00″W
ArchipelagoHawaiian Archipelago
Total islands3
Major islandsSand, Eastern, Spit
Area1,549 acres (627 ha)
Length5 mi (8 km)
Width5 mi (8 km)
Highest elevation43 ft (13.1 m)[1]
DepartmentDepartment of the Interior
Insular areaMidway Atoll
Operating unitUnited States Fish and Wildlife Service
Largest SettlementSand Island (pop. 40)
DemonymMidway Islander
Population39 (2019 (est.))
Pop. density16.5/sq mi (6.37/km2)
Additional information
Time zone
Map showing the location of Midway Atoll in the Hawaiian island chain

Roughly equidistant between North America and Asia, Midway is the only island in the Hawaiian Archipelago that is not part of the state of Hawaii.[1] Unlike the other Hawaiian islands, Midway observes Samoa Time (UTC−11:00, i.e., eleven hours behind Coordinated Universal Time), which is one hour behind the time in the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone used in Hawaii. For statistical purposes, Midway is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, encompassing 590,991.50 acres (239,165.77 ha)[4] of land and water in the surrounding area, is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The refuge and most of its surrounding area are part of the larger Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

From 1941 until 1993, the atoll was the home of Naval Air Facility Midway Island, which played a crucial role in the Battle of Midway, June 4–6, 1942. Aircraft based at the then-named Henderson Field on Eastern Island joined with United States Navy ships and planes in an attack on a Japanese battle group that sank four carriers, one heavy cruiser and defended the atoll from invasion. The battle was a critical Allied victory and a major turning point of the Pacific campaign of World War II.

About 40 people live on the atoll, mostly staff of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and contract workers. Visitation to the atoll is possible only for business reasons, which includes permanent and temporary staff, contractors, and volunteers, as the tourism program has been suspended due to budget cutbacks. In 2012, the last year that the visitor program was in operation, 332 people made the trip to Midway.[5][6][7][8][9] Tours focused on both the unique ecology of Midway, as well as its military history. The economy is derived solely from governmental sources and tourist fees. Nearly all supplies must be brought to the island by ship or plane, although a hydroponic greenhouse and garden supply some fresh fruits and vegetables.


As its name suggests, Midway is roughly equidistant between North America and Asia, and lies almost halfway around the world longitudinally from Greenwich, England. It is near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, 1,310 miles (2,110 km) northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, and about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo, Japan. Unlike the rest of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Midway is not part of the State of Hawaii due to the Hawaiian Organic Act of 1900 that formally annexed Hawaii to the United States as a territory, which defined Hawaii as "the islands acquired by the United States of America under an Act of Congress entitled 'Joint resolution to provide for annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States,'" referring to the Newlands Resolution of 1898. While it could be argued that Midway became part of Hawaii when Captain N.C. Brooks of the sealing ship Gambia sighted it in 1859, it was assumed at the time that Midway was independently acquired by the United States when Captain William Reynolds of USS Lackawanna visited in 1867, and thus not part of the Hawaii Territory.

In defining which islands the State of Hawaii would inherit from the Territory, the Hawaii Admission Act of 1959 clarified the question, specifically excluding Midway (along with Palmyra Island, Johnston Island, and Kingman Reef) from the jurisdiction of the state.[10]

Midway Atoll is approximately 140 nmi (260 km; 160 mi) east of the International Date Line, about 2,800 nmi (5,200 km; 3,200 mi) west of San Francisco, and 2,200 nmi (4,100 km; 2,500 mi) east of Tokyo.

Geography and geology

Geography of Midway Atoll[11]
Island Acres Hectares
Sand Island 1,117 452
Eastern Island 336 136
Spit Island 15 6
Total land 1,549 627
Submerged reef/ocean 580,392 234,876
Enlargeable, detailed map of Midway Atoll

Midway Atoll is part of a chain of volcanic islands, atolls, and seamounts extending from the Island of Hawaii up to the tip of the Aleutian Islands and known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, between Pearl and Hermes Atoll and Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. It consists of a ring-shaped barrier reef nearly five mi (8.0 km) in diameter[11] and several sand islets. The two significant pieces of land, Sand Island and Eastern Island, provide a habitat for millions of seabirds. The island sizes are shown in the table above. The atoll, which has a small population (approximately 60 in 2014,[12] but no indigenous inhabitants), is designated an insular area under the authority of the United States Department of the Interior.

Midway was formed roughly 28 million years ago when the seabed underneath it was over the same hotspot from which the Island of Hawaii is now being formed. In fact, Midway was once a shield volcano, perhaps as large as the island of Lānaʻi. As the volcano piled up lava flows building the island, its weight depressed the crust and the island slowly subsided over a period of millions of years, a process known as isostatic adjustment.

As the island subsided, a coral reef around the former volcanic island was able to maintain itself near sea level by growing upwards. That reef is now over 516 ft (157 m) thick[13] (in the lagoon, 1,261 ft (384 m), comprised mostly post-Miocene limestones with a layer of upper Miocene (Tertiary g) sediments and lower Miocene (Tertiary e) limestones at the bottom overlying the basalts). What remains today is a shallow water atoll about 6 mi (9.7 km) across. Following Kure Atoll, Midway is the 2nd most northerly atoll in the world.


The atoll has some 20 mi (32 km) of roads, 4.8 mi (7.7 km) of pipelines, one port on Sand Island (World Port Index Nr. 56328, MIDWAY ISLAND), and an airfield. As of 2004, Henderson Field airfield at Midway Atoll, with its one active runway (rwy 06/24, around 8,000 ft (2,400 m) long) has been designated as an emergency diversion airport for aircraft flying under ETOPS rules. Although the FWS closed all airport operations on November 22, 2004, public access to the island was restored from March 2008.[14]

Eastern Island Airstrip is a disused airfield that was in use by U.S. forces during the Battle of Midway. It is mostly constructed of Marston Mat and was built by the United States Navy Seabees.

360 degree panoramic view of the low-lying landscape of Eastern Island, Midway Atoll


Despite being located at 28°12′N, which is north of the Tropic of Cancer, Midway Atoll has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen As)[15] with very pleasant year-round temperatures. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with only two months being able to be classified as dry season months (May and June).

Climate data for Midway Atoll
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 80
Average high °F (°C) 70.0
Average low °F (°C) 62.2
Record low °F (°C) 51
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.85
Average precipitation days 16 14 12 11 9 9 15 15 15 14 14 16 160
Source: Western Regional Climate Center[16]


Historical population
2014 (est.)40[17]

Midway has no indigenous inhabitants and was uninhabited until the 19th century.

19th century

The atoll was sighted on July 5, 1859, by Captain N.C. Brooks, of the sealing ship Gambia.[18][19] The islands were named the "Middlebrook Islands".[18] Brooks claimed Midway for the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, which authorized Americans to occupy uninhabited islands temporarily to obtain guano. There is no record of any attempt to mine guano on the island.[20] On August 28, 1867, Captain William Reynolds of USS Lackawanna formally took possession of the atoll for the United States;[21] the name changed to "Midway" some time after this. The atoll was the first Pacific island annexed by the United States, as the Unincorporated Territory of Midway Island, and was administered by the United States Navy.

The buildings of the Commercial Pacific Cable Company date back to 1903 (2008).

The first attempt at settlement was in 1870, when the Pacific Mail Steamship Company started a project of blasting and dredging a ship channel through the reef to the lagoon using money put up by the United States Congress. The purpose was to establish a mid-ocean coaling station to avoid the high taxes imposed at ports controlled by the Kingdom of Hawai'i. The project was a failure, and the USS Saginaw evacuated the channel project's work force in October 1870. The ship ran aground on 21 October at Kure Atoll, stranding 93 men. On 18 November, five men set out in a small boat to seek help. On 19 December, four of the men perished when the boat was upset in the breakers off of Kauai. The survivor reached the U.S. Consulate in Honolulu on Christmas Eve. Relief ships were despatched and reached Kure Atoll on 4 January 1871. The survivors of the Saginaw wreck reached Honolulu on 14 January 1871.

Early 20th century

Midway Atoll in November 1941, looking west

In 1903, workers for the Commercial Pacific Cable Company took up residence on the island as part of the effort to lay a trans-Pacific telegraph cable. These workers introduced many non-native species to the island, including the canary, cycad, Norfolk Island pine, she-oak, coconut, and various deciduous trees; along with ants, cockroaches, termites, centipedes, and countless others.

On January 20, 1903, the United States Navy opened a radio station in response to complaints from cable company workers about Japanese squatters and poachers. Between 1904 and 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt stationed 21 Marines on the island to end wanton destruction of bird life and keep Midway safe as a U.S. possession, protecting the cable station.

In 1935, operations began for the Martin M-130 flying boats operated by Pan American Airlines. The M-130s island-hopped from San Francisco to the Republic of China, providing the fastest and most luxurious route to the Far East and bringing tourists to Midway until 1941. Only the very wealthy could afford the trip, which in the 1930s cost more than three times the annual salary of an average American. With Midway on the route between Honolulu and Wake Island, the flying boats landed in the atoll and pulled up to a float offshore in the lagoon. Tourists transferred to the Pan Am Hotel or the "Gooneyville Lodge", named after the ubiquitous "Gooney birds" (albatrosses).

World War II

World War II Facilities at Midway
Burning oil tanks during the Battle of Midway
LocationSand Island, Midway Islands, United States Minor Outlying Islands
ArchitectUnited States Navy
NRHP reference No.87001302
Significant dates
Added to NRHPMay 28, 1987[22] [23]
Designated NHLDMay 28, 1987[24]

The location of Midway in the Pacific became important militarily. Midway was a convenient refueling stop on transpacific flights, and was also an important stop for Navy ships. Beginning in 1940, as tensions with the Japanese rose, Midway was deemed second only to Pearl Harbor in importance to the protection of the U.S. West Coast. Airstrips, gun emplacements and a seaplane base quickly materialized on the tiny atoll.[25]

The channel was widened, and Naval Air Station Midway was completed. Midway was also an important submarine base.[25]

On February 14, 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8682 to create naval defense areas in the central Pacific territories. The proclamation established "Midway Island Naval Defensive Sea Area", which encompassed the territorial waters between the extreme high-water marks and the three mi (4.8 km) marine boundaries surrounding Midway. "Midway Island Naval Airspace Reservation" was also established to restrict access to the airspace over the naval defense sea area. Only U.S. government ships and aircraft were permitted to enter the naval defense areas at Midway Atoll unless authorized by the Secretary of the Navy.

Midway's importance to the U.S. was brought into focus on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Midway was attacked by two destroyers on the same day,[25] and the Japanese force was successfully repulsed in the first American victory of the war. A Japanese submarine bombarded Midway on February 10, 1942.[26]

Four months later, on June 4, 1942, a major naval battle near Midway resulted in the U.S. Navy inflicting a devastating defeat on the Imperial Japanese Navy. Four Japanese fleet aircraft carriers, Akagi, Kaga, Hiryū and Sōryū, were sunk, along with the loss of hundreds of Japanese aircraft, losses that the Japanese Empire would never be able to replace. The U.S. lost the aircraft carrier Yorktown, along with a number of its carrier- and land-based aircraft that were either shot down by Japanese forces or bombed on the ground at the airfields. The Battle of Midway was, by most accounts, the beginning of the end of the Imperial Japanese Navy's control of the Pacific Ocean.[27]

Starting in July 1942, a submarine tender was always stationed at the atoll to support submarines patrolling Japanese waters. In 1944, a floating dry dock joined the tender.[28] After the Battle of Midway, a second airfield was developed, this one on Sand Island. This work necessitated enlarging the size of the island through land fill techniques, that when concluded, more than doubled the size of the island.

Korean and Vietnam Wars

From August 1, 1941, to 1945, it was occupied by U.S. military forces. In 1950, the Navy decommissioned Naval Air Station Midway, only to re-commission it again to support the Korean War. Thousands of troops on ships and aircraft stopped at Midway for refueling and emergency repairs. From 1968 to September 10, 1993, Midway Island was a Naval Air Facility.

With about 3,500 people living on Sand Island, Midway also supported the U.S. troops during the Vietnam War. In June 1969, President Richard Nixon held a secret meeting with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu at the Officer-in-Charge house or "Midway House".

Missile Impact Location System

From 1958 through 1960 the United States installed the Missile Impact Location System (MILS) in the Navy managed Pacific Missile Range, later the Air Force managed Western Range, to localize the splash downs of test missile nose cones. MILS was developed and installed by the same entities that had completed the first phase of the Atlantic and U.S. West Coast SOSUS systems. A MILS installation, consisting of both a target array for precision location and a broad ocean area system for good positions outside the target area, was installed at Midway as part of the system supporting Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) tests. Other Pacific MILS shore terminals were at the Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay supporting Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) tests with impact areas northeast of Hawaii and the other ICBM test support systems at Wake Island and Eniwetok.[29][30][31]

Lofargram writers on NAVFAC watch floor.

During the Cold War the U.S. established a shore terminal, in which output of the array at sea was processed and displayed by means of the Low Frequency Analyzer and Recorder (LOFAR), of the Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS), Naval Facility (NAVFAC) Midway Island, to track Soviet submarines. The facility became operational in 1968 and was commissioned January 13, 1969. It remained secret until its decommissioning on September 30, 1983, after data from its arrays had been remoted first to Naval Facility Barbers Point, Hawaii, in 1981 and then directly to the Naval Ocean Processing Facility (NOPF) Ford Island, Hawaii.[29][32] U.S. Navy WV-2 (EC-121K) "Willy Victor" radar aircraft flew night and day as an extension of the Distant Early Warning Line, and antenna fields covered the islands.

Civilian handover

The unofficial flag of Midway Atoll, designed by local Fish and Wildlife Service employee Steve Dryden, was introduced on June 4th, 2000, the 58th anniversary of the Battle of Midway.[33][34]

In 1978, the Navy downgraded Midway from a Naval Air Station to a Naval Air Facility and large numbers of personnel and dependents began leaving the island. With the war in Vietnam over, and with the introduction of reconnaissance satellites and nuclear submarines, Midway's significance to U.S. national security was diminished. The World War II facilities at Sand and Eastern Islands were listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, and were simultaneously added as a National Historic Landmark.[24]

As part of the Base Realignment and Closure process, the Navy facility on Midway has been operationally closed since September 10, 1993, although the Navy assumed responsibility for cleaning up environmental contamination.

2011 tsunami

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11 caused many deaths among the bird population on Midway.[35] It was reported that a 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high wave completely submerged the atoll's reef inlets and Spit Island, killing more than 110,000 nesting seabirds at the National Wildlife Refuge.[36] Scientists on the island, however, do not think it will have long-term negative impacts on the bird populations.[37]

A U.S. Geological Survey study found that the Midway Atoll, Laysan, and Pacific islands like them could become inundated and unfit to live on during the 21st century, due to increased storm waves and rising sea levels.[38][39]

National Wildlife Refuge and National Monument

Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Navy memorial and gooney monument with Laysan albatross chicks
LocationMidway Atoll
Area2,365.3 km2 (913.2 sq mi)[40]
Governing bodyUnited States Fish & Wildlife Service
WebsiteMidway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial

Midway was designated an overlay National Wildlife Refuge on April 22, 1988, while still under the primary jurisdiction of the Navy.

From August 1996, the general public could visit the atoll through study ecotours.[41] This program ended in 2002,[42] but another visitor program was approved and began operating in March 2008.[14][43] This program operated through 2012, but was suspended for 2013 due to budget cuts.[7]

On October 31, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 13022, which transferred the jurisdiction and control of the atoll to the United States Department of the Interior. The FWS assumed management of the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. The last contingent of Navy personnel left Midway on June 30, 1997, after an ambitious environmental cleanup program was completed.

On September 13, 2000, Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt designated the Wildlife Refuge as the Battle of Midway National Memorial.[44] The refuge is now titled as the "Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial".

On June 15, 2006, President George W. Bush designated the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as a national monument. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument encompasses 105,564 sq nmi (139,798 sq mi; 362,074 km2), and includes 3,910 sq nmi (5,178 sq mi; 13,411 km2) of coral reef habitat.[45] The Monument also includes the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.

In 2007, the Monument's name was changed to Papahānaumokuākea (Hawaiian pronunciation: [ˈpɐpəˈhaːnɔuˈmokuˈaːkeə]) Marine National Monument.[46][47][48] The National Monument is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the State of Hawaii. In 2016 President Obama expanded the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, and added the Office of Hawaiian Affairs as a fourth co-trustee of the monument.


Albatrosses at Midway Atoll

Midway Atoll forms part of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Important Bird Area (IBA), designated as such by BirdLife International because of its seabirds and endemic landbirds.[49] The atoll is a critical habitat in the central Pacific Ocean, and includes breeding habitat for 17 seabird species. A number of native species rely on the island, which is now home to 67–70 percent of the world's Laysan albatross population, and 34–39 percent of the global population of black-footed albatross.[50] A very small number of the very rare short-tailed albatross also have been observed. Fewer than 2,200 individuals of this species are believed to exist due to excessive feather hunting in the late nineteenth century.[51] In 2007–08, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service translocated 42 endangered Laysan ducks to the atoll as part of their efforts to conserve the species.

Over 250 different species of marine life are found in the 300,000 acres (120,000 ha) of lagoon and surrounding waters. The critically endangered Hawaiian monk seals raise their pups on the beaches, relying on the atoll's reef fish, squid, octopus and crustaceans. Green sea turtles, another threatened species, occasionally nest on the island. The first was found in 2006 on Spit Island and another in 2007 on Sand Island. A resident pod of 300 spinner dolphins live in the lagoons and nearshore waters.[52]

The islands of Midway Atoll have been extensively altered as a result of human habitation. Starting in 1869 with the project to blast the reefs and create a port on Sand Island, the environment of Midway atoll has experienced profound changes.

A number of invasive exotics have been introduced; for example, ironwood trees from Australia were planted to act as windbreaks. Of the 200 species of plants on Midway, 75 percent are non-native. Recent efforts have focused on removing non-native plant species and re-planting native species.

Lead paint on the buildings posed an environmental hazard (avian lead poisoning) to the albatross population of the island. In 2018, a project to strip the paint was completed.[53]


Marine debris with Laysan albatross chicks

Midway Atoll, in common with all the Hawaiian Islands, receives substantial amounts of marine debris from the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Consisting of 90 percent plastic, this debris accumulates on the beaches of Midway. This garbage represents a hazard to the bird population of the island. Every year 20 tons of plastic debris washes up on Midway, with 5 tons of that debris being fed to Albatross chicks.[54] The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates at least 100 lb (45 kg) of plastic washes up every week.[55]

Of the 1.5 million Laysan Albatrosses that inhabit Midway, nearly all are found to have plastic in their digestive system.[56] Approximately one-third of the chicks die.[57] These deaths are attributed to the albatrosses confusing brightly colored plastic with marine animals (such as squid and fish) for food.[58] Recent results suggest that oceanic plastic develops a chemical signature that is normally used by seabirds to locate food items.[59]

Because albatross chicks do not develop the reflex to regurgitate until they are four months old, they cannot expel the plastic pieces. Albatrosses are not the only species to suffer from the plastic pollution; sea turtles and monk seals also consume the debris.[58] A variety of plastic items wash upon the shores, from cigarette lighters to toothbrushes and toys. An albatross on Midway can have up to 50 percent of its intestinal tract filled with plastic.[55]


The usual method of reaching Sand Island, Midway Atoll's only populated island, is on chartered aircraft landing at Sand Island's Henderson Field, which also functions as an emergency diversion point runway for transpacific flights.

See also


  1. "MODIS Web: Home >> Images >> Midway Islands". modis.gsfc.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  2. "Ua paʻa na inoa kahiko: Ancient Names Remembered" (PDF). Expand Papahānaumokuākea. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  3. "A visit to Pihemanu". BirdWatching. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  4. System, National Wildlife Refuge. "Lands Report – National Wildlife Refuge System". fws.gov. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  5. Visiting Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. FWS Website.
  6. Volunteer at Midway Atoll NWR. FWS Website.
  7. Ecotourism ends at Midway Atoll . Star-Advertiser, November 16, 2012
  8. Archived December 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Galápagos Travel Website, November 16, 2012.
  9. Archived November 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Photo Safaris Website, November 16, 2012.
  10. Lowenthal, Ben (August 10, 2018). "The State of Aloha". The Maui News. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  11. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. "More About Midway". Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  12. "Hawaii: Midway Atoll – TripAdvisor". tripadvisor.com. Archived from the original on July 11, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  13. Ladd, H. S.; Tracey, J. I. Jr. & Gross, M. G. (1967). "Drilling on Midway Atoll, Hawaii". Science. 156 (3778): 1088–1095. Bibcode:1967Sci...156.1088L. doi:10.1126/science.156.3778.1088. PMID 17774053. S2CID 45853811. Also reprinted here Archived April 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. "Midway Atoll Program to Reopen in March" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008.
  15. "Midway Island Climate Midway Island Temperatures Midway Island Weather Averages". www.midway.climatemps.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  16. "MIDWAY SAND ISLAND, PACIFIC OCEAN NCDC 1971-2000 Monthly Normals". wrcc.dri.edu. Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  17. "Australia-Oceania :: MIDWAY ISLANDS". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  18. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. "Chronology of Events". Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on April 2, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  19. Hawaii. Dept. of the Attorney General (1925). Opinions of the Attorney General of Hawaii. Paradise of the Pacific Press. p. 244. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  20. Hanlon, David (2023), Hattori, Anne Perez; Samson, Jane (eds.), "The USA and the Pacific since 1800: Manifestly Facing West", The Cambridge History of the Pacific Ocean, Cambridge University Press, pp. 563–587, doi:10.1017/9781108226875.030, ISBN 978-1-316-51040-7
  21. "GAO/OGC-98-5 – U.S. Insular Areas: Application of the U.S. Constitution". U.S. Government Printing Office. November 7, 1997. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  22. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
  23. "List of NHLs by state". National Historic Landmarks. National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 23, 2020. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  24. "National Register Database and Research (search term: Midway)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Archived from the original on August 28, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  25. Preparing for War Archived May 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial.
  26. Polmar, Norman; Allen, Thomas B. (August 15, 2012). World War II: the Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941–1945. Courier Corporation. ISBN 9780486479620. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved September 16, 2016 via Google Books.
  27. Taylor, Alan. "World War II: Battle of Midway and the Aleutian Campaign - The Atlantic". www.theatlantic.com. Archived from the original on December 29, 2021. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  28. "After the Battle of Midway". Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. Fish & Wildlife Service. November 23, 2016. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  29. "Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS) History 1950 - 2010". IUSS/CAESAR Alumni Association. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  30. Subcommittee on Military Construction (March–April) (April 29, 1959). Military Construction Appropriations for 1960: Hearings. pp. 169–170. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  31. Subcommittee on Military Construction (May) (May 20, 1959). Military Construction Appropriations for 1960: Hearings. pp. 818, 824. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  32. Commander Undersea Surveillance. "Naval Facility Midway Island January 1969 - September 1983". U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  33. Wheeler, Skip (March 2000). "New Flag for Midway" (PDF). NAVA News. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 6, 2021. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  34. Klimeš, Roman (July–September 2010). "Lesser-Known Symbols of Minor U.S. Possessions: Part 2. Pacific Ocean—Midway" (PDF). NAVA News (207): 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 6, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  35. Brandon Keim (March 15, 2011). "Midway's Albatrosses Survive the Tsunami". Wired. Archived from the original on March 16, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  36. "Tsunami washes away feathered victims west of Hawaii". CNN. March 19, 2011. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
  37. Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Yoneyama, N.; Baba, Y.; Azuma, R. (July 10, 2013), "Field Survey of the Damage Caused by the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami", Natural Disaster Science and Mitigation Engineering: DPRI reports, Springer Japan, pp. 37–48, doi:10.1007/978-4-431-54418-0_4, ISBN 9784431544173
  38. "Storm Surges, Rising Seas Could Doom Pacific Islands This Century Archived April 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine: Atolls and other low-lying islands in the Pacific Ocean may not slip under the waves but they will likely become uninhabitable due to overwashing waves" ClimateWire and Scientific American April 12, 2013
  39. Storlazzi, Curt D.; Berkowitz, Paul; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Logan, Joshua B. (2013). "Forecasting the Impact of Storm Waves and Sea-Level Rise on Midway Atoll and Laysan Island within the Papa hānaumokuākea Marine National Monument — A Comparison of Passive Versus Dynamic Inundation Models" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 15, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  40. "Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge". protectedplanet.net. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  41. "Study Tours of Midway Island". The New York Times. July 7, 1996. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  42. Pandion Systems, Inc. (April 12, 2005). "Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Visitor program market analysis and feasibility study" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  43. "Interim Visitor Services Plan Approved". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. December 8, 2006. Archived from the original on June 4, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  44. "Battle of Midway National Memorial". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. March 22, 2010. Archived from the original on May 2, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2012. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  45. "Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument". noaa.gov. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  46. "Papahānaumokuākea: A Sacred Name, A Sacred Place". Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2008.;
    Hawaiian pronunciation is given here."Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  47. "Fact Sheet: President Obama to Create the World's Largest Marine Protected Area". whitehouse.gov. August 26, 2016. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2016 via National Archives.
  48. "Secretaries Pritzker, Jewell Applaud President's Expansion of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument". commerce.gov. August 26, 2016. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  49. "Northwestern Hawaiian Islands". BirdLife Data Zone. BirdLife International. 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  50. "Midway's albatross population stable – The Honolulu Advertiser – Hawaii's Newspaper". honoluluadvertiser.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  51. "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service — Birds of Midway Atoll". August 19, 2009. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  52. "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service — Marine Life of Midway Atoll". August 19, 2009. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  53. "Millions of Albatrosses Now Lead-free on Midway". American Bird Conservancy. August 17, 2018. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  54. Plastic-Filled Albatrosses Are Pollution Canaries in New Doc Archived February 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Wired. June 29, 2012. Accessed 6-11-13
  55. "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service — Marine Debris: Cigarette Lighters and the Plastic Problem on Midway Atoll" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 21, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  56. Chris Jordan (November 11, 2009). "Midway: Message from the Gyre". Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
  57. "Q&A: Your Midway questions answered". BBC News. March 28, 2008. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
  58. McDonald, Mark (August 23, 2012). "The Fatal Shore Awash in Plastic". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  59. Savoca, M. S.; Wohlfeil, M. E.; Ebeler, S. E.; Nevitt, G. A. (November 2016). "Marine plastic debris emits a keystone infochemical for olfactory foraging seabirds". Science Advances. 2 (11): e1600395. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E0395S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600395. PMC 5569953. PMID 28861463.

Further reading

Natural history

  • Hubert, Mabel, Carl Frings, and H. Franklin Sounds of Midway: Calls of Albatrosses of Midway.
  • Mearns, Edgar Alexander A List of the Birds Collected by Dr. Paul Bartsch in the Philippine Islands, Borneo, Guam, and Midway Island, with Descriptions of Three New Forms.
  • Fisher, Mildred L. (1970). The Albatross of Midway Island: A Natural History of the Laysan Albatross. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-0426-4.
  • Rauzon, Mark J (2001). Isles of Refuge: Wildlife and History of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2209-9.

Military history

  • Fuchida, Mitsuo; Okumiya, Masatake; Kawakami, Clarke H.; Pineau, Roger (1955). Midway: The Battle That Doomed Japan. Naval Institute Press.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1950). Coral Sea, Midway, and Submarine Actions, May, 1942 – August, 1942. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Frank, Pat; Harrington, Joseph D.; Fletcher, Frank; Tanaube, Yahachi (1967). Rendezvous at Midway: U. S. S. Yorktown and the Japanese Carrier Fleet. New York: John Day Co.
  • Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005). Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Herndon, VA: Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-57488-923-9.
  • Prange, Gordon W.; Goldstein, Donald M.; Dillon, Katherine V. (1982). Miracle at Midway. New York: MJF Books. ISBN 1-56731-895-9.
  • Smith, Myron J. (1991). The Battles of Coral Sea and Midway, 1942: A Selected Bibliography (annotated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-28120-4.
  • Toland, John (1974). But Not in Shame: The Six Months after Pearl Harbour. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25748-0.
  • Tuleja, Thaddeus (1983). Climax at Midway. Jove. ISBN 0-515-07403-9.
  • Wildenberg, Thomas (1998). Destined for Glory: Dive Bombing, Midway, and the Evolution of Carrier Airpower. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-947-6.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.