List of rulers of Oman

The sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarchical head of state and head of government of Oman. It is the most powerful position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the Busaid dynasty, which has been the ruling family of Oman since the mid-18th century.

Sultan of Oman
سلطان عمان
Standard of the Sultan of Oman
Haitham bin Tariq
since 11 January 2020
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentTheyazin bin Haitham
First monarchAl-Julanda bin Masud (imamate)
Ahmad bin Said (as Sultan)
Formation751 (751) (imamate)
1744 (1744) (Al Busaid Dynasty)
ResidenceAl Alam Palace
(in Arabic)

Haitham bin Tariq is the current sultan, reigning since 11 January 2020.[1]

List of imams (751–1406)

Imams Tribe Residence Began to reign Reference
Transliteration of the Arab names Names in Arab script
Al-Julanda bin Masud الجلندى بن مسعود Azd Sohar 751 [2]
Mohammed bin Abi Affan محمد بن أبي عفان Azd Nizwa  ? [3]
Al-Warith bin Ka'ab الوارث بن كعب Yahmad Nizwa 801 [4]
Ghassan bin Abdullah غسان بن عبد الله Yahmad Nizwa 807 [5]
Abdulmalik bin Humaid عبد المالك بن حميد Azd  ? 824 [6]
Al-Muhanna bin Jayfar المهنا بن جيفر Yahmad Nizwa 840 [7]
Al-Salt bin Malik الصلت بن مالك Azd  ? 851 [8]
Rashid bin Al-Nadhar راشد بن النظر  ?  ? 886 [9]
Azzan bin Tamim عزان بن تميم  ? Nizwa 890 [10]
Mohammed bin Al-Hassan محمد بن الحسن Azd  ? 897 [11]
Azzan bin Al-Hazbar عزان بن الهزبر Yahmad  ? 898 [12]
Abdullah bin Mohammed عبد الله بن محمد  ?  ? 899 [13]
Al-Salt bin Al-Qasim الصلت بن القاسم  ?  ? 900 [14]
Al-Husn bin Said الحسن بن سعيد  ?  ? 900 [15]
Al-Hawari bin Matraf الحواري بن مطرف  ?  ? 904 [16]
Omar bin Mohammed عمر بن محمد  ?  ? 912 [17]
Mohammed bin Yazid محمد بن يزيد Kinda  ?  ? [18]
Al-Hakm bin Al-Milaa Al-Bahri الحكم بن الملا البحري Bahri Nizwa  ? [19]
Said bin Abdullah سعيد بن عبد الله  ?  ? 939 [20]
Rashid bin Waleed راشد بن الوليد  ? Nizwa  ? [21]
Al-Khalil bin Shadhan الخليل بن شاذان Kharusi  ? 1002 [22]
Rashid bin Said راشد بن سعيد Yahmad  ? 1032 [23]
Hafs bin Rashid حفص بن راشد  ?  ? 1068 [24]
Rashid bin Ali راشد بن علي  ?  ? 1054 [25]
Musa bin Jabir ابن جابر موسى  ? Nizwa 1154 [26]
Malik bin Aly مالك بن علي  ?  ? 1406 [27]

List of imams (1406–1749)

Nabhani dynasty (1406–1624)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Muhammed al-Fallah14061435
Abul Hassan of Oman14351451
Omar bin al Khattab14511490
Omar al Sharif14901500
Muhammad bin Ismail15001529Portuguese protectorate imposed on 15 April 1515.
Barakat bin Muhammad15291560
Abdulla bin Muhammad15601624

Yaruba dynasty (1624–1749)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Nasir bin Murshid16241649
Sultan bin Saif16491679Portuguese protectorate ended with their expulsion on 28 January 1650.
Bil'arab bin Sultan16791692
Saif bin Sultan16921711
Sultan bin Saif II17111718
Saif bin Sultan II17181719
Muhanna bin Sultan17191720
Saif bin Sultan II17201722Second reign
Ya'arab bin Bel'arab17221722
Saif bin Sultan II17221724Third reign
Muhammad bin Nasir17241728Not a member of the dynasty
Saif bin Sultan II17281742Fourth reign; at first in the coastal area only
Bal'arab bin Himyar17281737First reign; in the interior
Sultan bin Murshid17421743
Bal'arab bin Himyar17431749Second reign; in the interior

List of sultans (1749–present)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ahmad bin Said
  • أحمد بن سعيد
1694 –
15 December 1783(1783-12-15) (aged 89)
10 June 174915 December 1783From 1744 in the coastal regionBusaid
Said bin Ahmad
  • سعيد بن أحمد
1741 – 1811 (aged 70)15 December 17831786Son of Ahmad bin SaidBusaid
Hamad bin Said
  • حمد بن سعيد
? – 13 March 1792178613 March 1792Son of Said bin AhmadBusaid
Sultan bin Ahmad
  • سلطان بن أحمد
1755 –
17 November 1804 (aged 48–49)
18 March 179217 November 1804Son of Ahmad bin SaidBusaid
Salim bin Sultan
  • سالم بن سلطان
(1790-09-11)11 September 1790 –
4 April 1821(1821-04-04) (aged 30)
18 November 180414 September 1806Son of Sultan bin AhmadBusaid
Said bin Sultan
  • سعيد بن سلطان
(1791-06-05)5 June 1791 –
19 October 1856(1856-10-19) (aged 65)
20 November 180419 October 1856Son of Sultan bin AhmadBusaid
Thuwaini bin Said
  • ثويني بن سعيد
1821 –
11 February 1866(1866-02-11) (aged 45)
19 October 185611 February 1866Son of Said bin SultanBusaid
Salim bin Thuwaini
  • سالم بن ثويني
1839 –
7 December 1876(1876-12-07) (aged 37)
11 February 18663 October 1868
Son of Thuwaini bin SaidBusaid
Azzan bin Qais
  • سعيد بن أحمد
? – 30 January 18713 October 186830 January 1871Great-great-grandson of Ahmad bin SaidBusaid
Turki bin Said
  • تركي بن سعيد
1832 –
4 June 1888(1888-06-04) (aged 56)
30 January 18714 June 1888Son of Said bin SultanBusaid
Faisal bin Turki
  • فيصل بن تركي
(1864-06-08)8 June 1864 –
5 October 1913(1913-10-05) (aged 49)
4 June 18885 October 1913Son of Turki bin SaidBusaid
Taimur bin Faisal
  • تيمور بن فيصل
1886 –
28 January 1965(1965-01-28) (aged 79)
5 October 191310 February 1932
Son of Faisal bin TurkiBusaid
Said bin Taimur
  • سعيد بن تيمور‎
(1910-08-13)13 August 1910 –
19 October 1972(1972-10-19) (aged 62)
10 February 193223 July 1970
Son of Taimur bin FaisalAl Said
Qaboos bin Said
  • قابوس بن سعيد
(1940-11-18)18 November 1940 –
10 January 2020(2020-01-10) (aged 79)
23 July 197010 January 2020Son of Said bin TaimurAl Said
Haitham bin Tariq
  • هيثم بن طارق
(1954-10-13) 13 October 195411 January 2020IncumbentGrandson of Taimur bin FaisalAl Said


Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos did not publicly name an heir. Article 6 of the constitution says the Royal Family Council has three days to choose a new sultan from the date the position falls vacant. If the Royal Family Council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of the Defence Council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the upper and lower houses of the consultative assemblies.[28] Analysts saw the rules as an elaborate means of Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it was considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.[28]

Qaboos had no children, and only one sister, Sayyida Umaima, but no male siblings; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur, Oman's first prime minister and the Sultan's former father-in-law. Oman watchers believed the top contenders to succeed Qaboos were three of Tariq's sons: Asa'ad bin Tariq, Deputy Prime Minister[29] for International Relations and Cooperation[30] and the Sultan's special representative; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired commander of the Royal Navy of Oman; and Haitham bin Tariq, Minister of Heritage and National Culture.[28][31]

On 11 January 2020, Oman state TV said the Royal Family Council, in a letter to the Defense Council, had decided to defer to the choice that Qaboos named in his will, and thus had opened the letter by Qaboos naming his successor, announcing shortly that Haitham bin Tariq is the country's ruling sultan.[32] Haitham has two sons and two daughters.[33][34]

On 12 January 2021, the current Sultan, Haitham bin Tariq officially changed the Basic Law of State, stipulating the creation of the post for the Crown Prince of Oman and appointed his first son, Theyazin bin Haitham as the apparent successor, making him the first Crown Prince of the Sultanate.[35]

2021 changes

On 11 January 2021, the new Sultan, Haitham bin Tariq changed the Basic law of the state and charted out the procedures for succession in the future.

As per the new rules, the power shall be transferred from the Sultan to his eldest son and then to the eldest son of the Heir Apparent. In case the eldest son of the sultan is no more, then the power will be transferred to the eldest son of the Heir Apparent.

If the Heir Apparent has no sons, then the power should be transferred to the eldest of his brothers. In Case the heir apparent has no brothers, then the powers shall transfer to the son of the eldest of his brothers and so on as per the sequence of the ages of the brothers.

In case there exists no brothers or sons of brothers to the Heir Apparent, then the rule shall transfer to the uncles (only from the fathers' side) and their sons as per the order set by the paragraph (2) of the Basic Law of the State. It is also stated the Heir apparent must be a Muslim and legitimate son of Omani Muslim parents.

Article (3) of the Law states that if the transfer of power is made to a person aged under 21, then the power of the Sultan shall be undertaken by a trusteeship council appointed by a Royal Will and in case of non-appointment of such a council before his death, the Royal Family Council will appoint a trusteeship council comprising one of the brothers of the Sultan and two sons of his uncles.

The system of the trusteeship council shall be issued by a Royal Decree.  Article (7) states that a Royal Order shall be issued on the appointment of the Heir Apparent to assume power and the prerogatives and duties to be assigned to him.   

The Heir Apparent shall be sworn in before the Sultan before exercising his prerogatives and duties.

Article (8) says that in case it is not temporarily possible for the Sultan to exercise his powers, then the Heir Apparent shall assume such powers.

See also


  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (Pre-Islam – 12th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (13th Century AD – 18th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  • "The Al Bu Said Dynasty". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 12 May 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  1. "Oman's new ruler Haitham bin Tariq takes oath: newspapers". Reuters. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 7
  3. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 9
  4. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 10
  5. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 12
  6. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 15
  7. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 16
  8. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  9. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  10. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 20
  11. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  12. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  13. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  14. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  15. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  16. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  17. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 27
  18. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 28
  19. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  20. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  21. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 30
  22. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  23. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  24. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  25. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  26. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  27. Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  28. Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  29. "In Oman, a train-of-succession mystery: Who follows Qaboos?". Christian Science Monitor. 17 April 2017.
  30. "Here is why Social Development Ministry honoured 32 private firms". Times of Oman. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  31. "Sultan Qaboos of Oman dies aged 79". 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  32. "Oman names culture minister as successor to Sultan Qaboos". AP NEWS. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  33. "Oman's new ruler chosen to provide continuity". Reuters. 11 January 2020 via
  34. "Who is the new Sultan of Oman?". Tehran Times. 13 January 2020.
  35. "Sultan's eldest son will become Oman's crown prince, new decree says". Arab News. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2021.


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