A monarch is a head of state[1][2] for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Usually a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may proclaim themself monarch, which may be backed and legitimated through acclamation, right of conquest or a combination of means.

If a young child is crowned the monarch, then a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) wielding genuine sovereignty; on the other they may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no direct power or only reserve powers, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy).

A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom (as well as 14 other Commonwealth realms) are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union.


Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor of China, Emperor of Ethiopia, Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke of Luxembourg), emir (e.g., Emir of Qatar), sultan (e.g., Sultan of Oman), or pharaoh.

Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, and is generally (but not always) associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family (whose rule over a period of time is referred to as a dynasty) and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood (male preference or absolute), primogeniture, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have also ruled, and the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king.

Some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors[3] (chosen by prince-electors, but often coming from the same dynasty) and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (lit. ‘He Who is Made Lord') of Malaysia, who is appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death,[4] and the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals.

In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become republics. Advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership,[5] as illustrated in the classic phrase "The [old] King is dead. Long live the [new] King!". In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a ceremonial figure (e.g., most modern constitutional monarchies), real leadership does not depend on the monarch.

A form of government may, in fact, be hereditary without being considered a monarchy, such as a family dictatorship.


Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held simultaneously by the Roman Catholic bishop of Urgel (Spain) and the elected president of France (although strictly Andorra is a diarchy). Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time.


Contemporary European monarchies by type of succession

Hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common (but see the Rain Queen), with a preference for children over siblings, and sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the medieval era and sometimes (e.g., Ernestine duchies) into the 19th century. Other European realms practiced one or another form of primogeniture, in which a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters.

The system of tanistry practiced among Celtic tribes was semi-elective and gave weight also to ability and merit.[6][7]

The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed (semi-Salic law). In most realms, daughters and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives (male-preference primogeniture), but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, and most often also received the title, jure uxoris. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic.

As the average life span increased, the eldest son was more likely to reach majority age before the death of his father, and primogeniture became increasingly favored over proximity, tanistry, seniority, and election.

In 1980, Sweden became the first monarchy to declare equal primogeniture, absolute primogeniture or full cognatic primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne.[8] Other nations have since adopted this practice: Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, Belgium in 1991, Denmark in 2009, and Luxembourg in 2011.[9][10] The United Kingdom adopted absolute (equal) primogeniture on April 25, 2013, following agreement by the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth Realms at the 22nd Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.[11]

In some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia, succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother and so on through his other brothers, and only after them to the monarch's children (agnatic seniority). In some other monarchies (e.g., Jordan), the monarch chooses who will be his successor within the royal family, who need not necessarily be his eldest son.

Whatever the rules of succession, there have been many cases of a monarch being overthrown and replaced by a usurper who would often install his own family on the throne.


Monarchs in Africa

Ramesses II (r. 1279–1213 BC), the third Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

A series of Pharaohs ruled Ancient Egypt over the course of three millennia (c.3150 BC to 31 BC) until it was conquered by the Roman Empire. In the same time period several kingdoms flourished in the nearby Nubia region, with at least one of them, that of the so-called A-Group culture, apparently influencing the customs of Egypt itself. From the 6th to 19th centuries, Egypt was variously part of the Byzantine Empire, Islamic Empire, Mamluk Sultanate, Ottoman Empire and British Empire with a distant monarch. The Sultanate of Egypt was a short-lived protectorate of the United Kingdom from 1914 until 1922 when it became the Kingdom of Egypt and Sultan Fuad I changed his title to King. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the monarchy was dissolved and Egypt became a republic.

West Africa hosted the Kanem Empire (700–1376) and its successor, the Bornu principality which survives to the present day as one of the traditional states of Nigeria.

Mohamoud Ali Shire, the 26th Sultan of the Somali Warsangali Sultanate

In the Horn of Africa, the Kingdom of Aksum and later the Zagwe dynasty, Ethiopian Empire (1270–1974), and Aussa Sultanate were ruled by a series of monarchs. Haile Selassie, the last Emperor of Ethiopia, was deposed in a communist coup. Various Somali Sultanates also existed, including the Adal Sultanate (led by the Walashma dynasty of the Ifat Sultanate), Sultanate of Mogadishu, Ajuran Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, Geledi Sultanate, Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo.

Central and Southern Africa were largely isolated from other regions until the modern era, but they did later feature kingdoms like the Kingdom of Kongo (1400–1914).

The Zulu people formed a powerful Zulu Kingdom in 1816, one that was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal in 1897. The Zulu king continues to hold a hereditary title and an influential cultural position in contemporary South Africa, although he has no direct political power. Other tribes in the country, such as the Xhosa and the Tswana, have also had and continue to have a series of kings and chiefs (namely the Inkosis and the Kgosis) whose local precedence is recognised, but who exercise no legal authority.

As part of the Scramble for Africa, Europeans conquered, bought, or established African kingdoms and styled themselves as monarchs due to them.

Currently, the African nations of Morocco, Lesotho, and Eswatini (Swaziland) are sovereign monarchies under dynasties that are native to the continent. Places like St. Helena, Ceuta, Melilla and the Canary Islands are ruled by the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or the King of Spain. So-called "sub-national monarchies" of varying sizes can be found all over the rest of the continent, e.g., the Yoruba city-state of Akure in south-western Nigeria is something of an elective monarchy: its reigning Oba, the Deji, has to be chosen by an electoral college of nobles from amongst a finite collection of royal princes of the realm upon the death or removal of an incumbent.

Monarchs in Europe

A map of Europe exhibiting the continent's monarchies (red) and republics (blue)
Elizabeth II was the monarch of independent countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.

Within the Holy Roman Empire different titles were used by nobles exercising various degrees of sovereignty within their borders (see below). Such titles were granted or recognised by the Emperor or Pope. Adoption of a new title to indicate sovereign or semi-sovereign status was not always recognized by other governments or nations, sometimes causing diplomatic problems.

During the nineteenth century, many small monarchies in Europe merged with other territories to form larger entities, and following World War I and World War II, many monarchies were abolished, but of those remaining, all except Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Vatican City, and Monaco were headed by a king or queen.

As of 2022, in Europe there are twelve monarchies: seven kingdoms (Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom), one grand duchy (Luxembourg), one papacy (Vatican City), and two principalities (Liechtenstein and Monaco), as well as one diarchy principality (Andorra).

Monarchs in Asia

In China, before the abolition of the monarchy in 1912, the Emperor of China was traditionally regarded as the ruler of "All under heaven". "King" is the usual translation for the term wang (), the sovereign before the Qin dynasty and during the Ten Kingdoms period. During the early Han dynasty, China had a number of kingdoms, each about the size of a province and subordinate to the Emperor.

In Korea, Daewang (great king), or Wang (king), was a Chinese royal style used in many states rising from the dissolution of Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla and Balhae, Goryeo, Joseon. The legendary Dangun Wanggeom founded the first kingdom, Gojoseon. Some scholars maintain that the term Dangun also refers to a title used by all rulers of Gojoseon and that Wanggeom is the proper name of the founder. Gyuwon Sahwa (1675) describes The Annals of the Dangun as a collection of nationalistic legends. The monarchs of Goguryeo and some monarchs of Silla used the title Taewang, meaning "Greatest King". The early monarchs of Silla used the titles of Geoseogan, Chachaung, Isageum, and finally Maripgan until 503. The title Gun (prince) can refer to the dethroned rulers of the Joseon dynasty as well. Under the Korean Empire (1897–1910), the rulers of Korea were given the title of Hwangje, meaning the "Emperor". Today, Members of the Korean Imperial family continue to participate in numerous traditional ceremonies, and groups exist to preserve Korea's imperial heritage.

The Japanese monarchy is now the only monarchy to still use the title of Emperor.

In modern history, between 1925 and 1979, Iran was ruled by two Emperors from the Pahlavi dynasty that used the title of "Shahanshah" (or "King of Kings"). The last Iranian Shahanshah was King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was forced to abdicate the throne as a result of a revolution in Iran. In fact the Persian (Iranian) kingdom goes back to about 2,700 BC (see list of Kings of Persia), but reached its ultimate height and glory when King Cyrus the Great (known as "The Great Kourosh" in Iran) started the Achaemenid dynasty. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.

Thailand and Bhutan are like the United Kingdom in that they are constitutional monarchies ruled by a King. Jordan and many other Middle Eastern monarchies are ruled by a Malik and parts of the United Arab Emirates, such as Dubai, are still ruled by monarchs.

Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area and the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria). It was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud in 1932, although the conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in 1902 when he captured Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud; succession to the throne was limited to sons of Ibn Saud until 2015, when a grandson was elevated to Crown Prince. The Saudi Arabian government has been an absolute monarchy since its inception, and designates itself as Islamic. The King bears the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to the two holiest places in Islam: Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, and Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina.

Oman is led by Sultan Haitham bin Tariq Al Said. The Kingdom of Jordan is one of the Middle East's more modern monarchies is also ruled by a Malik. In Arab and Arabized countries, Malik (absolute King) is the absolute word to render a monarch and is superior to all other titles. Nepal abolished their monarchy in 2008. Sri Lanka had a complex system of monarchies from 543 BC to 1815. Between 47–42 BC, Anula of Sri Lanka became the country's first female head of state as well as Asia's first head of state.

In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the Supreme Lord of the Federation) is de facto rotated every five years among the nine Rulers of the Malay states of Malaysia (those nine of the thirteen states of Malaysia that have hereditary royal rulers), elected by Majlis Raja-Raja (Conference of Rulers).

Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan of Brunei is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers, since 1962. The Prime Minister of Brunei is a title held by the Sultan. As the prime minister, the Sultan presides over the cabinet.

King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia

Cambodia has been a kingdom since the 1st century. The power of the absolute monarchy was reduced when it became the French Protectorate of Cambodia from 1863 to 1953. It returned to an absolute monarchy from 1953 until the establishment of a republic following the 1970 coup. The monarchy was restored as a constitutional monarchy in 1993 with the king as a largely symbolic figurehead.

Sri Lankan King Devanampiya Tissa, Queen consort Anula, and Prince Uththiya, c.307 BC

In the Philippines, the pre-Colonial Filipino nobility, variously titled the harì (today meaning "king"), Lakan, Raja and Datu belonged to the caste called Uring Maharlika (Noble Class). When the islands were annexed to the Spanish Empire in the late 16th century, the Spanish monarch became the sovereign while local rulers often retained their prestige as part of the Christianised nobility called the Principalía. After the Spanish–American War, the country was ceded to the United States of America and made into a territory and eventually a Commonwealth, thus ending monarchism. While the Philippines is currently a republic, the Sultan of Sulu and Sultan of Maguindanao retain their titles only for ceremonial purposes but are considered ordinary citizens by the 1987 Constitution.

Bhutan has been an independent kingdom since 1907. The first Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) was elected and thereafter became a hereditary absolute monarchy. It became a constitutional monarchy in 2008.

Tibet was a monarchy since the Tibetan Empire in the 6th century. It was ruled by the Yuan dynasty following the Mongol invasion in the 13th century and became an effective diarchy with the Dalai Lama as co-ruler. It came under the rule of the Chinese Qing dynasty from 1724 until 1912 when it gained de facto independence. The Dalai Lama became an absolute temporal monarch until the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951.

Nepal was a monarchy for most of its history until becoming a federal republic in 2008.

Monarchs in the Americas

Jacques I, Emperor of Haiti, 1804
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, by Delfim da Câmara
Francisco Pizarro meets with the Inca emperor Atahualpa, 1532

The concept of monarchy existed in the Americas long before the arrival of European colonialists.[12][13] When the Europeans arrived they referred to these tracts of land within territories of different aboriginal groups to be kingdoms, and the leaders of these groups were often referred to by the Europeans as Kings, particularly hereditary leaders.[14]

Pre-colonial titles that were used included:

The first local monarch to emerge in North America after colonization was Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared himself Emperor of Haiti on September 22, 1804.[15] Haiti again had an emperor, Faustin I from 1849 to 1859. In South America, Brazil[16] had a royal house ruling as emperor between 1822 and 1889, under Emperors Pedro I and Pedro II.

Between 1931 and 1983 nine other previous British colonies attained independence as kingdoms. All, including Canada, are in a personal union relationship under a shared monarch. Therefore, though today there are legally ten American monarchs, one person occupies each distinct position.

In addition to these sovereign states, there are also a number of sub-national ones. In Bolivia, for example, the Afro-Bolivian king claims descent from an African dynasty that was taken from its homeland and sold into slavery. Though largely a ceremonial title today, the position of king of the Afro-Bolivians is officially recognized by the government of Bolivia.

Male title Female title Realm Examples
Emperor Empress Empire Haiti (1804–1806) & (1849–1859), Brazil (1822–1889), Mexico (1821–1823) & (1864–1867), Sapa Inca
King Queen Kingdom Haiti (1811–1820), Brazil (1815-1822), Canada, Jamaica, the Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis

Monarchs in Oceania

Polynesian societies were ruled by an ariki from ancient times. The title is variously translated as "supreme chief", "paramount chief" or "king".

The Kingdom of Tahiti was founded in 1788. Sovereignty was ceded to France in 1880 although descendants of the Pōmare dynasty claim the title of King of Tahiti.

The Kingdom of Hawaii was established in 1795 and overthrown in 1893.

An independent Kingdom of Rarotonga was established in 1858. It became a protectorate of the United Kingdom at its own request in 1893.

Seru Epenisa Cakobau ruled the short-lived Kingdom of Fiji, a constitutional monarchy, from 1871 to 1874 when he voluntarily ceded sovereignty of the islands to the United Kingdom. After independence in 1970, the Dominion of Fiji retained the British monarch as head of state until it became a republic following a military coup in 1987.

Australia, New Zealand (including the Cook Islands and Niue), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu are sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that currently have Charles III as their reigning constitutional monarch.

The Pitcairn Islands are part of the British Overseas Territories with Charles III as the reigning constitutional monarch.

Tonga is the only remaining sovereign kingdom in Oceania. It has had a monarch since the 10th century and became a constitutional monarchy in 1875. In 2008, King George Tupou V relinquished most of the powers of the monarchy and the position is now largely ceremonial.

In New Zealand the position of Māori King was established in 1858. The role is largely cultural and ceremonial and has no legal power.

Uvea, Alo and Sigave in the French territory of Wallis and Futuna have non-sovereign elective monarchs.

Titles and precedence in Europe

The usage and meaning of a monarch's specific title have historically been defined by tradition, law and diplomatic considerations.

Note that some titles borne by monarchs have several meanings and may not exclusively designate a monarch. A Prince may be a person of royal blood (some languages uphold this distinction, see Fürst). A Duke may belong to a peerage and hold a dukedom (title) but no duchy (territory). In Imperial Russia, a Grand Duke was a son or patrilineal grandson of the Tsar or Tsarina. Holders of titles in these alternative meanings did not enjoy the same status as monarchs of the same title.

Within the Holy Roman Empire, there were numerous titles used by noblemen whose authority within their territory sometimes approached sovereignty, even though they acknowledged the Holy Roman Emperor as suzerain; Elector, Grand Duke, Margrave, Landgrave and Count Palatine, as well as secular princes like kings, dukes, princes and "princely counts" (Gefürstete Grafen), and ecclesiastical princes like Prince-Archbishops, Prince-Bishops and Prince-Abbots. A ruler with a title below emperor or king might still be regarded as a monarch, outranking a nobleman of the same ostensible title (e.g., Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, a reigning sovereign, and his younger brother, Claude, Duke of Guise, a nobleman in the peerage of France).

The table below lists titles in approximate order of precedence. According to protocol any holder of a title indicating sovereignty took precedence over any non-sovereign titleholder.

Male version Female version Realm Notes and examples
Pope Women cannot hold the office of Pope Papacy Successor of St. Peter, Bishop of Rome, Head of the Roman Catholic Church, Monarch of the Papal States and later Sovereign of the State of Vatican City. As senior ruler in Medieval Christendom, the Pope held precedence over all other titles and offices. The Papacy is a celibate office always forbidden to women; in English however, reports of female popes such as (Pope Joan) refer to them as pope and Popess; the term is used, among other things, for the second trump in the Tarot deck; some European languages also have a feminine form of the word pope, such as the Italian papessa, the French papesse, the Portuguese/Spanish papisa and the German Päpstin.
Emperor Empress Empire Today: Japan (the only remaining enthroned emperor in the world). Historical: Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, First and Second Bulgarian Empire, Serbian Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire, Korean Empire, Mongol Empire, Imperial China, First and Second French Empire, Austrian Empire, First Mexican Empire, Empire of Brazil, German Empire (none left in Europe after 1918), Emperor of India (ceased to be used after 1947 when India was granted independence from the British Empire).

The German title Kaiser and the Bulgarian/Serbian title Tsar were both derived from the Latin word Caesar, intended to mean Emperor. One of the titles of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire was Kaysar-i-Rûm (Emperor of Rome), Kaysar being a rough transliteration of Caesar (Emperor) into Ottoman Turkish. Kaisar-i-Hind, derived from the German word Kaiser, was the Urdu translation of "Emperor of India".

King Queen Kingdom Common in larger sovereign states. Similar titles on other Germanic languages, e.g. Konge/Dronning in Danish, Koning/Koningin in Dutch, König/Königin in German.
Viceroy Vicereine Viceroyalty Literally a vice or deputy king, from the French vice-roi. An official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.

Historical: Spanish Empire (Viceroy of Peru, Viceroy of New Spain, Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, Viceroyalty of New Granada), Portuguese Empire (Viceroy of India, Viceroy of Brazil), British Empire (Viceroy of India), Russian Empire (Viceroyalty of the Caucasus). The title Viceré was used in the Italian Colonial Empire. An equivalent office called the "Exarch" was used in the Byzantine Empire.

Archduke Archduchess Archduchy Historical: Unique to the House of Habsburg which ruled the Archduchy of Austria; title used for all members of the dynasty
Grand Duke Grand Duchess Grand Duchy Today: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Historical examples include Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
Duke Duchess Duchy, Dukedom There are no remaining independent duchies, although there are the sub-national Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster in England. Historical examples include the Duchy of Normandy, Duchy of Milan and Duchy of Prussia .
Prince Princess Principality, Princely state, Princedom Today: Monaco, Liechtenstein, Sovereign Military Order of Malta; Andorra (Co-Princes). Historical: Principality of Albania, Serbia. Self-proclaimed micronations claiming to be principalities include the Sealand, Seborga and Hutt River.
Marquis Marquise Marquisate/March A continental rank below that of a Duke but above a Count. British version is Marquess. Although Margrave shares word-origin, in Germany it referred to rulers (of Margraviates) rather than nobles. Historical examples: Marquess of Queensbury, Marquisate of Saluzzo, Marquisate of Mantua.
Count/Earl Countess County/Earldom/Shire Count is most common term for a continental, middle-ranked noble. British equivalent is Earl (whose female counterpart or wife is "Countess"). There are no remaining independent counties and the word county is used to denote an administrative district. Historical examples include County of Toulouse, County of Castile, County of Barcelona and Earldom of Orkney.

Etymological equivalent male/female/territory titles include Comte/Comtesse/Comté in French, Conte/Contessa/Contea in Italian, Conde/Condesa/Condado in Spanish, Conde/Condessa/Condado in Portuguese, Graf/Gräfin/Grafschaft in German, Graaf/Gravin/Graafschap in Dutch, Greve/Grevinna/Grevskap in Swedish.

Viscount Viscountess Viscountcy Literally a vice or deputy count, from visconte in Old French. Vicomte is the equivalent in modern French. Vizconde is the equivalent in Spanish. The German Burggraf and Dutch Burggraaf are historical equivalents although they are not translated as "Viscount"; a rank above Baron but below Count. There are no remaining viscountcies but Viscount remains a title in Belgium, France, Spain and the UK. Historical examples: Viscountcy of Béarn, Burgraviate of Nuremberg (Burggrafschaft Nürnberg).
Baron Baroness Barony The equivalent title is still legally borne in Belgium, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Surviving examples include Kendal and Westmorland in England, the Lordship and Barony of Hailes in Scotland and Barony Rosendal in Norway.

Equivalent titles include Barone in Italian, Barón in Spanish, Barão in Portuguese, Boyar in Bulgarian, Wallachian, and Moldavian, Freiherr in German (sometimes used concurrently with Baron), Friherre is the title in the nobility of Sweden while the spoken address is Baron, Vapaaherra in the nobility of Finland.

Lord Lady Lordship Today: Isle of Man; historical: Lordship of Ireland, Lord of the Isles

Titles outside modern Europe

Male version Female version Realm Notes and examples
Caliph Caliphate Used throughout the Muslim world. Equivalent to Emperor. There are no current recognised caliphates. Historical examples: Rashidun Caliphate, Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, Ottoman Caliphate .
Sultan Sultana Sultanate Used throughout the Muslim world. Equivalent to King. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance, contrasting the more secular "malik", which is used in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. Current examples: Brunei, Oman, states of Malaysia. Historical examples: Seljuk Sultanate, Delhi Sultanate, Sultanate of Malacca, Sultanate of Mataram.
Malik Malikah/Malekeh Mamlaka Used throughout the Muslim world. Equivalent to King. In recent years, "sultan" has been gradually replaced by "king" by contemporary hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law. A notable example is Morocco, whose monarch changed his title from sultan to king in 1957. Current examples: Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco. Also used by tribal leaders among the Pashtun people. Historical examples: Malik al-'Iraq ("King of Iraq"), Malik al-Mamlaka al-Mutawakkiliyya al-Yamaniyya ("King of the Mutawakkilite Yemeni Kingdom").
Khedive Khedivate Largely equivalent to Viceroy in the Ottoman Empire. Examples: Khedivate of Egypt.
Emir Emira Emirate Used throughout the Muslim world. Roughly equivalent to Prince. Current examples: constituent emirates of the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar. Historical examples: Emirate of Crete, Emirate of Córdoba, Emirate of Afghanistan.
Samraat Samrãjñī Samrajya Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as Emperor.
Chhatrapati Indian royal title most equivalent to Emperor.
Maharaja Maharani Princely state Used historically princely states in South Asia. A "high king" above a Raja.
Raja Rani Raj Used historically in princely states in South Asia and pre-colonial chiefdoms in the Philippines. Equivalent to King.
Yang di-Pertuan Agong Raja Permaisuri Agong Official title used by federal monarch of Malaysia. It is equivalent to High King and Queen above other Malay Rulers.
Nawab Begum Used historically for semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia.
Arasan Arasi Arasangam Regal Tamil titles used in ancient Tamilakam. The emperor title was called "Perarasan" and his realm was a "Perarasu". The word "Arasangam" is used today for the government.
Harì/Lakan/Datu Reyna/Dayang Kingdom One of many ancient titles adopted by the Maharlika caste in pre-colonial Philippines. Harì survives today as a generic Filipino word for "king", while reyna is a Spanish loanword. Dayang (loosely, "princess") was another title for royal ladies, e.g. the queen regnant Dayang Kalangitan of Tondo.
Padishah A superlative title equivalent to "Emperor", "Great King" or "King of Kings". Used historically by several West Asian empires such as the Shāhanshāh of Iran (King of Kings of Persia), Mughal Emperors of the Indian Subcontinent (who used the Arabic version of the title, Badshah) and Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Shah Shahbanu Used historically in Persia, Greater Iran and the Mughal Empire. Variously translated into English as King and erroneously as Emperor.
Satrap Satrap Used historically in Ancient Persia to refer to local rulers of provinces under the Persian Shah. Also used for provincial rulers of Alexander the Great's Empire.
Khagan Khanum Khaganate Imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of Emperor. Historical example: Rus' Khaganate
Khan Khatun Khanate Imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of King. Historical examples: Khanate of Kazan, Crimean Khanate.
Pharaoh Pharaoh Used historically in Ancient Egypt. Equivalent to King.

Titles by region

When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the slash.

Region Title Description and use
Africa AhosuTitle of the king of Dahomey
AlmamiFulani people of west Africa
AskiyaTitle of the emperor of the Songhai Empire
AsanteheneTitle of the king of the Ashanti people in Ghana
BeyRuler of Tunisia until 1957; originally Turkish for governor[17]
BoqorRegal style used by rulers of some of the Somali Sultanates
ChieftainLeader of a people
EzeIgbo people of Nigeria
FaamaMandinka word meaning "father," "leader," or "king".
KabakaBaganda people of Buganda in Uganda

Mangi for Chaggas in Northern Tanzania

MaiTitle of the monarch of Kanem-Bornu
MalikKing of Morocco
ManikongoTitle used by the king of the Kingdom of Kongo
MansaMandika word meaning "emperor". It was the title of the Emperor of Mali
MwamiIn both Rwanda and Burundi during the Tutsi domination of these countries, now the acknowledged ruling sections of only their fellow Tutsis
NegusEmperor of Ethiopia; properly Negus Negust, meaning "King of Kings".[17] Also used among the Tigrayans and in Eritrea to refer to kings.
NgolaTitle used by the kings of the Kingdom of Ndongo.
ObaTitle used by the kings of the Yoruba and Bini peoples of Nigeria
OmukamaBunyoro, title of some kings in Uganda
PharaohKing of Ancient Egypt
SarkiKing of the Hausa people
Asia AkhoondTitle of the ruler of the Swat in present-day Pakistan[17]
Chakrawarti RajaIndia, Sri Lanka
Chogyal"Divine Ruler"; ruled Sikkim until 1975
Datutitle of leaders of small principalities in Ancient Philippines; equivalent to "Prince"
Druk GyalpoHereditary title given to the king of Bhutan
Emperor of ChinaAlso known as Huángdì, rule the Imperial China with supreme power.
Engku or UngkuMalaysia, to denote particular family lineage akin to royalty
GaekwadThe title of the ruler of Baroda (India). The word means "cowherd" in Marathi[17]
GatHonorary title of the leaders in the Philippines
HangLimbu King of East Nepal Limbuwan
HarìAncient and modern Filipino equivalent of king
HolkarThe title of the ruler of Indore (India)[17]
Huángdì皇帝 as in Chinese, the Imperial China Emperor
HwangjeStates that unified Korea
Lakantitle used by the rulers of the Kingdom of Tondo (now part of the Philippines)
MannanUsed in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka
Maha RajaUsed in India and Sri Lanka
Maha RajuUsed in Andhra Pradesh (India)
MeurahTitle used in Aceh before Islam
NawabUsed in Bhopal, Junagadh, Radhanpur, Jaora, Tonk and some other Indian princely states[17]
NizamUsed in Hyderabad (India)
Emperor or High Emperor of Iran or Hindustan (India); also the monarch of Britain as Emperor of India[17]
Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdech Preah BâromneathKing of Cambodia Khmer, the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions).
PatabendaSub-king (Sri Lanka)
Phrabat Somdej PhrachaoyuhuaKing of Thailand (Siam), the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions.)
QaghanCentral Asian tribes
RachaThailand; same meaning as Raja
RajaMalaysia, Raja denotes royalty in Perak and certain Selangor royal family lineages, is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess; also King of Nepal, and many Indian states
Rajahpre-colonial title for monarchs in the Philippines; equivalent of "king" (pronounced "RA-ha" due to Spanish influence).
RaniNepali Queen
Rao or MaharaoUsed in Indian states of Cutch, Kotah and Sirohi[17]
Rawal or MaharawalUsed in northern and western India, Yaduvanshis.
Susuhunan or SunanThe Indonesian princely state of Surakarta.
SaophaShan, king of Shan, today as a part of Myanmar
SayyidHonorific title given throughout the Islamic regions. Title given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Syed/Sharifah in Perlis, if suffixed by the royal clan name, is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess.
ScindiaTitle of the ruler of Gwalior (India)[17]
ShōgunJapanese military dictator, always a samurai
SultanAceh, Brunei Darussalam, Java, Oman, Malaysia, Sultan is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states.
Sumeramikoto, OkimiJapan, king
TengkuMalaysia, Tengku (also spelled Tunku in Johor), Negeri Sembilan and Kedah is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess
Tennō or MikadoEmperor of Japan
ThakurTitle of the ruler of Gondal (India)[17]
Veyndhan, ko/ArasiTamil Nadu (India)
WaliTitle of the ruler of Kalat (Pakistan)[17]
WangPre-Imperial China/Russia. "King" is the usual translation for the Chinese term wang 王.
WangThe king of Korea that control over all of Korea. It is called 'Im-Geum-nym' or 'Im-Geum'
Yang di-Pertuan AgongMonarch of Malaysia who is elected every five years by the reigning kings of the Malaysian constituent states, all of whom also serve as the only electoral candidates in each of the elections
America ImperadorEmperor of Brazil.
EmperadorEmperor of Mexico.
EmpereurEmperor of Haiti
ReyKing of Araucania and Patagonia
TlatoaniNahuatl King. The word literally means "speaker", but may be translated into English as "king"
Sapa Incaalso known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one") was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu).
CaciqueThe leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards and Portuguese extended the word as a title for the leaders of practically all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere.
Zipe and ZaqueWhen the Spanish arrived in the central Colombian highlands, the region was organized into the Muisca Confederation, which had two rulers; the zipa was the ruler of the southern part and based in Bacatá, now known as Bogotá. The zaque was the ruler of the northern area and based in Hunza, known today as Tunja.[18]
Kuhul AjawMaya Monarch, with a meaning variously rendered as "lord", "ruler", "king" or "leader", denoted any of the leading class of nobles in a particular polity and was not limited to a single individual.
ChieftainLeader of a tribe or clan.
Europe Anax"King" during Mycenaean Greece
Tagavor/Tagouhi or ArqaArmenian King/Queen
AutokratorGreek term for the Roman and Byzantine emperors
BanCroatia, medieval Romania (Wallachia, Oltenia), medieval Bosnia and limited use in medieval Bulgaria
Basileus"King" in ancient Greece, Thrace, Macedonia, Crimea, Asia Minor. "Emperor" in the Byzantine Empire. "King" in modern Greece
Brenin/Brenhines,Welsh for king and queen; used in Wales by the petty kinglets during the Early Middle Ages. During the High Middle Ages, the kinglets mediatised into principalities and employed the title 'prince/princess' (tywysog/tywysoges). Brenhines is the title used in Welsh for Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
DespotByzantine Empire, Second Bulgarian Empire, Danubian Principalities, Serbian Despotate (originating from Byzantium)
DomnMedieval Romania (Moldova, Wallachia)
FejedelemAncient/Medieval Hungarian
Germanic king
GirayCrimean Tartars King
ImperatorThe Ruler of Imperial Russia
IoanMedieval Romanian title "Io" derived from the name of the Bulgarian tzars of Asen dynasty Ioan Asen I and Ioan Asen I
Jupan (Župan)medieval: Hungary, Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Romania, limited in Bulgaria
KaiserImperial Germany and Austria-Hungary
Knyaz, KnezSlavic title in: Bulgaria, Kievan Rus and Rusia, Great Moravia, Bohemia, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Lithuania(Grand Duchy of Lithuania). Generally translated as "prince" or "duke".
Konge/DronningDenmark, Norway
Kral (Kralj)Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia
Kung (Konung)/DrottningSweden
Kunigaikshtis (Kunigaikštis)duke as in Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In official Old Belarusian language documentation the title has been Knyaz (Belarusian: Князь) or grand duke, Vialiki kniaz (Belarusian: Вялікі князь)
MbretAlbanian King
MepeGeorgian King and Queen
Rex/ReginaWas the Latin title for "king". Specifically, it was the title of the kings of ancient Rome. Ethmologically in the Romanic languages the words evolved to Rei/Rainha in mordern Portuguese, Rey/Reyna in modern Spanish, Roi/Reine in modern French, Re/Regina in modern Italian and Rege/Regină in modern Romanian.
Gaelic king. Also Ruiri (regional overking), Rí ruirech (provincial king of overkings), and Ard Rí (pre-eminent Rí ruirech)
Tsar/Tsaritsa/CzarBulgaria, pre-imperial Russia, very short in medieval Serbia
VezérAncient Hungarian
Voivode, VoievodMedieval: Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungaria, Romania, Poland
Middle-East ShahPersian/Iranian and Afghanistan King

Padishah(Ottoman Empire) Han {Version of Central Asian{Khan} Used by the Ottoman Turks

ShahenshahPersian/Iranian "King of Kings" or Emperor
MirA title given to Kurdish rulers in Kurdistan during medieval centuries.
Melekh (מלך)King of Ancient Israel (e.g. Saul, David and Solomon)
MalikArabic King, (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan)
EmirArabic Prince, (Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates)
Sultan/SultanaArabic King (Oman and Ottoman Empire)
Oceania ChieftainLeader of a tribe or clan.
Houʻeiki, matai, aliʻi, tūlafale, tavana, ariki, Patu-ikiUsually translated as "chief" in various Polynesian countries.
Mo'iNormally translated as King, a title used by Hawaiian monarchs since unification in 1810. The last person to hold that title was Queen Lili'uokalani.
Tuʻi or TuiKings in Oceania: Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, Nauru

See also

  • Lists of monarchs


  1. "monarch". Oxford Dictionaries. 2014. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014.
  2. Webster's II New College Dictionary.Monarch. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. ISBN 0-395-96214-5
  3. "the Holy Roman Empire". Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  4. "Explained: Malaysia is the world's only monarchy of its kind. Here's why". The Indian Express. 2019-08-03. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  5. Nicholson, Harold (1952). King George the Fifth: his life and reign. London: Constable.
  6. BROWNE, J., ed. (1838). History of the Highlands & of the Highland Clans. Glasgow.
  7. Hadfield, Andrew; Maley, Willy (1997). Edmund Spenser. A View of the State of Ireland. From the first printed edition (1633). Oxford.
  8. SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronföljd, p. 16.
  9. "Overturning centuries of royal rules". BBC News. 28 October 2011.
  10. "New Ducal succession rights for Grand Duchy". 11 December 2017.
  11. Emma.Goodey (2016-03-17). "Succession". The Royal Family. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  12. Canada: History Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Ferguson, Will; The Lost Kingdom; Macleans, October 27, 2003
  14. "Courtly Lives - Four Indian Kings".
  15. TiCam (27 September 2006). "17 October: Death of Dessalines". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  16. L Gomes. 1889: como um imperador cansado, um marechal vaidoso e um professor injustiçado contribuíram para a o fim da monarquia e programação da republica no Brasil. Globo Livros. 2013.
  17. The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Wordsworth Reference. 2001. pp. 943–944. ISBN 978-1-84022-310-1.
  18. Bushnell, David (2012). Colombia: Una nación a pesar de sí misma (in Spanish). Bogotá, Colombia: Planeta. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-958-42-1729-5.
  • Girard, Philippe R. (2011). The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence 1801–1804. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-1732-4.
  • Schutt-Ainé, Patricia (1994). Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. pp. 33–35, 60. ISBN 978-0-9638599-0-7.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.