1997 Sarawak HFMD outbreak

The 1997 Sarawak HFMD outbreak is a hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak from April until June caused by the Enterovirus 71 affecting 600 children in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia.[1][2] An estimate from 28 to 31 of the infected children died as a result of the outbreak where it is known as the first HFMD cases in the country with high fatalities.[3][4] The children died within hours of admission to hospitals due to acute congestive heart failure and cardiovascular collapse which was suggestive of acute viral myocarditis.[4][5]

1997 Sarawak HFMD outbreak
DiseaseEnterovirus 71
Index caseApril 1997
Confirmed cases600


In the midst of simultaneous outbreak, Coxsackie B virus were initially thought to be the causative agent but not detected among the deceased children.[4] Through autopsies performed on the deceased children, their deaths is caused by several symptoms linked to the disease such as poor peripheral perfusion, tachycardia and cardiac failures with earlier developed symptoms such as shock, pallor, cold extremities, delayed capillary refill and weak peripheral pulses.[3]

See also

Further reading

  • "Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Health, Malaysia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019.


  1. Academy of Medicine (Singapore) (2003). Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. Academy of Medicine. p. 385. In April 1997, in Sarawak, Malaysia, 600 cases of HFMD were admitted and over 30 children died.
  2. Chad T. Kimball (2003). Childhood Diseases and Disorders Sourcebook. Omnigraphics. ISBN 978-0-7808-0458-6.
  3. Nur Najihah Hasan (2017). "Assessing the Prevalence of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Using Geospatial Density and Distribution Techniques" (PDF). Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate: 2–3 [18–35]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019 via Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
  4. Yoke Fun-Chan; I-Ching Sam; Kai-Li Wee; Sazaly Abu Bakar (2011). "Enterovirus 71 in Malaysia: A decade later" (PDF). Neurology Asia. 16 (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019 via University of Malaya.
  5. L. G. Chan; Umesh D. Parashar; M. S. Lye; F. G. L. Ong; Sherif R. Zaki; James P. Alexander; K. K. Ho; Linda L. Han; Mark A. Pallansch; Abu Bakar Suleiman; M. Jegathesan; Larry J. Anderson (2000). "Deaths of Children during an Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of the Disease". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 31 (3): 678–683. doi:10.1086/314032. PMID 11017815 via Oxford Academic.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.