I would like to prove that $\displaystyle\sum_{\substack{n=1\\n\text{ odd}}}^{\infty}\frac{n}{e^{n\pi}+1}=\frac1{24}$.

I found a solution by myself 10 hours after I posted it, here it is:

$$f(x)=\sum_{\substack{n=1\\n\text{ odd}}}^{\infty}\frac{nx^n}{1+x^n},\quad\quad g(x)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{nx^n}{1-x^n},$$

then I must prove that $f(e^{-\pi})=\frac1{24}$. It was not hard to find the relation between $f(x)$ and $g(x)$, namely $f(x)=g(x)-4g(x^2)+4g(x^4)$.

Note that $g(x)$ is a Lambert series, so by expanding the Taylor series for the denominators and reversing the two sums, I get

$$g(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sigma(n)x^n$$

where $\sigma$ is the divisor function $\sigma(n)=\sum_{d\mid n}d$.

I then define for complex $\tau$ the function $$G_2(\tau)=\frac{\pi^2}3\Bigl(1-24\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sigma(n)e^{2\pi in\tau}\Bigr)$$ so that $$f(e^{-\pi})=g(e^{-\pi})-4g(e^{-2\pi})+4g(e^{-4\pi})=\frac1{24}+\frac{-G_2(\frac i2)+4G_2(i)-4G_2(2i)}{8\pi^2}.$$

But it is proven in Apostol "Modular forms and Dirichlet Series", page 69-71 that $G_2\bigl(-\frac1{\tau}\bigr)=\tau^2G_2(\tau)-2\pi i\tau$, which gives $\begin{cases}G_2(i)=-G_2(i)+2\pi\\ G_2(\frac i2)=-4G_2(2i)+4\pi\end{cases}\quad$. This is exactly was needed to get the desired result.

Hitoshigoto oshimai !

I find that sum fascinating. $e,\pi$ all together to finally get a rational. This is why mathematics is beautiful!

Thanks to everyone who contributed.