Regional sports network

In the United States and Canada, a regional sports network (RSN) is a cable television channel (many of which are also distributed on direct broadcast satellite services) that presents sports programming to a local market or geographical region.

Historically, some RSNs originated as premium channels; since the 1990s, however, they have commonly been distributed through the expanded basic-programming tiers of cable and IPTV services, packaged alongside other national basic cable networks, and local broadcast stations and public, educational, and government access channels. Satellite providers often require subscribers to purchase a higher programming tier or a specialized sports tier to receive local and out-of-market regional sports networks.


The most important programming on a regional sports network (RSN) consists of live broadcasts of professional and collegiate sporting events, as those games generate an overwhelming percentage of an RSN's advertising income, in addition to viewership. During the rest of the day, these channels show other sports and recreation programming (such as news programs covering local and national sports; magazine and discussion programs relating to a team or collegiate conference; fishing and hunting programs; and in-studio video simulcasts of sports radio programs); rebroadcasts of sports events that aired as late as the day prior and paid programming may also be shown. These channels are often the source content for out-of-market sports packages. In the United States, DirecTV offers all regional sports networks to all subscribers across the country, however games and select programming is blacked out outside their home markets.

Regional sports networks are generally among the most expensive channels carried by cable television providers, due to the expense of rights to the local sports they carry; these higher subscriber fees received by television providers through retransmission consent carriage agreements coupled with percentages of other forms of revenue are used to pay local and regional teams for the right to broadcast their games. A typical RSN, as of 2012, carries a monthly retransmission fee of $2 to $3 per subscriber,[1] lower than the rates providers charge to carry ESPN and premium channels but higher than the rates for other cable networks. These high prices are supported by demand for the often-popular local sports teams they carry (particularly those that are member franchises of larger sports leagues such as Major League Baseball,[2] the National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League, as well as college teams that have large and loyal fanbases); carriage disputes between distributors and RSNs are often controversial and protracted. The expense of the per subscriber rate led some major providers such as Charter Spectrum and Verizon FiOS to begin incorporating a fixed "regional sports network fee" as a separate surcharge within its billing statements as early as 2013.[3][4]

Most regional sports networks in the United States are either affiliated with Bally Sports or the NBC Sports Regional Networks, which produce and distribute supplementary programming – including professional and college sports events involving out-of-market teams, and sports-centered reality and documentary series – for their individual owned-and-operated member networks and any RSNs not under common ownership that receive their "nationally" distributed programming through affiliation agreements. in the past, some RSNs also carried supplemental programming from networks such as America One, AMGTV or ESPNews, though vertical integration and the impact of streaming services removing game broadcasts from low-tier broadcast networks has effectively ended this practice.

In Canada, Sportsnet operates four regional sports networks, and the otherwise nationally distributed TSN also maintains some regional operations. This differs from the operational structure of RSNs in the United States, which are independently operated from national sports networks.

An increasing trend is for the teams whose games make up the lucrative programming to own the RSN themselves. This serves two purposes: first, the teams make more money operating an RSN than they would collecting a licensing fee from an individual network or a group, such as Bally Sports. Second, by owning their own RSN, teams that must share revenues with other members of their league can mask its broadcast-related profits. Under the old model, a team collects a large fee for licensing its games to the RSN. That fee would then be disclosed and shared with the other teams in the league. Under the new, team-owned RSN model, the team demands only a nominal fee, so the profits for local broadcasts stay with the team. The owned-and-operated RSN model generally works best in the largest markets where advertising and cable revenue is larger; in smaller or fringe markets, the sale of rights fees is more lucrative.

For example, the New York Rangers and New York Knicks have long co-owned their RSN, MSG; however, they also have purchased the rights to their rivals, the New York Islanders and New Jersey Devils. MSG also owns the rights to the Buffalo Sabres, however the team and ownership controls game production and that has since evolved into a separate MSG sub-channel for the Sabres market called MSG Western New York which is dual-controlled and programmed by MSG and Pegula Sports and Entertainment, owners of the Sabres effectively making it an owned and operated RSN. The Sabres had moved to MSG after the closure of their former home, Empire Sports Network, in the wake of the financial collapse of its owner Adelphia Communications Corporation.[5][6]


The first regional sports network is considered to be the Madison Square Garden Network. An early unnamed version of that network started broadcasting Knicks and Rangers to a small number of subscribers in Manhattan in May 1969.[7] By the late 1970s another version of this network would launch and be made available to other cable systems in the metropolitan area and it would finally receive the name Madison Square Garden Television in 1980. Another early network considered by many to be an RSN is Philadelphia's PRISM which launched in 1976 offering coverage of three of the city's major sports teams and movies.

In 1976, Cablevision launched a new service providing coverage of Long Island sports (originally called Cablevision Sports 3). This channel would be renamed SportsChannel New York in 1979 and became the first channel to resemble a modern regional sports network. Other SportsChannels were launched in different cities and in 1988, they were formally organized into a group that shared programming and national TV rights.

United States

Bally Sports

For years, the default RSN for many markets was owned by Fox Sports. Fox Sports Networks, which launched on November 1, 1996, as Fox Sports Net,[8] was created through former parent News Corporation's October 1995 purchase of a 50% equity stake in Liberty Media-owned Prime Sports Networks, co-founded in 1988 by Bill Daniels and Liberty's then-sister company Tele-Communications Inc.[9] The group expanded further in June 1997, Fox/Liberty Networks, the joint venture company operated by News Corporation and Liberty Media, purchased a 40% interest in the Cablevision-owned SportsChannel group.[10][11]

As part of a rebranding effort, the collective branding of the networks – which eventually became "FSN (Region/City)" in 2004 – was extended to Fox Sports (Region/City) (also used from 1996 to 2000) with the start of the 2008 college football season. The FSN networks were acquired by Diamond Sports Group from The Walt Disney Company in 2019, as Disney was required to divest them by U.S. Department of Justice as a condition of their own acquisition of 21st Century Fox. The channel group was renamed Bally Sports on March 31, 2021, as part of a naming rights agreement with casino operator Bally's Corporation. The networks that currently maintain affiliations with or are owned by Bally Sports, and the major teams and athletic conferences the regional networks broadcast are as follows:

Current owned-and-operated outlets

Channel Region served
Bally Sports ArizonaArizona,
New Mexico,
Southern Nevada
Bally Sports DetroitMichigan,
northwestern Ohio,
northeastern Indiana,
northeast Wisconsin
Bally Sports FloridaFlorida,
southern Alabama,
southern Georgia
Bally Sports Great LakesOhio,
eastern Indiana,
northwestern Pennsylvania,
southwestern New York
Bally Sports Indianacentral Indiana
Bally Sports Kansas CityKansas City metropolitan area,
western and central Missouri,
eastern Nebraska,
Bally Sports MidwestMissouri,
central and southern Illinois,
southern Indiana,
eastern Nebraska,
eastern Kansas,
western Kentucky,
northern Arkansas
Bally Sports New OrleansLouisiana
Bally Sports NorthMinnesota,
North Dakota,
South Dakota
Bally Sports OhioOhio
Bally Sports OklahomaOklahoma
Bally Sports San DiegoSan Diego metropolitan area
Bally Sports SoCalsouthern California,
southern Nevada,
Bally Sports SouthGeorgia,
Bally Sports SoutheastGeorgia,
South Carolina,
North Carolina,
Elizabeth City micropolitan area,
Outer Banks
Bally Sports Southwestnorthern and eastern Texas,
northern Louisiana,
New Mexico,
Bally Sports SunFlorida
Bally Sports Westsouthern California,
southern Nevada,
Bally Sports WisconsinWisconsin,
western Upper Peninsula of Michigan,
eastern Minnesota,
northwestern Illinois,

Current affiliates

Channel Region served
AT&T SportsNet see below
Marquee Sports Network Illinois



parts of Wisconsin

Washington, D.C.,
eastern and central North Carolina,
West Virginia,
south central Pennsylvania,
NESN Massachusetts

eastern and central Connecticut


New Hampshire

Rhode Island


YES NetworkNew York metropolitan area,
northern New Jersey,
northeastern Pennsylvania,
southern Connecticut

NBC Sports Regional Networks

Seeing an opportunity to serve sports fans on a more local level and generate profits, cable conglomerate Comcast began creating their own RSN – Comcast SportsNet (CSN) – in the late 1990s. The groundwork of this group was laid as a result of Comcast's March 1996 purchase of 66% equity in Philadelphia-based event organizer Spectacor, automatically giving it ownership of its two professional team franchises;[12][13] this led to the creation of Comcast SportsNet Philadelphia, which launched on October 1, 1997.[14]

Ironically, CSN would purchase a small number of RSNs previously owned by Fox Sports Networks, and acquired the local rights to professional teams that FSN regional networks carried (in two markets, the latter situation resulted in Fox Sports shutting down their networks). The January 2011 Comcast merger with NBCUniversal allowed NBC Sports to take operational control of these networks and they are expected to become more integrated with their sister national sports network, NBCSN.

In April 2017, Comcast SportsNet's California and Bay Area networks were rebranded under the NBC Sports brand; NBC Sports Regional Networks adopted the "NBC Sports" moniker on its other regional channels on October 2, 2017.[15]

Channel Region served
NBC Sports Bay AreaSan Francisco Bay Area,
Northern California,
Central California,
Southern Oregon,
NBC Sports Californianorthern California,
central California,
Southern California,
parts of Oregon,
parts of Nevada
NBC Sports ChicagoChicago metropolitan area,
northern and central Illinois ,
northern Indiana,
Kenosha County, Wisconsin,
southwestern Michigan
NBC Sports WashingtonMaryland,
Washington, D.C.,
southern Pennsylvania,
eastern West Virginia,
southern Delaware,
Hampton Roads,
Outer Banks
NBC Sports BostonMassachusetts,
eastern and central Connecticut,
New Hampshire,
Rhode Island
NBC Sports PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia metropolitan area,
eastern Pennsylvania,
southern New Jersey
SportsNet New YorkNew York metropolitan area,
New York State,
northern New Jersey

AT&T Sports Networks

In May 2009, DirecTV Group Inc. announced that it would become a part of Liberty Media's entertainment unit, with some of the group's assets subsequently being spun off as a separate company under the DirecTV banner; the Fox Sports Networks outlets that became part of the Liberty Sports unit (which was renamed DirecTV Sports Networks on November 19, 2009) were rebranded under the new name "Root Sports" on April 1, 2011.[16][17]

DirecTV Sports Networks would be acquired by AT&T Inc. in 2015, as a byproduct of its acquisition of DirecTV. The renamed RSN unit, AT&T Sports Networks, would eventually announce on June 12, 2017, that it would rebrand most of its regional sports networks – with the exception of Root Sports Northwest, due to its ownership being majority controlled by the Seattle Mariners – under the AT&T SportsNet banner on July 14, 2017.[18] AT&T Sports Networks continues to broadcast various sports magazine and documentary programs and select sporting events broadcast by Fox Sports Networks through an affiliation agreement with its former parent group; with the exception of AT&T SportsNet Southwest, which does not carry these programs due to the presence of a Fox Sports-owned subfeed network in its home market, these channels largely continue to carry the same local teams and national Bally Sports programs as they did with the Fox Sports Networks under FSN ownership.

In September 2018, AT&TSN was transferred to the WarnerMedia News & Sports division.

Current owned-and-operated networks

Channel Region served
AT&T SportsNet PittsburghWestern, central and northeastern Pennsylvania,
West Virginia,
eastern and central Ohio,
western Maryland,
western New York state
AT&T SportsNet Rocky MountainColorado,
Southern Idaho,
northwestern Arizona,
western and central New Mexico,
northwestern Nebraska,
western South Dakota
parts of eastern California, including the Sierra Nevada region
AT&T SportsNet SouthwestTexas,
eastern New Mexico
Root Sports NorthwestWashington,
western Idaho

Spectrum Sports

Spectrum Sports is the collective name for a group of regional sports networks that are primarily owned and operated by Charter Communications through its acquisition of Time Warner Cable in May 2016.

Channel Region served
Spectrum SportsKansas City metropolitan area,
Lincoln, Nebraska
Spectrum SportsNetSouthern California,
Central California,
Las Vegas Valley,
Spectrum SportsNet LAGreater Los Angeles Area,
Coachella Valley,
Spectrum OC16 Hawaii

Independent regional sports networks

The following is a list of regional sports channels that are not part of a larger national network:

Channel Owner Region served
Altitude Sports and EntertainmentKroenke Sports & EntertainmentColorado,
New Mexico,
South Dakota,
Buckeye Cable Sports NetworkBlock CommunicationsToledo, Ohio
Comcast Television/Comcast Television 2ComcastMichigan
Cox Sports TelevisionCox CommunicationsLouisiana,
Image Sports NetworkErie, Pennsylvania
Midco Sports NetworkMidcontinent CommunicationsSouth Dakota,
North Dakota,
western Minnesota
MSG NetworkThe Madison Square Garden CompanyNew York metropolitan area,
New York State
MSG Western New YorkThe Madison Square Garden Company / Pegula Sports and EntertainmentWestern New York
MSG PlusThe Madison Square Garden CompanyNew York metropolitan area,
New York State
SWX Right NowCowles Publishing Company
(The KHQ Television Group)
Inland Northwest
Service Electric NetworkService Electric Cable TV and Communications / Service ElectricLehigh Valley and other portions of Pennsylvania and New Jersey
YurView CaliforniaCox CommunicationsSouthern California

College networks

Channel Owner Notes
ACC Network (ACCN)ESPN Inc.
(The Walt Disney Company, 80%; Hearst Corporation, 20%)
Dedicated to sports events and other programming relating to the Atlantic Coast Conference.
Big Ten Network (BTN)Big Ten Conference (39%)
Fox Corporation (61%)
Dedicated to sports events and other programming relating to the Big Ten Conference. It operates four overflow feeds for overlapping football telecasts.
BYU TVBrigham Young UniversityBYU TV airs sporting events involving the schools of Brigham Young University, including the Brigham Young University Cougars (the school's football team is an FBS independent and sold the television rights for its games to ESPN. BYU TV exclusively airs one game per-season, as well as shoulder programming and encores), BYU-Idaho and BYU-Hawaii. It otherwise airs a mix of entertainment and lifestyle programming, including programming relating to the university and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Pac-12 NetworksPac-12 ConferenceDedicated to sanctioned sporting events and other programming involving the Pac-12 Conference. It consists of a national feed (Pac-12 Network), as well as six regional networks, including Pac-12 Los Angeles (dedicated to the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Southern California), Pac-12 Washington (dedicated to University of Washington and Washington State University), Pac-12 Oregon (dedicated to University of Oregon and Oregon State University), Pac-12 Bay Area (dedicated to the University of California, Berkeley and Stanford University), Pac-12 Arizona (dedicated to the University of Arizona and Arizona State University), and Pac-12 Mountain (dedicated to the University of Colorado and the University of Utah).[19] The national network was available in at least 48 million homes at time of launch,[20] while the regional networks are available throughout their respective region within the Pac-12's designated territory.[21] The Pac-12 Networks are the first owned fully by a conference without support from outside groups (Big Ten Network is a joint venture with Fox Sports, and MountainWest Sports Network was owned in conjunction with CBS Corporation and Comcast).
Longhorn NetworkUniversity of Texas at Austin
IMG College
The network is dedicated to sports events and other programming relating to the Texas Longhorns. The arrangement has caused controversy among other members of the Big 12 Conference and by Texas A&M University, alleging the network could give UT-Austin a perceived recruiting advantage, and lead to ESPN placing a bias on the team in its coverage. Proposals to air University Interscholastic League high school football games on the network were shelved due to these factors.
SEC NetworkESPN Inc.
(The Walt Disney Company, 80%; Hearst Corporation, 20%)
The Southeastern Conference first explored starting its own 24-hour cable network in 2007,[22] however a content deal between the University of Florida and Fox-owned Sun Sports,[23] and a long-term deal between the SEC and ESPN Inc.[24] suspended the proposal. ESPN later reached an agreement with the SEC to broadcast conference football and basketball games via the syndicated SEC TV package (initially named SEC Network), under an arrangement basically identical to that of past SEC rightsholder Raycom Sports. As part of a 20-year broadcast agreement reached between the SEC and ESPN in May 2013, ESPN launched the SEC Network, as a cable/satellite network devoted to Southeastern Conference sports, on August 14, 2014.[25]

Defunct networks

Channel Region served
Arizona Sports Programming Network/"Cox 9"Phoenix, Arizona
BlazerVisionPortland, Oregon
Carolinas Sports Entertainment Television (C-SET)Charlotte, North Carolina
Columbus Sports Network (CSN)Columbus, Ohio
Comcast Local (CL)Michigan
Comcast/Charter Sports Southeast (CSS)Alabama
North Carolina
South Carolina
West Virginia
Empire Sports NetworkUpstate New York
parts of northern Pennsylvania
parts of eastern Ohio
Fox Sports Carolinas Carolinas
Fox Sports Houston Texas
FSN Chicago Chicago, IL
Fox Sports Tennessee Tennessee
HawkvisionChicago metropolitan area
Hometown Sports IndianaIndianapolis, Indiana
NBC Sports NorthwestWashington,
Pro-Am Sports System (PASS Sports)Detroit, Michigan
Prime Sports Upper Midwest Iowa


North Dakota

South Dakota


PRISMPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania
Royals Sports Television NetworkKansas City metropolitan area
western Missouri
Spectrum CommunityMaine,
New Hampshire
Spectrum SportsTampa Bay metropolitan area and Greater Orlando
Spectrum SportsUpstate New York
Spectrum SportsNorth Carolina
South Carolina
Spectrum SportsTexas
SportsChannel Los AngelesSouthern California
SportsChannel Philadelphia
Sports TimeMidwestern United States
Sports Viewsoutheastern Wisconsin
SportsvisionChicago metropolitan area
TW3Capital District of New York,
Saratoga County,
south Adirondack County,
Mohawk Valley,
most of Berkshire County, Massachusetts
Victory Sports OneMinneapolis-Saint Paul



Sportsnet (formerly known as CTV Sportsnet and Rogers Sportsnet) is owned by the Rogers Media division of Toronto-based Rogers Communications. Sportsnet carries all of the Toronto Blue Jays baseball games. Although it is considered a national channel with multiple feeds for regulatory purposes, in practice its four main channels act as a set of RSNs, albeit with a significant portion of common national programming. The four channels are:

Channel Description and programming Broadcast Area
Sportsnet PacificRegional feed for British Columbia and Yukon; airs regional Vancouver Canucks games.

Sportsnet WestRegional feed for the Prairies, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut; airs regional Calgary Flames and Edmonton Oilers games except in the Winnipeg Jets region.
Sportsnet OntarioRegional feed for most of Ontario; airs regional Toronto Maple Leafs games.
Sportsnet EastRegional feed for eastern Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada.

Through the separate Sportsnet One licence, Rogers also operates three part-time regional "companion channels", which provide coverage of additional regional NHL broadcasts which are not able to air on Sportsnet's main regional channels: Sportsnet Flames, Sportsnet Oilers, and Sportsnet Vancouver Hockey.

Rogers is also a shareholder in Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment (MLSE), which owns Leafs Nation Network, a channel devoted entirely to the Toronto Maple Leafs and its farm team, the Toronto Marlies (and is restricted to the Leafs' broadcast territory). MLSE also operates NBA TV Canada, which is distributed nationally but focuses much of its programming on the MLSE-owned Toronto Raptors and farm team Raptors 905.


On August 25, 2014, The Sports Network (TSN), another Canadian sports channel, split its singular national feed into four regional feeds in a manner similar to Sportsnet. These feeds are primarily used to broadcast regional NHL games,[26] but may also be used to provide alternative and common national programming.[27]

While each region has a primary TSN channel, due to overlaps in NHL territories it is possible in some parts of Ontario to access additional regional games from one non-primary channel. These situations are noted as they occur below.[28]

Channel Description and regional programming
TSN1The primary TSN feed for viewers in British Columbia, Alberta and Yukon.
TSN2A national secondary channel launched in 2008 prior to the launch of the other regional feeds.
TSN3The primary TSN feed for viewers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and northwestern Ontario.
TSN4The primary TSN feed for viewers in most of Ontario.
TSN5The primary TSN feed for viewers in eastern Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic Canada.

Prior to the launch of these channels, regional NHL games whose rights were held by TSN (which, at that point, consisted solely of the Jets and Canadiens) were broadcast on special part-time channels exclusive to the team's television region.[30]

Bell Media also owns Réseau des sports (RDS) and RDS2, French-language sports networks that are licensed to serve all of Canada, but in practice focus on the predominantly French-speaking province of Quebec (as there are relatively few francophones outside that province). Prior to the 2014–15 season, RDS could air Canadiens games on a national basis, as it was also the national French-language rightsholder of the National Hockey League in Canada. With Rogers' acquisition of the exclusive national media rights to the NHL, and its decision to sub-license French rights to Quebecor Media's TVA Sports, RDS and RDS2's coverage of the Canadiens and Senators are now restricted to parts of Eastern Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada.[31]

High definition

Nearly all regional sports networks broadcast all content in high definition as of 2016, with only the lowest-cost programming or high school sporting events produced locally for regional broadcast now only available in standard definition. Bally Sports and the NBC Sports Regional Networks owned-and-operated networks and affiliates maintain dedicated HD channels, which are used to broadcast both local and national HD programming, mainly game telecasts. All Bally Sports affiliates transmit HD programming in their native 720p resolution format; all NBC Sports Regional affiliates and independent channels transmit in 1080i.

Regional syndicators

Some telecasts (especially in U.S. college sports) are broadcast by ad-hoc syndicated packages, which can be picked up on a network of broadcasters that may consist of either individual over-the-air stations, regional sports networks, or a mixture of both.

Jefferson-Pilot Communications and Raycom Sports were well-known as syndicators of college sports on broadcast television, having previously held agreements with the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) and Southeastern Conference (SEC). By the late-2000's. both packages began to wind down after ESPN acquired the media rights to both conferences; ESPN initially maintained a syndicated package known as "SEC Network", while Raycom was given a sub-license to continue its syndication package (subsequently renamed "ACC Network").[32][33] Both packages ended when ESPN launched dedicated cable channels for both conferences.

ESPN was originally intended to focus on sports in Connecticut, but chose to broadcast nationally when it debuted in 1979 when it was discovered by the network's founders that it would be less expensive to broadcast nationwide on satellite as opposed to regionally through microwave transmission.[34] ESPN formerly served as a college sports syndicator via ESPN Regional Television—formerly branded on-air as ESPN Plus, but later using conference-oriented brands such as SEC Network (not to be confused with the SEC Network cable channel which served as its de facto replacement), and Big East Network. The SEC Network package was a successor to the previous Raycom Sports-produced SEC package.

In 2014, television station owner Sinclair Broadcast Group established its own sports syndicator known as the American Sports Network (ASN), primarily syndicating broadcasts of college football and basketball from mid-major conferences (some of which were previously associated with ESPN Plus) to stations that it owns and operates.[35][36] In 2015, Sinclair also acquired regional rights to Major League Soccer's Real Salt Lake, with ASN handling production and distribution of team telecasts within its designated market.[37] ASN later began to operate a dedicated channel (which, in contrast to other sports channels, was distributed free-to-air via digital subchannels, and eventually subsumed its syndication of individual telecasts), and In 2017, was replaced by Stadium as part of a joint venture with Silver Chalice—which carries a larger focus on streaming distribution alongside digital subchannels.

See also


  1. Dave Warner (April 17, 2013). "The High Cost Of Regional Sports Networks". What You Pay For Sports. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  2. Lucia, Joe (April 6, 2021). "Which RSN has the best MLB scorebug?". Awful Announcing.
  3. Mike Farrell (December 22, 2014). "Time Warner Cable to Initiate Sports Fee in January". Multichannel News. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  4. David Lazarus (May 2, 2014). "Trapped into paying extra for cable TV sports". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  5. Pergament, Alan (June 21, 2016). "Wide-ranging deal will keep Sabres – and other Pegula Sports & Entertainment content – on MSG". The Buffalo News. Berkshire Hathaway. Archived from the original on June 22, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  6. Alan Pergament (May 3, 2003). "DEAL WITH TIME WARNER HITS EMPIRE WHERE IT HURTS". The Buffalo News. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  7. Eskenazi, Gerald (21 May 1969). "GARDEN, CABLE TV SIGN 1-YEAR PACT; Knick, Ranger Home Games in 125-Event Package". The New York Times. ProQuest 118734201.
  8. R. Thomas Umstead (July 8, 1996). "Liberty Sports regionals will become Fox Sports net". Multichannel News. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015 via HighBeam Research.
  9. "FOX AND LIBERTY OUTLINE PLANS FOR NEW CABLE VENTURE". Sports Business Journal. November 1, 1995. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  10. "Fox putting together national Sports Net // Changes ahead for SportsChannel". Chicago Sun-Times. June 24, 1997. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015 via HighBeam Research.
  11. John M. Higgins (June 30, 1997). "National net keys regional deal. (Fox Sports, Liberty Media Corp. challenge ESPN with stake in SportsChannel)". Broadcasting & Cable. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015 via HighBeam Research.
  12. Michael Sokolove; Jayson Stark and Michael L. Rozansky (March 20, 1996). "Comcast Buying 76ers And Flyers Phils Also May Get Involved With Firm". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  13. Bill Fleischman (July 22, 1997). "New Sportsnet Reels In Sixers". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  14. Rose DeWolf (August 25, 1997). "Starz On The Horizon Goodbye Prism & Sports Channel; What's Next Depends On Where You Hang The Clicker". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  15. "CSN Mid-Atlantic is rebranding as NBC Sports Washington". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  16. Mike Reynolds (November 20, 2009). "Liberty Sports Rebrands As DirecTV Sports Networks". Multichannel News. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
  17. "'Root Sports' new name for sports networks". Denver Business Journal. December 17, 2010.
  18. Ken Fang (June 12, 2017). "AT&T SPORTS NETWORKS WILL REBRAND ROOT SPORTS IN SUMMER 2017". Root Sports (Pittsburgh Region). AT&T Sports Networks. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  19. Ted Miller (27 July 2011). "Pac-12 Announces deal for national, regional networks". ESPN. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  20. Jon Wilner (August 10, 2012). "Pac-12 Networks: News and notes from the Stevenson teleconference". San Jose Mercury News.
  21. Dirk Facer (July 28, 2011). "Pac-12 creates its own network". Deseret News.
  22. Glenn Guilbeau (June 9, 2007). "SEC explores launching its own TV Network". USA Today. Gannett News Service.
  23. John Ourand; Michael Smith (July 14, 2008). "Florida rights deal may rule out SEC channel". Sports Business Journal.
  24. Mike Reynolds (August 25, 2008). "ESPN Scores 15-Year SEC Deal". Multichannel News.
  25. Richard Sandomir (May 3, 2013). "SEC Will Start TV Network in 2014". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  26. "Sens, Lets, and Leafs featured regionally on TSN's feeds". Bell Media. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  27. Sean Fitz-Gerald (May 6, 2014). "TSN counters Rogers NHL deal with three new channels filled with alternative sports content". National Post. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
  28. "TSN Frequently Asked Questions". October 8, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  29. "TSN's regional NHL coverage features 191 games". TSN. 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  30. "Jets game broadcasts moving to TSN3". Winnipeg Free Press. August 18, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  31. Steve Faguy (August 18, 2014). "NHL broadcast schedule 2014-15: Who owns rights to what games". Fagstein. Retrieved August 23, 2014. Bell's TSN Habs channel has been shut down.
  32. Smith, Michael; Ourand, John (October 5, 2010). "History with ACC secures future for Raycom". Washington Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  33. Smith, Michael (October 4, 2010). "History with ACC secures Future for Raycom" (PDF). Sports and Business Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 9, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
  34. Miller & Shales, pp. 7–8
  35. Ryan Sharrow (July 17, 2014). "Sinclair Broadcast Group to launch American Sports Network". Baltimore Business Journal. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  36. Deborah McAdams (July 17, 2014). "Sinclair Launches Sports Network". TV Technology. Archived from the original on July 21, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  37. "KMYU/KUTV: The New Home Of Real Salt Lake; All 26 non-National MLS Regular Season Games Available on Free, Over-the-Air TV". Real Salt Lake. January 23, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
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