Potassium permanganate

Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KMnO4. It is a purplish-black crystalline salt, that dissolves in water as K+ and MnO
, an intensely pink to purple solution.

Potassium permanganate
IUPAC name
Potassium manganate(VII)
Other names
Potassium permanganate
Chameleon mineral
Condy's crystals
Permanganate of potash
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.874
EC Number
  • 231-760-3
RTECS number
  • SD6475000
UN number 1490
  • InChI=1S/K.Mn.4O/q+1;;;;;-1 Y
  • [K+].[O-][Mn](=O)(=O)=O
Molar mass 158.034 g/mol
Appearance Purplish-bronze-gray needles
purple in solution[1]
Odor odorless
Density 2.7 g/cm3[2]:4.83
Melting point 240 °C (464 °F; 513 K) (decomposes)
76 g/L (25 °C)[2]
250 g/L (65 °C)
Solubility decomposes in alcohol and organic solvents
+20.0·10−6 cm3/mol[2]:4.134
Orthorhombic, oP24
Pnma, No. 62
a = 0.909 nm, b = 0.572 nm, c = 0.741 nm
119.2 J/mol K
171.7 JK−1mol−1
−813.4 kJ/mol
-713.8 kJ/mol
D08AX06 (WHO) V03AB18 (WHO)
GHS labelling:
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1090 mg/kg (oral, rat)[4]
Related compounds
Other anions
Potassium pertechnetate
Potassium perrhenate
Other cations
Sodium permanganate
Ammonium permanganate
Calcium permanganate
Silver permanganate
Related manganates
Potassium hypomanganate
Potassium manganate
Related compounds
Manganese heptoxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references
Potassium permanganate
Clinical data
License data
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.028.874
Potassium permanganate in a vial

Potassium permanganate is widely used in the chemical industry and laboratories as a strong oxidizing agent, and also as a medication for dermatitis, for cleaning wounds, and general disinfection. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[5] In 2000, worldwide production was estimated at 30,000 tons.[5]


Potassium permanganate is the potassium salt of the tetrahedral transition metal oxo complex permanganate, in which four O2− ligands are bound to a manganese(VII) center.


KMnO4 forms orthorhombic crystals with constants: a = 910.5 pm, b = 572.0 pm, c = 742.5 pm. The overall motif is similar to that for barium sulfate, with which it forms solid solutions.[6] In the solid (as in solution), each MnO4 centre is tetrahedral. The Mn–O distances are 1.62 Å.[7]


The purplish-black color of solid potassium permanganate, and the intensely pink to purple color of its solutions, is caused by its permanganate anion, which gets its color from a strong charge-transfer absorption band caused by excitation of electrons from oxo ligand orbitals to empty orbitals of the manganese(VII) center.[8]


Almost all applications of potassium permanganate exploit its oxidizing properties.[9] As a strong oxidant that does not generate toxic byproducts, KMnO4 has many niche uses.

Medical uses

Potassium permanganate is used for a number of skin conditions.[10] This includes fungal infections of the foot, impetigo, pemphigus, superficial wounds, dermatitis, and tropical ulcers.[11][10] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[5]

Water treatment

Potassium permanganate is used extensively in the water treatment industry. It is used as a regeneration chemical to remove iron and hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) from well water via a "manganese greensand" filter. "Pot-Perm" is also obtainable at pool supply stores and is used additionally to treat wastewater. Historically it was used to disinfect drinking water[12][13] and can turn the water pink.[14] It currently finds application in the control of nuisance organisms such as zebra mussels in fresh water collection and treatment systems.[15]

Synthesis of organic compounds

A solution of KMnO4 in water, in a volumetric flask

A major application of KMnO4 is as a reagent for the synthesis of organic compounds.[16] Significant amounts are required for the synthesis of ascorbic acid, chloramphenicol, saccharin, isonicotinic acid, and pyrazinoic acid.[9]

KMnO4 is used in qualitative organic analysis to test for the presence of unsaturation. It is sometimes referred to as Baeyer's reagent after the German organic chemist Adolf von Baeyer . The reagent is an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. Reaction with double or triple bonds (-C=C- or -C≡C-) causes the color to fade from purplish-pink to brown. Aldehydes and formic acid (and formates) also give a positive test.[17] The test is antiquated.

Baeyer's reagent reaction

KMnO4 solution is a common thin layer chromatography stain for the detection of oxidizable functional groups, such as alcohols, aldehydes, alkenes, and ketones. Such compounds result in a white to orange spot on TLC plates.[18][19][20]

Analytical use

Potassium permanganate can be used to quantitatively determine the total oxidizable organic material in an aqueous sample. The value determined is known as the permanganate value. In analytical chemistry, a standardized aqueous solution of KMnO4 is sometimes used as an oxidizing titrant for redox titrations (permanganometry). As potassium permanganate is titrated, the solution becomes a light shade of purple, which darkens as excess of the titrant is added to the solution. In a related way, it is used as a reagent to determine the Kappa number of wood pulp. For the standardization of KMnO4 solutions, reduction by oxalic acid is often used.[21] In agricultural chemistry, it is used for estimation of active carbon in soil.[22]

Aqueous, acidic solutions of KMnO4 are used to collect gaseous mercury in flue gas during stationary source emissions testing.[23]

In histology, potassium permanganate was used as a bleaching agent.[24][25]

Fruit preservation

Ethylene absorbents extend storage time of bananas even at high temperatures. This effect can be exploited by packing bananas in polyethylene together with potassium permanganate. By removing ethylene by oxidation, the permanganate delays the ripening, increasing the fruit's shelf life up to 4 weeks without the need for refrigeration.[26][27][28]

Survival kits

Potassium permanganate is sometimes included in survival kits: as a hypergolic fire starter (when mixed with glycerol antifreeze from a car radiator;[29][30][31] as a water sterilizer; and for creating distress signals on snow).[32]

Fire service

Potassium permanganate is added to "plastic sphere dispensers" to create backfires, burnouts, and controlled burns. Polymer spheres resembling ping-pong balls containing small amounts of permanganate are injected with ethylene glycol and projected towards the area where ignition is desired, where they spontaneously ignite seconds later.[33][34] Both handheld[34] and helicopter-[33] or boat-mounted[34] plastic sphere dispensers are used.

Other uses

Potassium permanganate is one of the principal chemicals used in the film and television industries to "age" props and set dressings. Its ready conversion to brown MnO2 creates "hundred-year-old" or "ancient" looks on hessian cloth (burlap), ropes, timber, and glass.[35]

Potassium permanganate can be used to oxidize cocaine paste to purify it and increase its stability. This led to the Drug Enforcement Administration launching Operation Purple in 2000, with the goal of monitoring the world supply of potassium permanganate; however, potassium permanganate derivatives and substitutes were soon used thereafter to avoid the operation.[36]

Potassium permangate used as an oxidizing agent in the synthesis of cocaine and methcathinone.[37]


In 1659, Johann Rudolf Glauber fused a mixture of the mineral pyrolusite (manganese dioxide, MnO2) and potassium carbonate to obtain a material that, when dissolved in water, gave a green solution (potassium manganate) which slowly shifted to violet and then finally red.[38] The reaction that produced the color changes that Glauber observed in his solution of potassium permanganate and potassium manganate (K2MnO4) is now known as the "chemical chameleon". This report represents the first description of the production of potassium permanganate.[39] Just under 200 years later, London chemist Henry Bollmann Condy had an interest in disinfectants; he found that fusing pyrolusite with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and dissolving it in water produced a solution with disinfectant properties. He patented this solution, and marketed it as 'Condy's Fluid'. Although effective, the solution was not very stable. This was overcome by using potassium hydroxide (KOH) rather than NaOH. This was more stable, and had the advantage of easy conversion to the equally effective potassium permanganate crystals. This crystalline material was known as 'Condy's crystals' or 'Condy's powder'. Potassium permanganate was comparatively easy to manufacture, so Condy was subsequently forced to spend considerable time in litigation to stop competitors from marketing similar products.[40]

Early photographers used it as a component of flash powder. It is now replaced with other oxidizers, due to the instability of permanganate mixtures.


Potassium permanganate is produced industrially from manganese dioxide, which also occurs as the mineral pyrolusite. In 2000, worldwide production was estimated at 30,000 tonnes.[9] The MnO2 is fused with potassium hydroxide and heated in air or with another source of oxygen, like potassium nitrate or potassium chlorate.[9] This process gives potassium manganate:

2 MnO2 + 4 KOH + O2 → 2 K2MnO4 + 2 H2O

(With sodium hydroxide, the end product is not sodium manganate but an Mn(V) compound, which is one reason why the potassium permanganate is more commonly used than sodium permanganate. Furthermore, the potassium salt crystallizes better.[9])

The potassium manganate is then converted into permanganate by electrolytic oxidation in alkaline media:

2 K2MnO4 + 2 H2O → 2 KMnO4 + 2 KOH + H2

Other methods

Although of no commercial importance, potassium manganate can be oxidized by chlorine or by disproportionation under acidic conditions.[41] The chlorine oxidation reaction is

2 K2MnO4 + Cl2 → 2 KMnO4 + 2 KCl

and the acid-induced disproportionation reaction may be written as

3 K2MnO4 + 4 HCl → 2 KMnO4 + MnO2 + 2 H2O + 4 KCl

A weak acid such as carbonic acid is sufficient for this reaction:

3 K2MnO4 + 2 CO2 → 2 KMnO4 + 2 K2CO3 + MnO2

Permanganate salts may also be generated by treating a solution of Mn2+ ions with strong oxidants such as lead dioxide (PbO2), sodium bismuthate (NaBiO3), or peroxydisulfate. Tests for the presence of manganese exploit the vivid violet color of permanganate produced by these reagents.


Organic chemistry

Dilute solutions of KMnO4 convert alkenes into diols. This behaviour is also used as a qualitative test for the presence of double or triple bonds in a molecule, since the reaction decolorizes the initially purple permanganate solution and generates a brown precipitate (MnO2). In this context, it is sometimes called Baeyer's reagent. However, bromine serves better in measuring unsaturation (double or triple bonds) quantitatively, since KMnO4, being a very strong oxidizing agent, can react with a variety of groups.

Under acidic conditions, the alkene double bond is cleaved to give the appropriate carboxylic acid:[42]

CH3(CH2)17CH=CH2 + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 → CH3(CH2)17COOH + CO2 + 4 H2O + K2SO4 + 2 MnSO4

Potassium permanganate oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids, illustrated by the conversion of n-heptanal to heptanoic acid:[43]

5 C6H13CHO + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 → 5 C6H13COOH + 3 H2O + K2SO4 + 2 MnSO4

Even an alkyl group (with a benzylic hydrogen) on an aromatic ring is oxidized, e.g. toluene to benzoic acid.[44]

5 C6H5CH3 + 6 KMnO4 + 9 H2SO4 → 5 C6H5COOH + 14 H2O + 3 K2SO4 + 6 MnSO4

Glycols and polyols are highly reactive toward KMnO4. For example, addition of potassium permanganate to an aqueous solution of sugar and sodium hydroxide produces the chemical chameleon reaction, which involves dramatic color changes associated with the various oxidation states of manganese. A related vigorous reaction is exploited as a fire starter in survival kits. For example, a mixture of potassium permanganate and glycerol or pulverized glucose ignites readily.[29] Its sterilizing properties are another reason for inclusion of KMnO4 in a survival kit.

Ion exchange

Treating a mixture of aqueous potassium permanganate with a quaternary ammonium salt results in ion exchange, precipitating the quat salt of permanganate. Solutions of these salts are sometimes soluble in organic solvents:[45]

KMnO4 + R4NCl → R4NMnO4 + KCl

Similarly, addition of a crown ether also gives a lipophilic salt.[46]

Reaction with acids and bases

Permanganate reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid to give chlorine and manganese(II):

2 KMnO4 + 16 HCl → 2 Mn2+ + 5 Cl2 + 8 H2O

In neutral solution, permanganate slowly reduces to manganese dioxide (MnO2). This is the material that stains one's skin when handling KMnO4.

KMnO4 reduces in alkaline solution to give green K2MnO4:[47]

4 KMnO4 + 4 KOH → 4 K2MnO4 + O2 + 2 H2O

This reaction illustrates the relatively rare role of hydroxide as a reducing agent.

Addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to potassium permanganate gives Mn2O7.[48] Although no reaction may be apparent, the vapor over the mixture will ignite paper impregnated with alcohol. Potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid react to produce some ozone, which has a high oxidizing power and rapidly oxidizes the alcohol, causing it to combust. As the reaction also produces explosive Mn2O7, this should only be attempted with great caution.[49][50]

Thermal decomposition

Solid potassium permanganate decomposes when heated:

2 KMnO4 → K2MnO4 + MnO2(s) + O2

Safety and handling

Potassium permanganate poses risks as an oxidizer.[51] Contact with skin will result in a long lasting brown stain.[52]


  1. Burriel F, Lucena F, Arribas S, Hernández J (1985). Química Analítica Cualitativa [Qualitative Analytical Chemistry] (in Spanish). p. 688. ISBN 84-9732-140-5.
  2. Haynes WM, ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1439855119.
  3. Hocart R, Mathieu-Sicaud A (1945). "A stabilization factor in the polymorphism of ammonium nitrate". Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences [Weekly Reports of the Sessions of the Academy of Sciences] (in French). 221: 261–263.
  4. Chambers M. "Potassium permanganate [USP:JAN] – Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". ChemIDplus: A Toxnet database. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ChemIDplus – CAS: 7722-64-7 InChi: VZJVWSHVAAUDKD-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  5. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  6. Brauer E, ed. (1963). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. New York: Academic Press.
  7. Palenik GJ (1967). "Crystal structure of potassium permanganate". Inorg. Chem. 6 (3): 503–507. doi:10.1021/ic50049a015.
  8. Miessler GL, Fischer PJ, Tarr DA (2014). Inorganic Chemistry (5th ed.). Pearson. p. 430. ISBN 978-0321811059.
  9. Reidies AH (2002). "Manganese Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_123.
  10. World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. pp. 295, 300. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  11. British Medical Association; Royal Pharmaceutical Society (2015). British national formulary (69 ed.). p. 840. ISBN 9780857111562.
  12. Assembly of Life Sciences (U.S.). Safe Drinking Water Committee (1977). Drinking water and health, Volume 2. National Academies Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-309-02931-5. Retrieved 2016-09-13.
  13. Downey R, Barrington M (28 February 2005). "Red faces over pink water". The Northern Advocate. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19.
  14. "Onoway apologizes for 'alarming' pink tap water". CBC News. 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  15. "EPA Guidance Manual Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 13 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-10-01.
  16. Fatiadi A (1987). "The Classical Permanganate Ion: Still a Novel Oxidant in Organic Chemistry". Synthesis. 1987 (2): 85–127. doi:10.1055/s-1987-27859.
  17. Glagovich N (2013). "Baeyer Test". Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Central Connecticut State University. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  18. Thin Layer Chromatography stains http://www.reachdevices.com/TLC_stains.html
  19. Jork, H., Funk, W., Fischer, W., Wimmer, H. (1990): Thin-Layer Chromatography: Reagents and Detection Methods, Volume 1a, VCH, Weinheim, ISBN 3-527-278834
  20. Jork, H., Funk, W., Fischer, W., Wimmer, H. (1994): Thin-Layer Chromatography: Reagents and Detection Methods, Volume 1b, VCH, Weinheim
  21. Kovacs KA, Grof P, Burai L, Riedel M (2004). "Revising the Mechanism of the Permanganate/Oxalate Reaction". J. Phys. Chem. A. 108 (50): 11026. Bibcode:2004JPCA..10811026K. doi:10.1021/jp047061u.
  22. "Quick Reference Guide: Potassium Permanganate Test for Active Carbon". Agriculture Victoria—Victorian Resources Online. Victoria, Australia.
  23. Code of Federal Regulations(7-1-07) Edition, Title 40, Part 60, Appendix A-8, Method 29, Section 7.3.1
  24. Picken MM (April 2010). "Amyloidosis-where are we now and where are we heading?". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 134 (4): 545–551. doi:10.5858/134.4.545. PMID 20367306.
  25. Murphy CL, Eulitz M, Hrncic R, Sletten K, Westermark P, Williams T, Macy SD, Wooliver C, Wall J, Weiss DT, Solomon A (July 2001). "Chemical typing of amyloid protein contained in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 116 (1): 135–142. doi:10.1309/TWBM-8L4E-VK22-FRH5. PMID 11447744.
  26. Scott KJ, McGlasson WB, Roberts EA (1970). "Potassium Permanganate as an Ethylene Absorbent in Polyethylene Bags to Delay the Ripening of Bananas During Storage". Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. 10 (43): 237. doi:10.1071/EA9700237.
  27. Scott KJ, Blake, JR, Stracha, G, Tugwell, BL and McGlasson WB (1971). "Transport of Bananas at Ambient Temperatures using Polyethylene Bags". Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad). 48: 163–165.
  28. Scott KJ, Gandanegara S (1974). "Effect of Temperature on the Storage Life of bananas Held in Polyethylene Bags with an Ethylene Absorbent". Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad). 51: 23–26.
  29. Gillis B, Labiste D. "Fire by Chemical Reaction". PrimitiveWays. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24.
  30. "Potassium Permanganate" (PDF). Pole Shift Survival Information. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  31. "Making Fire with Potassium Permanganate and Glycerin". thesurvivalcache. 3 November 2012. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  32. "Distress Signals". Evening Post. CXXI (107): 5. 7 May 1936. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011.
  33. "Aerial Ignition, Plastic Sphere Dispenser Description". Missoula Technology and Development Center. USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  34. "Wetland Warrior". Dirty Jobs. Season 6. Episode 2.
  35. Brody E (February 2000). "Victor DeLor contractor profile". PaintPRO. 2 (1). Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2009-11-12. One of the techniques DeLor is known for among designers and clients is the special effects he creates with various chemical solutions. When applied to wood surfaces, these chemicals give a weathered appearance to new wood. ... To achieve the aesthetic on interior surfaces, DeLor often uses a mixture of water and potassium permanganate, a dry powder chemical.
  36. Gosmer K, Vammen M (March 10, 2014). "The Terrifying Substances People Put in Cocaine". Vice Media.
  37. Binder R, Machata G, Stead H (May 2003). "[Analysis of potassium permanganate as addictive drug "precursor"]". Archiv Fur Kriminologie. 211 (5–6): 160–165. PMID 12872685.
  38. Glauber, Johann Rudolph, Prosperitas Germaniae (The prosperity of Germany), part 3 (Amsterdam, (Netherlands): Johann Jansson, 1659), pp. 93–94. From pp. 93–94: " … donec tandem Magnesiam istam nitro fixo permixtam, in crucibulo forti coctione a nitro reseratam vidi, unde elegans color purpureus provenit, massam hanc effusam in pulvere redegi, aqua calida extraxi, per filtrum liquorem transmisi. Tandem vero elegantissimum purpureum, igneumque liquorem accepi, qui fere singulis horis in frigore tantummodo consistens colorem permutavit, sic ut jam viridis, jam caerulei, jam sanguinei coloris sponte sua factus sit, mox iterum alios elegantissimos colores receperit." ( … until finally I saw [that] by mixing that magnesia [i.e., magnesia nigra, pyrolusite, the ore containing manganese dioxide ] with fixed niter [i.e., inert niter, potassium carbonate], by cooking [it] in a strong crucible, [the colored compound was] released by the niter, whence a fine purple color arises; this mass [was] poured out, reduced to powder, extracted with hot water, [and] the solution passed through a filter. Then I got a truly most elegant, purple, and fiery solution, which nearly every hour ([while] standing just in the cold) changed color, so that it was spontaneously made now green, now blue, now red in color; soon again it received other most elegant colors.) Glauber JR. "Prosperitatis Germaniae pars .... 3: In qua Salpetrae ex variis ubiq, obviis subiectis facillime atque copiose extrahendi modus traditur. Eiusve utilitates summae declarantur" [Part of the Prosperity of Germany .... 3: In which the method of extracting saltpeter from various everywhere, in the most convenient and abundant manner, is given. His interests are clearly stated] (in Latin). Archived from the original on 2016-12-20 via Bavarian State Library. Translated in: Glauber JR (1689). The Works of the Highly Experienced and Famous Chymist, John Rudolph Glauber. Translated by Packe C. London, England: Thomas Millbourn. p. 353. Archived from the original on 2012-01-07.
  39. Weeks ME (1956). Leicester HM (ed.). Discovery of the Elements (6th ed.). Easton, Pennsylvania: Journal of Chemical Education. pp. 172–173.
  40. "Important Trade Mark Case". Otago Witness. 2 (2420): 53. 2 August 1900. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  41. Walton HF (1948). Inorganic Preparations. New York: Prentice-Hall. pp. 150–151.
  42. Lee DG, Lamb SE, Chang VS (1990). "Carboxylic Acids from the Oxidation of Terminal Alkenes by Permanganate: Nonadecanoic Acid". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, vol. 7, p. 397
  43. Ruhoff JR. "n-Heptanoic acid". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, vol. 2, p. 315
  44. Gardner KA, Mayer JM (September 1995). "Understanding C-H bond oxidations: H. and H- transfer in the oxidation of toluene by permanganate". Science. 269 (5232): 1849–1851. Bibcode:1995Sci...269.1849G. doi:10.1126/science.7569922. PMID 7569922.
  45. Herriott AW (1977). "Purple benzene: Solubilization of anions in organic solvents". J. Chem. Educ. 54 (4): 229. Bibcode:1977JChEd..54Q.229H. doi:10.1021/ed054p229.1.
  46. Doheny Jr AJ, Ganem B (1980). "Purple benzene revisited". J. Chem. Educ. 57 (4): 308. Bibcode:1980JChEd..57..308D. doi:10.1021/ed057p308.1.
  47. Nyholm RS, Woolliams PR (1968). "Manganates(VI)". Inorganic Syntheses. Inorg. Synth. Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. 11. pp. 56–61. doi:10.1002/9780470132425.ch11. ISBN 978-0-470-13242-5.
  48. Cotton FA, Wilkinson G, Murillo CA, Bochmann M (1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0-471-19957-5.
  49. Barthel H, Duvinage B (2000). "Clemens Winkler. His Experiments with Ozone in 1892". Praxis der Naturwissenschaften, Chemie. 49: 18ff.
  50. Dzhabiev TS, Denisov NN, Moiseev DN, Shilov AE (2005). "Formation of Ozone During the Reduction of Potassium Permanganate in Sulfuric Acid Solutions". Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry. 79: 1755–1760.
  51. Bretherick L, Urben PG, Pitt MJ (2007). Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. Vol. 1 (7th ed.). Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 1811–7. ISBN 978-0-12-373945-2.
  52. Griffin S. "How to Remove Potassium Permanganate". livestrong.com. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.