Orders of magnitude (mass)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 1059kg and 1052 kg. The least massive thing listed here is a graviton, and the most massive thing is the observable universe. Typically, an object having greater mass will also have greater weight (see mass versus weight), especially if the objects are subject to the same gravitational field strength.

An overview of ranges of mass

Units of mass

SI multiples of gram (g)
Submultiples Multiples
Value SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name
10−1 g dg decigram 101 g dag decagram
10−2 g cg centigram 102 g hg hectogram
10−3 g mg milligram 103 g kg kilogram
10−6 g µg microgram (mcg) 106 g Mg megagram (tonne)
10−9 g ng nanogram 109 g Gg gigagram
10−12 g pg picogram 1012 g Tg teragram
10−15 g fg femtogram 1015 g Pg petagram
10−18 g ag attogram 1018 g Eg exagram
10−21 g zg zeptogram 1021 g Zg zettagram
10−24 g yg yoctogram 1024 g Yg yottagram
10−27 g rg rontogram 1027 g Rg ronnagram
10−30 g qg quectogram 1030 g Qg quettagram
Common prefixes are in bold face.[1]

The table at right is based on the kilogram (kg), the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). The kilogram is the only standard unit to include an SI prefix (kilo-) as part of its name. The gram (10−3 kg) is an SI derived unit of mass. However, the names of all SI mass units are based on gram, rather than on kilogram; thus 103 kg is a megagram (106 g), not a *kilokilogram.

The tonne (t) is an SI-compatible unit of mass equal to a megagram (Mg), or 103 kg. The unit is in common use for masses above about 103 kg and is often used with SI prefixes. For example, a gigagram (Gg) or 109 g is 103 tonnes, commonly called a kilotonne.

Other units

Other units of mass are also in use. Historical units include the stone, the pound, the carat, and the grain.

For subatomic particles, physicists use the mass equivalent to the energy represented by an electronvolt (eV). At the atomic level, chemists use the mass of one-twelfth of a carbon-12 atom (the dalton). Astronomers use the mass of the sun (M).

The least massive things: below 1024 kg

Unlike other physical quantities, mass–energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, or an observed basic quantum as in the case of electric charge. Planck's law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. Consequently, there can only ever be an experimental upper bound on the mass of a supposedly massless particle; in the case of the photon, this confirmed upper bound is of the order of 3×10−27 eV/c2 = 10−62 kg.

Factor (kg) Value Item
1059 8.4×1059kg Graviton, upper bound (4.7×1023 eV/c2)[2]
1040 4.2×1040kg Mass equivalent of the energy of a photon at the peak of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (0.235 meV/c2)[3]
1036 1.8×1036kg 1 eV/c2, the mass equivalent of one electronvolt[4]
3.6×1036kg Electron neutrino, upper limit on mass (2eV/c2)[5]
quectogram (qg)
1031 9.11×1031kg Electron (511keV/c2), the lightest elementary particle with a measured nonzero rest mass[6]
rontogram (rg)
3.0–5.5×1030kg Up quark (as a current quark) (1.7–3.1MeV/c2)[7]
1028 1.9×1028kg Muon (106MeV/c2)[8]
yoctogram (yg)
1.661×1027kg Dalton (Da), a.k.a. unified atomic mass unit (u)
1.673×1027kg Proton (938.3MeV/c2)[9][10]
1.674×1027kg Hydrogen atom, the lightest atom
1.675×1027kg Neutron (939.6MeV/c2)[11][12]
1026 1.2×1026kg Lithium atom (6.941Da)
3.0×1026kg Water molecule (18.015Da)
8.0×1026kg Titanium atom (47.867Da)
1025 1.1×1025kg Copper atom (63.546Da)
1.6×1025kg Z boson (91.2GeV/c2)[13]
2.2×1025kg Higgs boson (125GeV/c2)
3.1×1025kg Top quark (173GeV/c2),[14] the heaviest known elementary particle
3.2×1025kg Caffeine molecule (194Da)
3.5×1025kg Lead-208 atom
4.9×1025kg Oganesson-294 atom, the heaviest known nuclide

10−24 to 10−18 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
zeptogram (zg)
1.2×1024kg Buckyball molecule (720Da)
1023 1.4×1023kg Ubiquitin, a small protein (8.6 kDa)[15]
5.5×1023kg A typical protein (median size of roughly 300 amino acids ≈ 33 kDa)[16]
1022 1.1×1022kg Haemoglobin A molecule in blood (64.5 kDa)[17]
attogram (ag)
1.65×1021kg Double-stranded DNA molecule consisting of 1,578 base pairs (995 kDa)[18]
4.3×1021kg Prokaryotic ribosome (2.6 MDa)[19]
7.1×1021kg Eukaryotic ribosome (4.3 MDa)[19]
7.6×1021kg Brome mosaic virus, a small virus (4.6 MDa)[20]
1020 3×1020kg Synaptic vesicle in rats (16.1 ± 3.8 MDa)[21]
6.8×1020kg Tobacco mosaic virus (41 MDa)[22]
1019 1.1×1019kg Nuclear pore complex in yeast (66 MDa)[23]
2.5×1019kg Human adenovirus (150 MDa)[24]

10−18 to 10−12 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
femtogram (fg)
1×1018kg HIV-1 virus[25][26]
4.7×1018kg DNA sequence of length 4.6 Mbp, the weight of the E. coli genome[27]
1017 ~1×1017kg Vaccinia virus, a large virus[28]
1.1×1017kg Mass equivalent of 1 joule[29]
1016 3×1016kg Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria, the smallest (and possibly most plentiful)[30] photosynthetic organism on Earth[31][32]
picogram (pg)
1×1015kg E. coli bacterium (wet weight)[33]
6×1015kg DNA in a typical diploid human cell (approximate)
1014 2.2×1014kg Human sperm cell[32][34]
6×1014kg Yeast cell (quite variable)[35][36]
1013 1.5×1013kg Dunaliella salina, a green alga (dry weight)[37]

10−12 to 10−6 kg

Scanning electron micrograph showing grains of sand

Factor (kg) Value Item
nanogram (ng)
1×1012kg Average human cell (1 nanogram)[38]
2–3×1012kg HeLa human cell[39][40][41]
8×1012kg Grain of birch pollen[42]
1010 2.5×1010kg Grain of maize pollen[43]
3.5×1010kg Very fine grain of sand (0.063 mm diameter, 350 nanograms)
microgram (µg)
3.6×109kg Human ovum[32][44]
2.4×109kg US RDA for vitamin B12 for adults[45]
108 10−8 kg Speculated approximate lower limit of the mass of a primordial black hole
1.5×10−8 kg US RDA for vitamin D for adults[46]
~2×108kg Uncertainty in the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK) (±~20 µg)[47]
2.2×108kg Planck mass[48]
~7×108kg One eyelash hair (approximate)[49]
107 1.5×107kg US RDA for iodine for adults[50]
2–3×107kg Fruit fly (dry weight)[51][52]

10−6 to 1kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
milligram (mg)
2.5×106kg Mosquitoes, common smaller species (about 2.5 milligrams),[53] grain of salt or sand,[54] medicines are typically expressed in milligrams[55]
centigram (cg)
1.1×105kg Small granule of quartz (2 mm diameter, 11 milligrams)[56]
2×105kg Adult housefly (Musca domestica, 21.4milligrams)[57]
decigram (dg)
0.27–2.0×104kg Range of amounts of caffeine in one cup of coffee (27–200 milligrams)[58]
1.5×104kg A frame of 35mm motion picture film (157 milligrams)[59]
2×104kg Metric carat (200 milligrams)[59]
gram (g)
1×103kg One cubic centimeter of water (1gram)[60]
1×103kg US dollar bill (1 gram)[61]
~1×103kg Two raisins (approximately 1 gram)[62]
~8×103kg Coins of one euro (7.5grams),[63] one U.S. dollar (8.1grams)[64] and one Canadian loonie (7grams [pre-2012], 6.27grams [2012-])[65]
decagram (dag)
1.2×102kg Mass of one mole (6.02214×1023 atoms) of carbon-12 (12 grams)
1.37×102kg Amount of ethanol defined as one standard drink in the U.S. (13.7grams)[66]
2–4×102kg Adult mouse (Mus musculus, 20–40grams)[67]
2.8×102kg Ounce (avoirdupois) (28.3495 grams)[59]
4.7×102kg Mass equivalent of the energy that is 1 megaton of TNT equivalent[59][68]
hectogram   (hg)
0.1-0.2kg An orange (100–200 grams)[69]
0.142-0.149 kg A baseball used in the major league.[70]
0.454kg Pound (avoirdupois) (453.6 grams)[59]

1 kg to 105 kg

Iron weights up to 50 kilograms depicted in Dictionnaire encyclopédique de l'épicerie et des industries annexes.
Factor (kg) Value Item
kilogram (kg)
1kg One litre (0.001 m3) of water[71]
1–3kg Smallest breed of dog (Chihuahua)[72]
1–3kg Typical laptop computer, 2010[73]
1–3kg Adult domestic tortoise
2.5–4kg Newborn human baby[74]
4.0kg Women's shot[75]
4–5kg Housecat[76]
7.26kg Men's shot[75]
101 9–27kg Medium-sized dog[77]
10–30kg A CRT computer monitor or television set
50kg Large dog breed (Great Dane)
70kg Adult human[78]
102 130–180kg Mature lion, female (130kg) and male (180kg)[79]
200–250kg Giant tortoise
240–450kg Grand piano[80][81]
400–900kg Dairy cow[82]
500–500,000kg A teaspoon (5 ml) of white dwarf material (0.5–500 tonnes)[83][84]
635 kg Heaviest human in recorded history (Jon Brower Minnoch)
907.2kg 1 short ton (2000 pounds - U.S.)[59]
megagram (Mg)
1000kg 1 tonne (U.S. spelling: metric ton)[59]
1000kg 1 cubic metre of water[71]
1016.05kg Ton (British) / 1 long ton (2240 pounds - U.S.)[59]
1300–1600kg Typical passenger cars[85]
2700–6000kg Adult elephant[86]
104 1.1×104kg Hubble Space Telescope (11 tonnes)[87]
1.2×104kg Largest elephant on record (12 tonnes)[88]
1.4×104kg Big Ben (bell) (14 tonnes)[89]
2.7×104kg ENIAC computer, 1946 (30 tonnes)[90]
4×104kg Maximum gross mass (truck + load combined) of a semi-trailer truck in the EU (40–44 tonnes)[91]
5×104–6×104kg Tank; Bulldozer (50–60 tonnes)
6.0×104kg Largest single-piece meteorite, Hoba West Meteorite (60 tonnes)[92]
7.3×104kg Largest dinosaur, Argentinosaurus (73 tonnes)[93]
105 1.74-1.83×105kg Operational empty weight of a Boeing 747-300
1.8×105kg Largest animal ever, a blue whale (180 tonnes)[94]
4.2×105kg International Space Station (417 tonnes)[95]
6×105kg World's heaviest aircraft: Antonov An-225 (maximum take-off mass: 600 tonnes, payload: 250 tonnes)[96]

106 to 1011 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
gigagram (Gg)
1×106kg Trunk of the giant sequoia tree named General Sherman, largest living tree by trunk volume (1121 tonnes)[97]
2.0×106kg Launch mass of the Space Shuttle (2041 tonnes)[98]
6×106kg Largest clonal colony, the quaking aspen named Pando (largest living organism) (6000 tonnes)[99]
7.8×106kg Virginia-class nuclear submarine (submerged weight)[100]
107 1×107kg Annual production of Darjeeling tea[101]
5.2×107kg RMS Titanic when fully loaded (52,000 tonnes)[102]
9.97×107kg Heaviest train ever: Australia's BHP Iron Ore, 2001 record (99,700 tonnes)[103]
108 6.6×108kg Largest ship and largest mobile man-made object, Seawise Giant, when fully loaded (660,000 tonnes)[104]
7×108kg Heaviest (non-pyramid) building, Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest, Romania[105]
teragram (Tg)
4.3×109kg Amount of matter converted into energy by the Sun each second[106]
6×109kg Great Pyramid of Giza[107]
6×1010kg Amount of concrete in the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest concrete structure[108][109]
1011 ~1×1011kg The mass of a primordial black hole with an evaporation time equal to the age of the universe[110]
2×1011kg Amount of water stored in London storage reservoirs (0.2 km3)[111]
4×1011kg Total mass of the world's human population[78][112][113]
5×1011kg Total biomass of Antarctic krill, probably the most plentiful animal species on the planet[114]

1012 to 1017 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
petagram (Pg)
0.8–2.1×1012kg Global biomass of fish[115]
4×1012kg Global annual human food production[116]
4×1012kg World crude oil production in 2009 (3,843 Mt)[117]
5.5×1012kg A teaspoon (5 ml) of neutron star material (5000 million tonnes)[118]
1013 1×1013kg Mass of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[119]
4×1013kg Global annual human carbon dioxide emission[120][121]
1014 1.05×1014kg Global net primary production – the total mass of carbon fixed in organic compounds by photosynthesis each year on Earth[122]
7.2×1014kg Total carbon stored in Earth's atmosphere[123]
exagram (Eg)
2.0×1015kg Total carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere[124]
3.5×1015kg Total carbon stored in coal deposits worldwide[125]
1016 1×1016kg 951 Gaspra, the first asteroid ever to be closely approached by a spacecraft (rough estimate)[126]
1×1016kg Rough estimate of the total carbon content of all organisms on Earth.[127]
3×1016kg Rough estimate of everything produced by the human species.[128]
3.8×1016kg Total carbon stored in the oceans.[129]
1017 1.6×1017kg Prometheus, a shepherd satellite for the inner edge of Saturn's F Ring[130]

1018 to 1023 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
zettagram (Zg)
5.1×1018kg Earth's atmosphere[131]
5.6×1018kg Hyperion, a moon of Saturn[130]
1019 3×1019kg 3 Juno, one of the larger asteroids in the asteroid belt[132]
3×1019kg The rings of Saturn[133]
1020 9.4×1020kg Ceres, dwarf planet within the asteroid belt[134]
yottagram (Yg)
1.4×1021kg Earth's oceans[135]
1.5×1021kg Charon, the largest moon of Pluto[136]
2.9–3.7×1021kg The asteroid belt[137]
1022 1.3×1022kg Pluto[136]
2.1×1022kg Triton, largest moon of Neptune[138]
7.3×1022kg Earth's Moon[139]
1023 1.3×1023kg Titan, largest moon of Saturn[140]
1.5×1023kg Ganymede, largest moon of Jupiter[141]
3.3×1023kg Mercury[142]
6.4×1023kg Mars[143]

1024 to 1029 kg

Jupiter is the most massive planet in the Solar System
Factor (kg) Value Item
ronnagram (Rg)
4.9×1024kg Venus[144]
6.0×1024kg Earth[145]
1025 3×1025kg Oort cloud[146]
8.7×1025kg Uranus[147]
1026 1.0×1026kg Neptune[148]
5.7×1026kg Saturn[149]
quettagram (Qg)
1.9×1027kg Jupiter[150]
1028 2–14×1028kg Brown dwarfs (approximate)[151]
1029 3×1029kg Barnard's Star, a nearby red dwarf[152]

1030 to 1035 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1030 2×1030kg The Sun[153] (one solar mass or M = 1.989×1030kg)
2.8×1030kg Chandrasekhar limit (1.4 M)[154][155]
1031 4×1031kg Betelgeuse, a red supergiant star (20 M)[156]
1032 4–7×1032kg R136a1, the most massive of known stars (230 to 345 M)[157]
6–8×1032kg Hyades star cluster (300 to 400 M)[158]
1033 1.6×1033kg Pleiades star cluster (800 M)[159]
1035 ~1035kg Typical globular cluster in the Milky Way (overall range: 3×103 to 4×106 M)[160]
2×1035kg Low end of mass range for giant molecular clouds (1×105 to 1×107 M)[161][162]
7.3×1035kg Jeans mass of a giant molecular cloud at 100K and density 30 atoms per cc;[163]
possible example: Orion molecular cloud complex

1036 to 1041 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1036 1.79×1036kg The entire Carina complex.
2.4×1036kg The Gould Belt of stars, including the Sun (1.2×106 M)[164]
7–8×1036kg The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, associated with the radio source Sagittarius A* (3.7±0.2×106 M)[165]
8×1036kg Omega centauri, the largest globular cluster in the Milky Way, containing approximately 10 million stars.
1040 4.17×1040kg NGC 4889, the largest measured supermassive black hole, weighing 21 billion solar masses (2.1×1010 M)
1041 4×1041kg Visible mass of the Milky Way galaxy[166]

The most massive things: 1042 kg and greater

Factor (kg) Value Item
1042 1.2×1042kg Milky Way galaxy (5.8×1011 M)[167]
2–3×1042kg Local Group of galaxies, including the Milky Way (1.29±0.14×1012 M)[167]
1045 1–2×1045kg Local or Virgo Supercluster of galaxies, including the Local Group (1×1015 M)[168]
1047 2×1047kg Laniakea Supercluster of galaxies, which encompasses the Virgo supercluster
1048 2×1048kg Pisces–Cetus Supercluster Complex, a galaxy filament that includes the Laniakea Supercluster.
1049 4×1049 kg Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, the largest structure in the known universe
1052 4.4506×1052kg Mass of the observable universe as estimated by NASA
1.4×1053kg Mass of the observable universe as estimated by the U.S. National Solar Observatory[169]

See also

  • Lists of astronomical objects


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