Merkle's Boner

Merkle's Boner refers to the notorious base-running mistake committed by rookie Fred Merkle of the New York Giants in a game against the Chicago Cubs on September 23, 1908. Merkle's failure to advance to second base on what should have been a game-winning hit led instead to a force play at second and a tied game. The Cubs later won the makeup game, which proved decisive as they beat the Giants by one game to win the National League (NL) pennant for 1908. It has been described as "the most controversial game in baseball history".[1]

Fred Merkle


The NL pennant race of 1908 was a three-way fight among the teams that dominated the league in the first decade of the modern era: the Pittsburgh Pirates (pennant winners in 1901, 1902, and 1903), the Giants (winners in 1904 and 1905), and the Cubs (winners in 1906 and 1907).[2] The teams were clustered in the standings all year, with Pittsburgh never more than 2.5 games ahead or 5 games behind,[3] the Giants never more than 4.5 ahead or 6.5 behind,[4] and the Cubs never more than 4 ahead or 6 behind.[5] When play began at the Polo Grounds in New York City on September 23, 1908, the Cubs and Giants were tied for first place (although the Giants had six more games to play, with an 87–50 record as opposed to the Cubs' 90–53), and the Pirates were 1.5 games behind with an 88–54 record.[6]

Merkle was 19 years old in 1908, the youngest player in the National League.[7] He played in only 38 games all year,[8] 11 of which were at first base as the backup for regular Giants first baseman Fred Tenney.[9] Merkle was recovering from two foot surgeries in July, following a blood infection that nearly caused his foot to be amputated, and was unable to play for most of July and August.[10][11] On the morning of September 23, Tenney woke up with a case of lumbago, and Giants manager John McGraw penciled Merkle in at first base. It was the first big-league game Merkle had ever started.[12]


September 23, 1908 at Polo Grounds, New York City, New York
Chicago Cubs000100000153
New York Giants000010000160
Home runs:
CHC: Joe Tinker
NYG: None
Attendance: 20,000 (Time: 1:30)
Umpires: Hank O'Day, Bob Emslie

Future Hall of Famer Christy Mathewson started for the Giants; Jack Pfiester started for the Cubs.[13] As was customary at the time, the game had only two umpires: Bob Emslie on the basepaths and Hank O'Day behind the plate.[14]

The Giants were the home team. Neither Mathewson nor Pfiester allowed a run through three innings. In the fourth, Cubs shortstop Joe Tinker hit the ball into the outfield, and when right fielder Mike Donlin could not stop it from going past him deep into the cavernous outfield of the Polo Grounds, Tinker circled the bases for an inside-the-park home run that gave Chicago a 1–0 lead. It was the first homer hit off Mathewson since a homer by Tinker on July 17.[15] The Giants tied the score in the fifth when Buck Herzog singled, advanced to second on an error, advanced to third on a sacrifice by Roger Bresnahan, and scored on a single by Donlin. The game was still tied 1–1 when the Giants came to bat in the bottom of the ninth.[16]


An estimated 20,000 fans watched the game.

Pfiester remained on the mound for Chicago. Cy Seymour led off with a groundout to second. Art Devlin singled, putting the winning run on first base with one out. Moose McCormick grounded sharply to second and Devlin was forced out, but Devlin's aggressive slide prevented a double play and allowed McCormick to reach first base safely on a fielder's choice.[17] With two outs and McCormick on first, Fred Merkle came up to bat. Merkle, who only had 47 plate appearances in the entire 1908 season,[8] singled down the right-field line. McCormick, the potential winning run, advanced to third base.[18]

Shortstop Al Bridwell came up to bat next with two outs and runners at the corners. Bridwell swung at the first pitch from Pfiester, a fastball, and drilled an apparent single into center field. McCormick ran home from third, and the game appeared to be over, a 2–1 Giants victory. Giants fans poured out of the stands and mobbed the field; fans sitting behind home plate crossed the field (customary in this era) to exit the ballpark via the outfield. Merkle, advancing from first base, saw the fans swarming onto the playing field. He turned back to the dugout without ever touching second.[19] Official rule 5.08(a) states: "A run is not scored if the runner advances to home base during a play in which the third out is made [...] by any runner being forced out".[20][21][22]

Story headline in The New York Times

Cubs second baseman Johnny Evers saw an opportunity to have the rule enforced. He shouted to center fielder Solly Hofman, who, though the field was filled with fans, retrieved the ball and threw it to Evers. According to one account, Joe McGinnity, a Giants pitcher who was coaching first base that day, intercepted the ball and threw it away into the crowd of fans. Evers apparently retrieved the ball and touched second base, although some reports stated that he substituted a different ball. Umpires Emslie and O'Day hurriedly consulted, and O'Day, who saw the play from home plate, ruled that Merkle had not touched second base; on that basis, Emslie ruled him out on a force, and O'Day ruled that the run did not score.[23] The fans who had run onto the field were so hostile to O'Day that police officers rushed into the crowd to protect him.[24]

Newspapers told different stories of who had gotten the ball to Evers and how. One newspaper claimed that Cub players physically restrained Merkle from advancing to second. The New York Times game recap the next day stated that it was Cubs manager/first baseman Frank Chance, not Evers, who had realized the situation and called for the ball to be thrown to second base, with Chance running to second base to receive the throw. This account also intimated that the ball may not have been successfully retrieved from the crowd after McGinnity's interference and stated that Merkle insisted that he had indeed touched second base.[24] Retelling the story in 1944, Evers insisted that after McGinnity (who was not playing in the game) had thrown the ball away, Cubs pitcher Rube Kroh (who also was not in the game) retrieved it from a fan and threw it to shortstop Tinker, who threw it to Evers (by rule, after a fan or a player who was not in the game touches the ball, it becomes dead). A contemporary account from the Chicago Tribune supports this version.[25] However, eight years prior to that, Evers claimed to have gotten the ball directly from Hofman. Five years after the play, Merkle admitted that he had left the field without touching second, but only after umpire Emslie assured them that they had won the game. In 1914, O'Day said that Evers' tag was irrelevant: he had called the third out after McGinnity interfered with the throw from center field.[26] Future Hall of Fame umpire Bill Klem said Merkle's boner was "the rottenest decision in the history of baseball"; Klem believed that the force rule was meant to apply to infield hits, not balls hit to the outfield.[27]

Replayed game

Standings of the National League prior to the replaying of the tied game

Unable to quickly clear the field of fans, O'Day ruled the game over on account of darkness.[28] The game ended in a 1–1 tie. National League president Harry Pulliam upheld the ruling. On October 2, Pulliam rejected the Giants' appeal of O'Day's ruling and the Cubs' call for a forfeit victory and again upheld the umpires, declaring the force play on Merkle valid and the game a tie.[29] The Cubs-Giants-Pirates pennant race continued to the final days. Due to rainouts during the season, in the last week of the pennant race the Giants were forced to play 10 games.[30] After Merkle's boner, the Giants won 11 of their last 16 games to finish 98–55. The Cubs won eight of their last 10 after the Merkle game to also finish 98–55. The Pirates, who beat the Dodgers 2–1 on September 23 to gain a half game on their rivals, won nine of their last 10 to force a makeup game with the Cubs on October 4. The Cubs beat the Pirates, 5–2, leaving themselves tied with the Giants, and with the Pirates a half-game behind both teams at 98–56, they were thus eliminated.

On October 6, the National League board of directors agreed with its umpires and league president Pulliam, making a final ruling that Merkle had failed to touch second base and that the force rule was correctly applied.[31] This left the Cubs and Giants tied at 98–55 and required a makeup game to decide the NL pennant. To decide the pennant (and a spot in the World Series), the teams had to replay the tied game on October 8. Mathewson, scheduled to start the game, said, "I'm not fit to pitch today. I'm dog tired."[32] The crowd was estimated at 40,000, the biggest in baseball history at that time.[33] Pfiester pitched for the Cubs again in the rematch,[34] but was removed from the game in the first inning after hitting Tenney, walking Herzog (who was promptly picked off), giving up an RBI double to Donlin, and walking Seymour. Future Hall of Famer Mordecai "Three Finger" Brown entered the game in relief and got out of the jam without allowing another run.[35] In the Cubs' half of the third inning, Tinker led off with a triple and scored on a single by Johnny Kling. Evers walked, Frank Schulte followed with an RBI double to give the Cubs the lead, and Frank Chance followed with a two-run double.[36] From there, Chicago cruised to a 4–2 victory, becoming champions of the NL for the third straight year.

October 8, 1908 at Polo Grounds, New York City, New York
Chicago Cubs004000000490
New York Giants100000100250
WP: Mordecai Brown (29–9)   LP: Christy Mathewson (37–11)
Attendance: 40,000 (Time: 1:40)
Umpires: Jim Johnstone, Bill Klem


The Cubs went on to win the 1908 World Series, beating the Detroit Tigers four games to one. This was the Cubs' last world championship for more than a century; the next came in the 2016 World Series. The Pirates won the 1909 World Series, also against the Tigers. The Giants then returned to the World Series for three straight years, 1911–1913, only to lose each year—to the first of Connie Mack's two Philadelphia Athletics dynasties in 1911 and 1913, and to the Boston Red Sox in 1912. John McGraw's club did not win another championship until 1921, when they defeated the emerging New York Yankees, featuring Babe Ruth, two consecutive years in the Yankees' first World Series appearances.

The New York Times game story on September 24, 1908, blamed the loss on "censurable stupidity on the part of player Merkle."[24] For the rest of his life, he lived with the nickname of "Bonehead".[37] Merkle replaced Tenney as the full-time Giants first baseman in 1910 and was a regular for the Giants, Dodgers, and Cubs for another 10 years. He played in five World Series, all for the losing team.[38] Bitter over the events of the "boner" game, Merkle avoided baseball after his playing career finally ended in 1926. When he finally appeared at a Giants old-timers' game in 1950, he got a loud ovation from the fans.[37][39] He died in 1956.[40]

On July 1, 2013, a minor league game between the Lansing Lugnuts and Great Lakes Loons featured a very similar play, in which an apparent game-winning single for the Lugnuts was nullified when the runner at first joined the celebration instead of advancing to second.[41] The Lugnuts lost in extra innings.[42][43]

See also

  • Warren Gill, a first baseman for the Pittsburgh Pirates who made a similar base-running mistake earlier in September 1908, also against the Chicago Cubs and also umpired by Hank O'Day, but was not called out


Inline citations
  1. Murphy 2008, p. 421
  2. "National League Team Win Totals". Baseball Reference.
  3. "1908 Pittsburgh Pirates Schedule and Results". Baseball Reference.
  4. "1908 New York Giants Schedule and Results". Baseball Reference.
  5. "1908 Chicago Cubs Schedule and Results". Baseball Reference.
  6. "Standings on Tuesday, September 22, 1908". Baseball Reference.
  7. Vaccaro, Mike (2009). The First Fall Classic (E-book ed.). Doubleday. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-385-53218-1.
  8. "1908 New York Giants Batting, Pitching, & Fielding Statistics". Baseball Reference.
  9. "1908 New York Giants Fielding Statistics". Baseball Reference.
  10. "Baseball Notes". Lowell Sun. No. 22. July 16, 1908.
  11. "Fred Merkle Badly Hurt". Newark Advocate. July 10, 1908. p. 3.
  12. Murphy 2008, p. 431
  13. "Box Score of Merkle's Boner". Baseball Almanac.
  14. Murphy 2008, pp. 425–426
  15. Murphy 2008, p. 433
  16. Murphy 2008, p. 434
  17. Murphy 2008, p. 435
  18. Murphy 2008, p. 437
  19. Murphy 2008, p. 439
  20. Major League Baseball Official Rules Committee (2021). Official Baseball Rules: 2021 edition (PDF). The Office of the Commissioner of Baseball. Rule 5.08(a). ISBN 978-1-62937-893-0.
  21. Sherman, Ed (September 23, 2008). "100-year Anniversary of 'Merkle's Boner'". Chicago Tribune. p. 5. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
  22. Murphy 2008, p. 446
  23. Murphy 2008, pp. 439–441
  24. "Blunder Costs Giants Victory". The New York Times. September 24, 1908. p. 7. Retrieved July 17, 2022 via
  25. Macht, Norman (September 23, 2008). "Scoring the Merkle Play" (PDF). The Inside Game. Society for American Baseball Research. 8 (4): 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2016.
  26. Murphy 2008, pp. 442–444
  27. Murphy 2008, p. 447
  28. Murphy 2008, p. 450
  29. Murphy 2008, p. 561
  30. Murphy 2008, p. 543
  31. Murphy 2008, p. 584
  32. Murphy 2008, p. 591
  33. Murphy 2008, p. 601
  34. Murphy 2008, p. 608
  35. Murphy 2008, pp. 609–610
  36. Murphy 2008, pp. 612–614
  37. Sherman, Ed (September 23, 2008). "Sadly, one play defined Merkle's career".
  38. "Fred Merkle Statistics and History". Baseball Reference.
  39. Fraley, Oscar (July 31, 1950). "Bonehead Is Forgotten". Evansville Press. Evansville, Indiana. UP. p. 11. Retrieved July 17, 2022 via
  40. Marston, Red (March 3, 1956). "Fred Merkle, of Famous Boner Play, Dies". Tampa Bay Times. p. 9. Retrieved July 17, 2022 via
  41. "Lansing Lugnuts Great Lakes Loons 7/1/13 Grabbing Defeat Out of the Hands of Victory". Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved November 14, 2018 via YouTube.
  42. Ley, Tom (July 3, 2013). "Minor Leaguer Hits Walk-Off Single, His Team Loses Game". Deadspin.
  43. Seiner, Jake (July 2, 2013). "Loons Win in Merkle-esque Fashion". Archived from the original on January 16, 2017.
  • Murphy, Cait (2008). Crazy '08 (E-book ed.). Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-157829-8.

Further reading

  • Anderson, David W. (2000). More Than Merkle: A History of the Best and Most Exciting Baseball Season in Human History. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1056-6.
  • Cameron, Mike. (2010). Public Bonehead, Private Hero: The Real Legacy of Baseball's Fred Merkle. Crystal Lake, Illinois: Sporting Chance Press. ISBN 0-9819342-1-8.
  • Fleming, G.H. (1981). The Unforgettable Season: The Most Exciting & Calamitous Pennant Race of All Time. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. ISBN 0-03-056221-X.
  • Murphy, Cait. (2007). Crazy '08: How a Cast of Cranks, Rogues, Boneheads, and Magnates Created the Greatest Year in Baseball History. New York: HarperCollins/Smithsonian Books. ISBN 0-06-088937-3.
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