List of World Heritage Sites in the Caribbean

This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Caribbean.


Site; as per officially inscribed name[1]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[2]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable

World Heritage Sites

  † In danger
  * Trans-border site
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Alejandro de Humboldt National Park CubaHolguín and Guantánamo,
20°27′N 75°0′W
(ix), (x)
69,341 (171,350); buffer zone 34,330 (84,800) 2001 The park exhibits a wide array of geology types. It contains many biological species, including 16 of Cuba's 28 endemic plant species, as well as animal species such as the endangered Cuban solenodon. [3]
Antigua Naval Dockyard and Related Archaeological Sites AntiguaEnglish Harbour, Antigua,
 Antigua & Barbuda
17°00′30″N 61°45′52″W
(ii), (iv)
255 (630); buffer zone 3,873 (9,570) 2016 The site consists of a group of Georgian-style naval buildings and structures, set within a walled enclosure. The natural environment of this side of the island of Antigua, with its deep, narrow bays surrounded by highlands, offered shelter from hurricanes and was ideal for repairing ships. The construction of the Dockyard by the British navy would not have been possible without the labour of generations of enslaved Africans since the end of the 18th century. Its aim was to protect the interests of sugar cane planters at a time when European powers were competing for control of the Eastern Caribbean. [5]
Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the South-East of Cuba CubaSantiago de Cuba and Guantánamo,
20°00′21″N 75°37′4″W
(iii), (iv)
81,475 (201,330) 2000 During the 19th and early 20th centuries, eastern Cuba was primarily involved with coffea cultivation. The remnants of the plantations display the techniques used in the difficult terrain, as well as the economic and social significance of the plantation system in Cuba and the Caribbean. [5]
Blue and John Crow Mountains Jamaica Jamaica
18°04′39″N 76°34′16″W
(iii), (vi), (x)
26,252 (64,870); buffer zone 28,494 (70,410) 2015 The park covers roughly about 4.5% of Jamaica. [6]
Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts,
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
17°20′49″N 62°50′14″W
(iii), (iv)
1999 Built during the 17th and 18th centuries by African slaves in a period of European colonial expansion, the fortress is an exceptionally well preserved example of British military architecture in the Caribbean. [7]
Colonial City of Santo Domingo Dominican RepublicDistrito Nacional,
 Dominican Republic
18°29′0″N 69°55′0″W
(ii), (iv), (vi)
93 (230) 1990 Santo Domingo was founded in 1498 shortly after the arrival of Christopher Columbus on the island and had the first cathedral, hospital, customs house and university built in the New World. Its grid patterned town plan became the model for other colonial towns in the Americas. [8]
Desembarco del Granma National Park CubaGranma,
19°53′N 77°38′W
(vii), (viii)
32,576 (80,500) 1999 The park features a unique karst topography with features such as terraces, cliffs, and waterfalls. [9]
Historic Area of Willemstad, Inner City and Harbour, Curaçao NetherlandsWillemstad,
12°6′7″N 68°54′8″W
(ii), (iv), (v)
86 (210); buffer zone 87 (210) 1997 The architecture of the 17th-century Dutch trading settlement Willemstad combines styles from the Netherlands with Spanish and Portuguese colonial towns. [11]
Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison BarbadosBridgetown
13°5′48″N 59°36′50″W
(ii), (iii), (iv)
187 (460); buffer zone 321 (790) 2011 Bridgetown is an excellent example of a British colonial settlement built from the 17th to 19th century. Unlike Dutch and Spanish settlements of the area, the town is not laid out on a grid plan but follows a serpentine urban design. [12]
Historic Centre of Camagüey CubaCamagüey,
21°22′43″N 77°55′7″W
(iv), (v)
54 (130); buffer zone 276 (680) 2008 Camagüey is among the first seven villages founded by the Spanish in Cuba, first settled in 1528. The irregular organization of the city is distinct from the typical, orderly construction of most other Spanish settlements. This maze-like style was influenced by medieval European ideas and traditional construction methods of early immigrant masons and construction workers. [13]
La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site in Puerto Rico Puerto RicoSan Juan
 Puerto Rico,  United States
18°28′0″N 66°7′30″W
33 (82) 1983 A series of defensive structures built between the 16th and 20th centuries at a strategic point in the Caribbean Sea to protect the city and the Bay of San Juan. They represent a fine display of European military architecture adapted to harbour sites on the American continent. [14]
Morne Trois Pitons National Park Dominicasouth central part of the island,
15°16′N 61°17′W
(viii), (x)
6,857 (16,940) 1997 [15]
National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers HaitiNord,
19°34′25″N 72°14′39″W
(iv), (vi)
1982 Sans-Souci Palace was the royal residence constructed by King Henri I. It was the most important of nine palaces built by the king, along with fifteen châteaux, numerous forts, and sprawling summer homes on his twenty plantations.[16] The Citadelle Laferrière is a large mountaintop fortress in northern Haiti, and is the largest fortress in the Americas. The mountaintop fortress has itself become a national icon of Haiti, featured on currency, stamps, and tourist ministry posters.[17] The Buildings of Ramiers were among the first monuments constructed after the Haitian Revolution.[18] [19]
Old Havana and its Fortifications CubaLa Habana,
23°8′0″N 82°21′0″W
(iv), (v)
143 (350) 1982 Havana was founded in 1519 by Spanish colonists, growing to become one of the Caribbean's primary shipbuilding centers by the 17th century. The old city was built in the Baroque and Neoclassical styles. Historical landmarks in Old Havana include La Cabaña, the Cathedral of Havana and the Great Theatre of Havana. [20]
Pitons Management Area Saint Lucianear Soufrière,
 Saint Lucia
13°48′26″N 61°4′13″W
(vii), (viii)
2,909 (7,190) 2004 [21]
San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba CubaSantiago de Cuba Province,
19°58′0″N 75°52′15″W
(iv), (v)
1997 The large fort was built to defend the important port of Santiago de Cuba. The design of the fortification was based on Italian and Renaissance architecture. The complex of magazines, bastions, and batteries is one of the most complete and well-preserved Spanish-American defense fortifications. [22]
Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios CubaSancti Spíritus Province,
21°48′11″N 79°59′4″W
(iv), (v)
1988 The city of Trinidad was founded in the early 16th century. In 1518, Hernán Cortés began his expedition to conquer Mexico from the port at Trinidad. The city prospered throughout the colonial period in large part due to the success of the local sugar industry. The adjacent Valley de los Ingenios was the origin of the Cuban sugar industry, which emerged in the 18th century. It is home to numerous cane sugar mills, as well as cattle ranches and tobacco plantations. [23]
Urban Historic Centre of Cienfuegos CubaCienfuegos,
22°8′50″N 80°27′10″W
(ii), (v)
2005 Cienfuegos was founded in 1819 as a Spanish colony, though its first inhabitants were French immigrants. It became a trade center in the sugar cane, tobacco, and coffee trade because of its location on the Bay of Cienfuegos. Because of its establishment in the later colonial period, the architecture has more modern influences: including modern ideas of urban planning. [24]
Viñales Valley CubaPinar del Río Province,
22°37′N 83°43′W
1999 The village of Viñales was founded in 1875 after the expansion of tobacco cultivation in the surrounding valley. The Valley features a karst topography, vernacular architecture, and traditional cultivation methods. The Valley was also the site of various military engagements in the Cuban War of Independence and Cuban Revolution. [25]

Location of sites

Tentative list

In addition to sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage List are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[27]

Ref No. Site Image Location Year listed UNESCO criteria Description
6070 Historic Lighthouses of The Bahamas  Bahamas 2015 iii (cultural) For over 150 years, British Imperial Lighthouse Service lights have been a constant in Bahamian maritime history. They are symbols of the unique heritage of maritime navigation. There are only a few of these hand-wound kerosene-burning lighthouses left in the world and they are found in the Bahamas.[28]
6071 The Inagua National Park Inagua,  Bahamas 2015 vi, x (mixed) It is an important area for breeding, passage and wintering for numerous species of waterbirds and is one of the only Wetlands of International Importance in the Caribbean. It has the largest breeding colony of Caribbean flamingos.[29]
1993 The Scotland District of Barbados Saint Andrew's Parish and Saint Joseph's Parish  Barbados 2005 not stated (natural) The Scotland District of Barbados has base of sedimentary rocks and is the only place in the Caribbean that a submarine mountain range lies above water. This sparsely populated region holds interesting rock formations created by tectonic movement and erosion.[30]
5942 The Industrial Heritage of Barbados: The Story of Sugar and Rum  Barbados 2014 ii, iii, vi (cultural) Sugarcane landscapes are an outstanding example of a cultural landscape shaped by Europeans and Africans in the Atlantic World. The site illustrates the impact of human settlement, slave labour and agricultural activities, and more specifically the production of Caribbean sugar and rum, from the mid-17th century on the natural landscape.[31]
1798 National Schools of Art, Cubanacán Havana,  Cuba 2003 i, ii, iii, iv, v (cultural) The site is one of the most outstanding examples of contemporary Latin American architecture, with an acknowledged artistic value, reuniting testimonial values stemming from the historic moment in which it was built, when cement and concrete were scarce in Cuba.[32]
1801 Ciénaga de Zapata National Park Matanzas,  Cuba 2003 vii, ix, x (natural) It is an extensive ecosystem made up of mangrove forests, keys, seagrass beds, coral reef barriers and deep reefs. The conservation status of coral reefs in the area is most remarkable.[33]
1802 Reef System in the Cuban Caribbean  Cuba 2003 vii, x (natural) The site is a series of marine protected areas with well-preserved underwater ecosystems stretching 800 km along the Caribbean coastline of Cuba.[34]
6020 Fort Shirley Saint John Parish,  Dominica 2015 ii, iv (cultural) Fort Shirley was formerly a military outpost, a sterling example of its kind in the West Indies. It was the scene of a famous revolt of African slave soldiers in protest over their conditions there in 1802. Their action resulted in all slave soldiers in the British Empire being made free in 1807.[35]
6021 Morne Diablotin National Park Saint Joseph Parish,  Dominica 2015 vii, x (natural) The site is home to two endemic bird species — Dominica's national bird, the sisserou parrot, and the Jaco red-necked parrot — which occur nowhere else on Earth. The Park also covers a wide range of habitats, including the globally rare elfin woodland ecosystem.[36]
6022 Soufriere-Scott's Head Marine Reserve Saint Mark Parish,  Dominica 2015 vii, x (natural) The site is a vast submerged volcanic crater, with some of the most pristine marine environments in the Caribbean. The site also has significant cultural importance to the indigenous Carib people.[37]
1947 Historic Centre of Jacmel Sud-Est Department,


2004 ii, iv (cultural) The colonial city of Jacmel was founded in 1698 over an ancient pre-Columbian village.[38]
5881 Volcanic and forested areas of Martinique  Martinique,


2014 vii, viii, ix, x (natural) The island's varied topography creates a wide range of bioclimates and has led to the development of multiple forest ecosystems with rich, varied and specialized plant life.[39]
5627 National Marine Park  Bonaire,


2011 vii, ix (natural) Established in 1979, Bonaire National Marine Park is the oldest marine reserve in the world. The unique combination of species and high biodiversity make the Park's coral reefs and mangroves outstanding.[40]
5632 Plantations in West Curaçao  Curaçao,


2011 ii, iv, v (cultural) The plantations of West Curaçao are a cultural landscape that uniquely reflect a distinctive variant of the Caribbean slave plantation society that evolved between the mid-17th and early 20th centuries.[41]
5644 Banwari Trace Archaeological Site Banwari Trace, Siparia, Siparia

 Trinidad and Tobago

2011 iii, v (cultural) The Banwari Trace deposit is to be found on the southern edge of the Oropuche Lagoon in southwest Trinidad, just west of the Coora River. The site occupies the top of a Miocene hillock, originally covered with deciduous seasonal forest, which rises above the swamp. All of the Archaic sites in the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, including Banwari trace, belong to the Ortoiroid Series, which gets its name from the type site of Ortoire in Trinidad.[42]
5645 La Brea Pitch Lake La Brea, Siparia

 Trinidad and Tobago

2011 vii, viii (natural) The Pitch Lake is found in southwest Trinidad in the village of La Brea. The lake measures approximately one hundred (100) acres (41 hectares), and is estimated to be two hundred and fifty (250) feet (76 metres) deep in the centre. It holds about ten million (10,000,000) tons of pitch. It is situated about twelve hundred (1200) yards from the sea, in a depression immediately south of a 140 feet high hill, from the summit of which the ground slopes gently northwards to the sea.[43]
5646 Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve Mason Hall, Tobago

 Trinidad and Tobago

2011 v, vi, vii, ix, x (mixed) Tobago is the smaller, relatively northeasterly island of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, with a surface area of about 316 km2. The Main Ridge is literally the backbone of the island, Gutting lengthways across two thirds of Tobago's surface. It encompasses 3958 hectares (9780 acres) of tropical rainforest specifically lower montane, lowland and xerophytic rainforest - and reaches a height of 604 metres. The majority of the forest reserve is lower montane, and is found at heights above 244 metres.[44]
5682 Turks and Caicos Islands  Turks and Caicos Islands,

 United Kingdom

2012 x (natural) The extremely hot, dry conditions led to natural salt production in the interior wetlands of the islands, leading to one of the first and major international salt industries in the Americas. The smaller cays are important for breeding seabirds, and endemic reptiles, invertebrates and plants. The wetlands are globally important for shorebirds.

See also


  • "World Heritage Committee: 29th session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  • "World Heritage Committee: 30th session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  • "World Heritage Committee: 31st session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  • "World Heritage Committee: 33rd session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  • "World Heritage Committee: 34th session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  1. "World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  2. "The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  3. "Alejandro de Humboldt National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  4. "Solenodon cubanus". International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
  5. "Antigua Naval Dockyard and Related Archaeological Sites". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  6. "Blue and John Crow Mountains". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  7. "Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  8. "Colonial City of Santo Domingo". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  9. "Desembarco del Granma National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  10. "In Depth: Dear Granma". Bayamo Travel Guide. Frommers. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
  11. "Historic Area of Willemstad, Inner City and Harbour, Curaçao". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  12. "Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  13. "Historic Centre of Camagüey". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  14. "La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site in Puerto Rico". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  15. "Morne Trois Pitons National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  16. Cheesman, Clive (2007). The Armorial of Haiti: Symbols of Nobility in the Reign of Henri Christophe. London: The College of Arms.
  17. "National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers". UNESCO World Heritage. 1982. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
  18. "National History Park". World Heritage Site. 1982. Archived from the original on 2014-09-16. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
  19. "National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  20. "Old Havana and its Fortifications". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  21. "Pitons Management Area". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  22. "San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  23. "Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  24. "Urban Historic Centre of Cienfuegos". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  25. "Viñales Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  26. "Viñales (Cuba)" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  27. "Tentative Lists". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  28. "Historic Lighthouses of The Bahamas". Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  29. "The Inagua National Park". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  30. "The Scotland District of Barbados". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  31. "The Industrial Heritage of Barbados: The Story of Sugar and Rum". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  32. "National Schools of Art, Cubanacán". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  33. "Ciénaga de Zapata National Park". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  34. "Reef System in the Cuban Caribbean". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  35. "Fort Shirley". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  36. "Morne Diablotin National Park". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  37. "Soufriere-Scott's Head Marine Reserve". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  38. "UNESCO for Haiti: Making Culture a Motor for Reconstruction Haiti, the "land of a thousand colours"". Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  39. "Aires volcaniques et forestières de la Martinique". Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  40. "Bonaire Marine Park". Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  41. "Plantations in West Curaçao". Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  42. "Banwari Trace Archaeological Site". Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  43. "La Brea Pitch Lake". Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  44. "Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve". Retrieved 9 December 2020.
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