Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic and Latino Americans (Spanish: Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; Portuguese: Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans of Spanish and/ or Latin American ancestry.[3][5][6][7] More broadly, these demographics include all Americans who identify as Hispanic or Latino regardless of ancestry.[8][9][10][11][12] As of 2020, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 65.3 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the United States and its territories[1] (which include Puerto Rico).

Hispanic and Latino Americans
Proportion of Hispanic and Latino Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
Total population
65,329,087 (2020)
19.5% of the total U.S. and Puerto Rico population (2020)
62,080,044 (2020)[1]
18.7% of the total U.S. population (2020)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Related ethnic groups

"Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States of America. People who identify as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.[13][14][15][16] As one of the only two specifically designated categories of ethnicity in the United States (the other being "Not Hispanic or Latino"), Hispanics and Latinos form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic and Latino Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish, Salvadoran, Dominican, Brazilian, Guatemalan, Colombian, or Venezuelan origin. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic and Latino populations varies widely in different locations across the country.[14][17][18][19][20]

In 2012, Hispanic Americans were the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans.[21] Hispanics of Indigenous descent and Native Americans are the oldest ethnic groups to inhabit much of what is today the United States.[22][23][24][25] Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Florida, all of which constituted part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, based in Mexico City. Later, this vast territory became part of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821 and until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Hispanic immigrants to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Hispanic countries.[26]


The Spanish Harlem Orchestra in Manhattan. New York City is home to nearly 3 million Latino Americans, the largest Hispanic population of any city outside Latin America and Spain. Hispanic and Latino immigrants to New York originate from a broad spectrum of Latin American countries.

The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. The U.S. Census Bureau defines being Hispanic as being a member of an ethnicity, rather than being a member of a particular race and thus, people who are members of this group may also be members of any race.[14][27][28] In a 2015 national survey of self-identified Hispanics, 56% said that being Hispanic is part of both their racial and ethnic background, while smaller numbers considered it part of their ethnic background only (19%) or racial background only (11%).[27] Hispanics may be of any linguistic background; in a 2015 survey, 71% of American Hispanics agreed that it "is not necessary for a person to speak Spanish to be considered Hispanic/Latino".[29] Hispanic and Latino people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history, and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.[30][31] In the United States, many Hispanics are of Iberian (primarily Spanish) and Indigenous American ancestry (mestizo). Others may have European, Middle Eastern (including Jewish), or Asian ancestry as well as Indigenous American ancestry. Many Hispanics from the Caribbean, as well as many Hispanics from other regions of the Hispanic world where African slavery was widespread, may also be of sub-Saharan African descent.[30][32]

Byzantine-Latino Quarter, Los Angeles, California. Hispanic Americans constituted 48% of Los Angeles inhabitants in 2020, constituting the second-largest Latino population of any U.S. city.

The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is ambiguous to some people.[33] The U.S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain or the Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was primarily used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest. The 1970 United States census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.[34][35] This definition is consistent with the 21st century usage by the U.S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. The Pew Research Center believes that the term "Hispanic" is strictly limited to Spain, Puerto Rico, and all countries where Spanish is the only official language whereas "Latino" includes all countries in Latin America (even Brazil) regardless of the fact that Portuguese is its only official language, but it does not include Spain.[36]

The term Latino is a condensed form of "latinoamericano", the Spanish term for a Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. This definition, as a "male Latin American inhabitant of the United States",[37] was the original and is therefore the oldest definition which is used in the United States, it was first used in 1946.[37] Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America.[38][39][40][41][42][43] But also by this definition, Italian Americans are not considered "Latino", as they are for the most part descended from immigrants from Europe rather than Latin America, unless they happen to have had recent history in a Latin American country.

Storefronts at Lexington Avenue and 116th Street at East Harlem, Manhattan, also known as Spanish Harlem or "El Barrio"

Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term Hispanic, whereas those in the West tend to prefer Latino.[13]

The U.S. ethnic designation Latino is abstracted from the longer form latinoamericano.[44] The element latino- is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in -o (i.e. an elemento compositivo) that is employed to coin compounded formations (similar as franco- in francocanadiense 'French-Canadian′, or ibero- in iberorrománico,[45] etc.).

The term Latinx (and similar neologism Xicanx) have gained some usage.[46][47] The adoption of the X would be "[r]eflecting new consciousness inspired by more recent work by LGBTQI and feminist movements, some Spanish-speaking activists are increasingly using a yet more inclusive "x" to replace the "a" and "o", in a complete break with the gender binary.[48] Among the advocates of the term LatinX, one of most frequently cited complaints of gender bias in the Spanish language is that a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as Latinos, whereas Latinas refers to a group of women only (but this is changed immediately to Latinos, if even a single man joins this female group).[49] A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that about 3% of Hispanics use the term (mostly women), and only around 23% have even heard of the term. Of those, 65% said it should not be used to describe their ethnic group.[50]

The Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Little Spain on 14th Street in Manhattan, an important nucleus for many decades for the Spanish community in New York City[51]

Some have pointed out that the term “Hispanic” refers to a pan-ethnic identity, one that spans a range of races, national origins, and linguistic backgrounds. “Terms like Hispanic and Latino do not fully capture how we see ourselves”, says Geraldo Cadava, an associate professor of history and Hispanic studies at Northwestern University.[52]

According to 2017 American Community Survey data, a small minority of immigrants from Brazil (2%), Portugal (2%), and the Philippines (1%) self-identified as Hispanic.[12]


16th and 17th centuries

Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine, Florida. Built in 1672 by the Spanish, it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States.

Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental United States was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida. In the next three decades, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the Atlantic Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three fellows (including an African named Estevanico), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida to the Gulf of California. In 1540, Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States.

San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest church structure in the United States.

Also in 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican natives across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano, and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1565, the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida. Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements including in the present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, El Paso, San Antonio, Tucson, Albuquerque, San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[53]

Dolores Huerta in 2009. Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', and women's rights. She was the first Hispanic inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, in 1993.[54][55]

18th and 19th centuries

As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War (a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican–American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states—California, Texas, and Florida.. Many Hispanic natives lived in the areas that the United States acquired, and a new wave of Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, and South American immigrants had moved to the United States for new opportunities. This was the beginning of a demographic that would rise dramatically over the years.[56]

20th and 21st centuries

During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the immigration law in 1965.[57] During the World Wars, Hispanic Americans and immigrants had helped stabilize the American economy from falling due to the industrial boom in the Midwest in states such as Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. While a percentage of Americans had fled their jobs for the war, Hispanics had taken their jobs in the Industrial world. This can explain why there is such a high concentration of Hispanic Americans in Metro Areas such as the Chicago-Elgin-Naperville, Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, and Cleveland-Elyria areas.[56]

Hispanic contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). To recognize the current and historic contributions of Hispanic Americans, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated National Hispanic Heritage Month.[58][59] Hispanic Americans became the largest minority group in 2004.[60]


Hispanic Americans population pyramid in 2021 according to the ACS
Proportion of Americans who are Hispanic in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

As of 2020, Hispanics accounted for 19-20% of the US population, or 62-65 million people.[61] The U.S. Census Bureau later estimated that Hispanics were under-counted by 5.0% or 3.3 million persons in the U.S. census, which explains the 3 million range in the number above. In contrast, Whites were over-counted by about 3 million.[62] The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%).[63] The growth rate from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2006, alone was 3.4%[64]—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%).[63] Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the United States.[65] The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.[66]

Geographic distribution

Proportion of Hispanic Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

US Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 1 million Hispanics (2014)[67]

Rank Metropolitan area Hispanic
Percent Hispanic
1 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 5,979,000 45.1%
2 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 4,780,000 23.9%
3 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL 2,554,000 43.3%
4 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 2,335,000 36.4%
5 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 2,197,000 49.4%
6 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 2,070,000 21.8%
7 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 1,943,000 28.4%
8 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 1,347,000 30.1%
9 San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 1,259,000 55.7%
10 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA 1,084,000 33.3%
11 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA 1,008,000 21.9%

States and territories with the highest proportion of Hispanics (2021)[68]

Rank State/territory Hispanic population Percent Hispanic
1 Puerto Rico 3,249,043 99%
2 New Mexico 1,059,236 50%
3 Texas 11,857,387 40%
4 California 15,754,608 40%
5 Arizona 2,351,124 32%
6 Nevada 940,759 29%
7 Florida 5,830,915 26%
8 Colorado 1,293,214 22%
9 New Jersey 1,991,635 21%
10 New York 3,864,337 19%
11 Illinois 2,277,330 18%
12 United States Virgin Islands 18,514 17.4%

Of the nation's total Hispanic population, 49% (21.5 million) live in California or Texas.[69] In 2022, New York City and Washington, D.C. began receiving significant numbers of Latino migrants from the state of Texas, mostly originating from Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, and Honduras.[70]

Over half of the Hispanic population is concentrated in the Southwest region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. California and Texas have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Hispanics in the United States. The Northeast region is dominated by Dominican Americans and Puerto Ricans, having the highest concentrations of both in the country. In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the DC Metro Area, Salvadoran Americans are the largest of Hispanic groups. Florida is dominated by Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans. In both the Great Lakes states and the South Atlantic states, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans dominate. Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the West, South Central and Great Plains states.

National origin

Intermediate level international-style Latin dancing at the 2006 MIT ballroom dance competition. A judge stands in the foreground.
Population by national origin (2018)
(self-identified ethnicity, not by birthplace)[71]
Mexican 36,986,661 61.89%
Puerto Rican 9,033,381 15.12%
Cuban 2,363,532 3.95%
Salvadoran 2,306,774 3.86%
Dominican 2,082,857 3.49%
Colombian 2,023,341 3.38%
Guatemalan 1,524,743 2.55%
Spanish 1,500,000 2.5%
Honduran 963,930 1.61%
Ecuadorian 717,995 1.20%
Peruvian 684,345 1.15%
Venezuelan 484,445 0.81%
Nicaraguan 434,000 0.73%
Argentinian 286,346 0.48%
Panamanian 206,219 0.35%
Chilean 172,062 0.29%
Costa Rican 154,784 0.26%
Bolivian 116,646 0.20%
Uruguayan 60,013 0.10%
Paraguayan 25,022 0.04%
All other 2,000,000 3.3%
Total 62,000,000 100.0

As of 2018, approximately 61.9% of the nation's Hispanic population were of Mexican origin (see table). Another 15.1% were of Puerto Rican origin, and with about 3.9% each of Cuban and Salvadoran and about 3.5% Dominican origins. The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. Two thirds of all Hispanic Americans were born in the United States.[72]

There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Hispanic America rather than to English-speaking countries. Because of this, most Hispanics who identify themselves as Spaniard or Spanish also identify with Hispanic American national origin. In the 2017 Census estimate approximately 1.3 million Americans reported some form of "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain or not.[73]

In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to settlers from New Spain (Mexico), and sometimes Spain itself, in the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "Hispanos", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Native Americans, creating a mestizo population.[74] Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry. Californios, Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are Americans of Spanish and/or Mexican descent, with subgroups that sometimes call themselves Chicanos. Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct southwest Hispanic cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions.

Nuyoricans are Americans of Puerto Rican descent from the New York City area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Prominent Nuyoricans include Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, US Supreme Court Judge Sonia Sotomayor, and singer Jennifer Lopez.


Eva Longoria's mtDNA belongs to the Haplogroup A2, possibly making her a direct descendant of a Maya woman from the current territory of Mexico.[75]

Hispanics come from multi-racial and multi-ethnic countries with diversity of origins; therefore, a Hispanic can be from any race or mix of races. The most common ancestries are: Indigenous American (Native Americans), European and African. Most Hispanics have mixed ancestry of different combinations and ratios,[76] although non-mixed Hispanics of each race also exist in varied amounts on each country.

Actress Alexis Bledel is a white Hispanic of Argentine and Mexican[77] origin with Scottish, German and Scandinavian heritage. Bledel grew up in a Spanish-speaking household and did not learn English until she began school.[78][79]

Hispanic origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau. Depending on the regions within Hispanic America, a significant proportion of Hispanics have high to moderate levels Native Indigenous American ancestry. Similarly to Portuguese, English, German and many other European nations over the centuries, many Hispanics also have colonial era New Christian Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[80] To a lesser extent, Hispanics possess at least partial ancestry of more recent post-colonial ancestry from Ashkenazi Jews, Levantine Arabs (Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian). Thus, as a whole, Hispanics are of mostly of a mixture of Iberian and Native Indigenous American ancestry, with degrees of admixture levels that vary from person to person, from varying global genetic sources.

On the 2020 United States census, 20.3% of Hispanics identified selected "white" as their race. These white Hispanics make up 12,579,626 people or 3.8% of the population. The largest numbers of those who consider themselves white Hispanic Americans come from within the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadorans, Spanish and Argentine communities.[81][82][83]

Over 42% of Hispanic Americans identify as "some other race".[84] These "some other race" Hispanics are usually assumed to be mestizos or mulattos.[85] Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who is conscious of both their Native American and European ancestry. Of all Americans who checked the box "Some Other Race", 97 percent were Hispanic.[86]

Almost one-third of the multi-race respondents were Hispanics.[85] Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of mixed European and Native American ancestry (mestizo), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of mixed European, Native Indigenous American, Canary Islander and Sub-Saharan African.

Actress Daniella Alonso is of Puerto Rican and Peruvian (Quechua and Japanese) descent.[87]

The largest numbers of black Hispanics are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, Dominican, Panamanian and Puerto Rican communities. As Latinos, especially Mexicans and Central Americans, who are mainly of a mixed-race background, have moved further from the southwest, their presence might disrupt in the long term the traditional American view of race as a binary between Black and white.[88]

The few hundred thousand Asian Hispanics are of various backgrounds, among which include Filipino mestizos with Spanish background, Asians of Hispanic background (examples including Chinese Cubans, Korean Argentines, Japanese Peruvians) and those of recent mixed Asian and Hispanic background (as many Hispanics are of pure or partial European ancestry, many Americans of mixed Asian and Hispanic background are Eurasians). Note that Filipinos are generally not counted as Hispanic, despite the fact that the Spanish colonized the Philippines and many Filipinos have Spanish names, this is because majority of Filipinos never speak Spanish presently.

Hispanic Americans are often racially of Native American ancestry mixed with Iberians. For example, of Hispanics deriving from northern Mexico, consider themselves white or acknowledge Native American ancestry with some European mixtures, while of those deriving from southern Mexican ancestry, the majority are Native American or of Native American and European ancestry. In Guatemala, Mayans are majority, while in El Salvador, people of Native American descent are the majority. In the Dominican Republic, the population is largely of inter-mixed ancestries.

In Puerto Rico, people have some Native Indigenous American ancestry as well as European and Canary Islander ancestry. There's also a population of predominantly African descent as well as populations of Native American descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Cubans are mostly of Iberian and Canary Islander ancestry, with some heritage from Native Indigenous Caribbean. There are also populations of black Sub-Saharan ancestry and multi-racial people.[89][90][91] The race and culture of each Hispanic country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography.

Welch and Sigelman found, as of the year 2000, lower interaction between Latinos of different nationalities (such as between Cubans and Mexicans) than between Latinos and non-Latinos.[92] This is a reminder that while they are often treated as such, Latinos in the United States are not a monolith, and often view their own ethnic or national identity as vastly different than that of other Latinos.[92]

Persons of Mexican heritage represent the bulk of the U.S. Hispanic population. Most Mexican Americans already with a multi-generational presence in the USA predating the 1970s are of predominantly mixed Native Indigenous American groups and to a lesser extent Iberians, while most recent Mexican Americans that have migrated or descend from migrants to the United States post-1980s are of predominantly Native American descent with varying levels of European admixture, with the rest are of predominantly European (most especially Iberian) descent with varying levels of Native American admixture.

Official sources report that the racial makeup of Hispanic subgroups from the countries Uruguay,[93] Cuba,[93] and Chile[93] have the highest proportion, for their respective countries, of Hispanics in the US self-identifying as white – though in raw numbers the highest number of white Hispanics in the United States are Mexican Americans. As a result of their racial diversity, Hispanics form an ethnicity sharing a language (Spanish) and cultural heritage, rather than a race. The phenomenon of biracial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Hispanics or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most white Americans with less than 28 percent African-American ancestry say they are white; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American.[94]

Racial Demographics of Hispanic Americans Between 1970 and 2020[95][96][97][4][98]
Race/Ethnic Group197019801990200020102020
Total Population 9,072,602 14,608,673 22,354,059 35,305,818 50,477,594 62,080,044
White alone 8,466,126 (93.3%) 8,115,256 (55.6%) 11,557,774 (51.7%) 16,907,852 (47.9%) 26,735,713 (53.0%) 12,579,626 (20.3%)
Black alone 454,934 (5.0%) 390,852 (2.7%) 769,767 (3.4%) 710,353 (2.0%) 1,243,471 (2.5%) 1,163,862 (1.9%)
Native American or Alaska Native alone 26,859 (0.3%) 94,745 (0.6%) 165,461 (0.7%) 407,073 (1.2%) 685,150 (1.4%) 1,475,436 (2.4%)
Asian or Pacific Islander alone - 166,010 (1.1%) 305,303 (1.4%) 165,155 (0.5%) 267,565 (0.5%) 335,278 (0.5%)
Some other race alone 124,683 (1.4%)[lower-alpha 1] 5,841,810 (40.0%) 9,555,754 (42.7%) 14,891,303 (42.2%) 18,503,103 (36.7%) 26,225,882 (42.2%)
Two or more races [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 4] 2,224,082 (6.3%) 3,042,592 (6.0%) 20,299,960 (32.7%)


As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Hispanic population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million, were Millennials. This makes them more than half of the Hispanic population within the United States.[99]


Hispanic K–12 education

Lauro Cavazos, US Secretary of Education from August 1988 to December 1990
Westlake Theatre building, side wall mural of Jaime Escalante and Edward James Olmos

With the increasing Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanics have had a considerable impact on the K–12 system. In 2011–12, Hispanics comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California and Texas, respectively.[100] Further research shows the Hispanic population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Hispanics will populate U.S. schools.

The state of Hispanic education shows some promise. First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs.[100] Second, Hispanics in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs.[100] Third, Hispanics' average NAEP math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years.[100] Finally, Hispanics were more likely than other groups, including white people, to go to college.[100]

However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups.[100] For instance, their average math and reading NAEP scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%.[100]

To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Hispanic "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies.[101] To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Hispanics not performing well academically.[102][103]

English language learners

Spanish speakers in the United States by counties in 2000

Currently, Hispanic students make up 80% of English language learners in the United States.[104] In 2008–2009, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade.[105] This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born.[105] In order to provide English instruction for Hispanic students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students' culture and knowledge of their primary language.[103] As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities.

Immigration status

Undocumented immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, since the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in 1982, immigrants have received access to K-12 education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Hispanics. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin.[106] Moreover, Hispanics' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Hispanics outperform their later generational counterparts.[107] Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well.[108] This has major implications on their postsecondary futures.

Hispanic higher education

In 2007, University of Texas at El Paso was ranked the number one graduate engineering school for Hispanics.[109]

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Hispanic groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cubans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexicans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans (13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%).[110]

Hispanics make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Hispanics make up between 8% of students at Yale University to 15% at Columbia University.[111] For example, 18% of students in the Harvard University Class of 2018 are Hispanic.[112]

Hispanics have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as University of Texas at El Paso (70% of students), Florida International University (63%), University of Miami (27%), and MIT, UCLA and UC-Berkeley at 15% each. At Stanford University, Hispanics are the third largest ethnic group behind non-Hispanic white people and Asians, at 18% of the student population.[113]

Hispanic university enrollments

While Hispanics study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated Hispanic-serving institutions, institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent (FTE) student enrollment. There are over 270 institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI.[115]

Universities with the largest Hispanic undergraduate enrollment (2013)[116]
RankUniversityHispanic enrollment % of student body
1Florida International University24,10567%
2University of Texas at El Paso15,45981%
3University of Texas Pan American15,00991%
4University of Texas at San Antonio11,93247%
5California State University at Northridge11,77438%
6California State University at Fullerton11,47236%
7Arizona State University11,46519%
8California State University at Long Beach10,83635%
9California State University at Los Angeles10,39258%
10University of Central Florida10,25520%
Universities with the largest Hispanic graduate enrollment (2013)
RankUniversityHispanic enrollment % of student body
1Nova Southeastern University4,28120%
2Florida International University3,61242%
3University of Southern California2,35811%
4University of Texas Pan American2,12078%
5University of Texas at El Paso2,08359%
6CUNY Graduate Center1,65630%
7University of New Mexico1,60826%
8University of Texas at San Antonio1,56135%
9University of Florida1,4839%
10Arizona State University1,40010%
Hispanic student enrollment in university and college systems (2012–2013)
RankUniversity systemHispanic enrollment % of student body
1California Community College System[117]642,04541%
2California State University[118]149,13733%
3Florida College System[119]118,82126%
4University of Texas System[120]84,08639%
5State University System of Florida[121]79,93124%
6City University of New York[122]77,34130%
7State University of New York[123]43,5149%
8University of California42,60418%
9Texas A&M University System[124][125]27,16525%
10Nevada System of Higher Education[126]21,46721%
-Ivy League[111]11,56210%



Flyers at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport wearing face masks on March 6, 2020 as the COVID-19 coronavirus spreads throughout the United States. Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among black and Hispanic populations.[127][128][129]

As of 2016, life expectancy for Hispanic Americans is 81.8 years, which is higher than the life expectancy for non-Hispanic white Americans (78.6 years).[130] Research on the "Hispanic paradox"the well-established apparent mortality advantage of Hispanic Americans compared to non-Hispanic white Americans, despite the latter's more advantaged socioeconomic statushas been principally explained by "(1) health-related migration to and from the US; and (2) social and cultural protection mechanisms, such as maintenance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors adopted in the countries of origin, and availability of extensive social networks in the US."[131] The "salmon bias" hypothesis, which suggests that the Hispanic health advantage is attributable to higher rates of return migration among less-healthy migrants, has received some support in the scholarly literature.[132] A 2019 study, examining the comparatively better health of foreign-born American Hispanics, challenged the hypothesis that a stronger orientation toward the family (familism) contributed to this advantage.[133] Some scholars have suggested that the Hispanic mortality advantage is likely to disappear due to the higher rates of obesity and diabetes among Hispanics relative to non-Hispanic white people, although lower rates of smoking (and thus smoking-attributable mortality) among Hispanics may counteract this to some extent.[131]


As of 2017, about 19% of Hispanic Americans lack health insurance coverage, which is the highest of all ethnic groups except for Indigenous Americans and Alaska Natives.[134] In terms of extending health coverage, Hispanics benefited the most among U.S. ethnic groups from the Affordable Care Act (ACA); among non-elderly Hispanics, the uninsured rate declined from 26.7% in 2013 to 14.2% in 2017.[134] Among the population of non-elderly uninsured Hispanic population in 2017, about 53% were non-citizens, about 39% were U.S.-born citizens, and about 9% were naturalized citizens.[134] (The ACA does not help undocumented immigrants or legal immigrants with less than five years' residence in the United States gain coverage).[134]

According to a 2013 study, Mexican women have the highest uninsured rate (54.6%) as compared to other immigrants (26.2%), black (22.5%) and non-Hispanic white (13.9%).[135] According to the study, Mexican women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States and are also the most at risk for developing preventable health conditions.[135] Multiple factors such as limited access to health care, legal status and income increase the risk of developing preventable health conditions because many undocumented immigrants postpone routine visits to the doctor until they become seriously ill.

Mental health

Family separation

Ana Navarro a political strategist and commentator immigrated as a result of the Sandinista revolution.
Rally to end family separation in Cleveland, Ohio

Some families who are in the process of illegally crossing borders can suffer being caught and separated by border patrol agents. Migrants are also in danger of separation if they do not bring sufficient resources such as water for all members to continue crossing. Once illegal migrants have arrived to the new country, they may fear workplace raids where illegal immigrants are detained and deported.

Family separation puts U.S born children, undocumented children and their illegal immigrant parents at risk for depression and family maladaptive syndrome. The effects are often long-term and the impact extends to the community level. Children may experience emotional traumas and long-term changes in behaviors. Additionally, when parents are forcefully removed, children often develop feelings of abandonment and they might blame themselves for what has happened to their family. Some children that are victims to illegal border crossings that result in family separation believe in the possibility of never seeing their parents again. These effects can cause negative parent-child attachment. Reunification may be difficult because of immigration laws and re-entry restrictions which further affect the mental health of children and parents.[136]

Parents who leave their home country also experience negative mental health experiences. According to a study published in 2013, 46% of Mexican migrant men who participated in the study reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms.[137] In recent years, the length of stay for migrants has increased, from 3 years to nearly a decade.[137] Migrants who were separated from their families, either married or single, experienced greater depression than married men accompanied by their spouses.[137] Furthermore, the study also revealed that men who are separated from their families are more prone to harsher living conditions such as overcrowded housing and are under a greater deal of pressure to send remittance to support their families. These conditions put additional stress on the migrants and often worsen their depression. Families who migrated together experience better living conditions, receive emotional encouragement and motivation from each other, and share a sense of solidarity. They are also more likely to successfully navigate the employment and health care systems in the new country, and are not pressured to send remittances back home.


Protesters hold various signs and banners at a Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) rally in San Francisco.

It is reported that 31% of Hispanics have reported personal experiences with discrimination whilst 82% of Hispanics believe that discrimination plays a crucial role in whether or not they will find success while they are living in the United States.[138] The current legislation on immigration policies also plays a crucial role in creating a hostile and discriminatory environment for immigrants. In order to measure the discrimination which immigrants are being subjected to, researchers must take into account the immigrants' perception that they are being targeted for discrimination and they must also be aware that instances of discrimination can also vary based on: personal experiences, social attitudes and ethnic group barriers. The immigrant experience is associated with lower self-esteem, internalized symptoms and behavioral problems amongst Mexican youth. It is also known that more time which is spent living in the United States is associated with increased feelings of distress, depression and anxiety.[138] Like many other Hispanic groups that migrate to the United States, these groups are often stigmatized. An example of this stigmatization occurred after 9/11, when people who were considered threats to national security were frequently described with terms like migrant and the "Hispanic Other" along with other terms like refugee and asylum seeker.[139]


The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 significantly changed how the United States dealt with immigration. Under this new law, immigrants who overstayed their visas or were found to be in the United States illegally were subject to be detained and/or deported without legal representation. Immigrants who broke these laws may not be allowed back into the country. Similarly, this law made it more difficult for other immigrants who want to enter the U.S or gain legal status. These laws also expanded the types of offenses that can be considered worthy of deportation for documented immigrants.[140] Policies enacted by future presidents further limit the number of immigrants entering the country and their expedited removal.

Many illegal immigrant families cannot enjoy doing everyday activities without exercising caution because they fear encountering immigration officers which limits their involvement in community events. Undocumented families also do not trust government institutions and services. Because of their fear of encountering immigration officers, illegal immigrants often feel ostracized and isolated which can lead to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety.[140] The harmful effects of being ostracized from the rest of society are not limited to just that of undocumented immigrants but it affects the entire family even if some of the members are of legal status. Children often reported having been victims of bullying in school by classmates because their parents are undocumented.[141] This can cause them to feel isolated and develop a sense of inferiority which can negatively impact their academic performance.


Despite the struggles Hispanic families encounter, they have found ways to keep motivated. Many immigrants use religion as a source of motivation. Mexican immigrants believed that the difficulties they face are a part of God's bigger plan and believe their life will get better in the end. They kept their faith strong and pray every day, hoping that God will keep their families safe.[142] Immigrants participate in church services and bond with other immigrants that share the same experiences.[140] Undocumented Hispanics also find support from friends, family and the community that serve as coping mechanisms. Some Hispanics state that their children are the reason they have the strength to keep on going. They want their children to have a future and give them things they are not able to have themselves.[142] The community is able to provide certain resources that immigrant families need such as tutoring for their children, financial assistance and counseling services.[140] Some identified that maintaining a positive mental attitude helped them cope with the stresses they experience. Many immigrants refuse to live their life in constant fear which leads to depression in order to enjoy life in the United States.[142] Since many immigrants have unstable sources of income, many plan ahead in order to prevent future financial stress. They put money aside and find ways to save money instead of spend it such as learning to fix appliances themselves.[142]


Many Hispanic families migrate to find better economic opportunities in order to send remittances back home. Being undocumented limits the possibilities of jobs that immigrants undertake and many struggle to find a stable job. Many Hispanics report that companies turned them down because they do not have a Social Security number. If they are able to obtain a job, immigrants risk losing it if their employer finds out they are unable to provide proof of residency or citizenship. Many look towards agencies that do not ask for identification, but those jobs are often unreliable. In order to prevent themselves from being detained and deported, many have to work under exploitation. In a study, a participant reported "If someone knows that you don't have the papers ... that person is a danger. Many people will con them ... if they know you don't have the papers, with everything they say 'hey I'm going to call immigration on you.'".[142] These conditions lower the income that Hispanic families bring to their household and some find living each day very difficult. When an undocumented parent is deported or detained, income will be lowered significantly if the other parent also supports the family financially. The parent who is left has to look after the family and might find working difficult to manage along with other responsibilities. Even if families aren't separated, Hispanics are constantly living in fear that they will lose their economic footing.

Living in poverty has been linked to depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, crime activities and frequent drug use among youth.[140] Families with low incomes are unable to afford adequate housing and some of them are evicted. The environment in which the children of undocumented immigrants grow up in is often composed of poor air quality, noise, and toxins which prevent healthy development.[140] Furthermore, these neighborhoods are prone to violence and gang activities, forcing the families to live in constant fear which can contribute to the development of PTSD, aggression and depression.

Economic outlook

Median U.S. household income by Nationality (2015)
Ethnicity Income
Spanish $60,640
Argentinian $60,000
Colombian $56,800
Cuban $56,000
Puerto Rican $54,500
Venezuelan $51,000
Chilean $51,000
Peruvian $47,600
Bolivian $44,400
Ecuadorian $44,200
Mexican $40,500
Honduran $40,200
Salvadoran $36,800
Guatemalan $36,800

Median income

In 2017, the US Census reported the median household incomes of Hispanic Americans to be $50,486. This is the third consecutive annual increase in median household income for Hispanic-origin households.[97]


Beginning of Calle Ocho (eighth Street) in Little Havana of Miami, Florida, United States.

According to the US Census, the poverty rate Hispanics was 18.3 percent in 2017, down from 19.4 percent in 2016. Hispanics accounted for 10.8 million individuals in poverty.[97] In comparison, the average poverty rates in 2017 for non-Hispanic white Americans was 8.7 percent with 17 million individuals in poverty, Asian Americans was 10.0 percent with 2 million individuals in poverty, and African Americans was 21.2 percent with 9 million individuals in poverty.[97]

Among the largest Hispanic groups during 2015 was: Honduran Americans & Dominican Americans (27%), Guatemalan Americans (26%), Puerto Ricans (24%), Mexican Americans (23%), Salvadoran Americans (20%), Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (17%), Ecuadorian Americans (15%), Nicaraguan Americans (14%), Colombian Americans (13%), Argentinian Americans (11%) and Peruvian Americans (10%).[144]

Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate".[145] In the case of Hispanics, the poverty rate for Hispanic children in 2004 was 28.6 percent.[104] Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. In order to assuage poverty, many Hispanic families can turn to social and community services as resources.

Cultural matters

Museum of Latin American Art

The geographic, political, social, economic and racial diversity of Hispanic Americans makes all Hispanics very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Many times, there are many cultural similarities between Hispanics from neighboring countries than from more distant countries, ie Spanish Caribbean, Southern Cone, Central America etc. Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics from these diverse backgrounds.



Chicago Picasso as seen at Christkindlmarket

As one of the most important uniting factors of Hispanic Americans, Spanish is an important part of Hispanic culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Hispanic families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Hispanics adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish".[146][147] Given the United States' proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Hispanics, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Hispanics, 40% speak fluent Spanish.[148] Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the United States.[149][150]

Hispanics have revived the Spanish language in the United States, first brought to North America during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565.[151][152][153][154] Today, 90% of all Hispanics speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish.[155] Additionally, 2.8 million non-Hispanic Americans also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million.[98]

With 40% of Hispanic Americans being immigrants,[156] and with many of the 60% who are US-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Hispanics over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home.[155]

American Spanish dialects

Spanish speakers
in the United States
Year Number of
Percent of
1980 11.0 million 5%
1990 17.3 million 7%
2000 28.1 million 10%
2010 37.0 million 13%
2012 38.3 million 13%
2020* 40.0 million 14%
*-Projected; sources:[146][157][158][159]

The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. However, generally, Spanish spoken in the Southwest is Mexican Spanish or Chicano Spanish. A variety of Spanish native to the Southwest spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in New Mexico and Colorado is known as Traditional New Mexican Spanish. One of the major distinctions of Traditional New Mexican Spanish is its use of distinct vocabulary and grammatical forms that make New Mexican Spanish unique amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in the East Coast is generally Caribbean Spanish and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Isleño Spanish, descended from Canarian Spanish, is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in Louisiana. Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish.[98][160]

Heritage Spanish speakers tend to speak Spanish with near-native level phonology, but a more limited command of morphosyntax.[161] Hispanics who speak Spanish as a second language often speak with English accents.

Spanglish and English dialects

Hispanics have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Hispanics, Spanglish, a term for any mix of Spanish and English, is common in speaking. As they are fluent in both languages, speakers will often switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish is particularly common in Hispanic-majority cities and communities such as Miami, Hialeah, San Antonio, Los Angeles and parts of New York City.[162]

Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Gloria Estefan and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by Chicanos and Tejanos in the Southwestern United States, called Chicano English. George Lopez and Selena are examples of speakers of Chicano English.[163] An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic groups is called New York Latino English; Jennifer Lopez and Cardi B are examples of people who speak with the New York Latino dialect.

When speaking in English, American Hispanics may often insert Spanish tag and filler items such as tú sabes, este, and órale, into sentences as a marker of ethnic identity and solidarity. The same often occurs with grammatical words like pero.[164]


According to a Pew Center study which was conducted in 2019, the majority of Hispanic Americans are Christians (72%),[165] Among American Hispanics, as of 201819, 47% are Catholic, 24% are Protestant, 1% are Mormon, less than 1% are Orthodox Christian, 3% are members of non-Christian faiths, and 23% are unaffiliated.[165] The proportion of Hispanics who are Catholic has dropped from 2009 (when it was 57%), while the proportion of unaffiliated Hispanics has increased since 2009 (when it was 15%).[165] Among Hispanic Protestant community, most are evangelical, but some belong to mainline denominations.[166] Compared to Catholic, unaffiliated, and mainline Protestant Hispanics; Evangelical Protestant Hispanics are substantially more likely to attend services weekly, pray daily, and adhere to biblical liberalism.[166] As of 2014, about 67% of Hispanic Protestants and about 52% of Hispanic Catholics were renewalist, meaning that they described themselves as Pentecosal or charismatic Christians (in the Catholic tradition, called Catholic charismatic renewal).[167]

Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation Hispanic immigrants than it is among second and third-generation Hispanic immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of conversion to Protestantism or the unaffiliated camp.[168] According to Andrew Greeley, as many as 600,000 American Hispanics leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year, and this figure is much higher in Texas and Florida.[169] Hispanic Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members.[170]

Hispanics make up a substantial proportion (almost 40%) of Catholics in the United States,[171] although the number of American Hispanic priests is low relative to Hispanic membership in the church.[172] In 2019, José Horacio Gómez, Archbishop of Los Angeles and a naturalized American citizen born in Mexico, was elected as president of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops.[171]


The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting US Hispanic consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively.

Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Hispanics by reinforcing roots in the Hispanic world and the commonalities among Hispanics of varying national origin.[173][174]

The first Hispanic-American owned major film studio in the United States is based in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2017, Ozzie and Will Areu purchased Tyler Perry's former studio to establish Areu Bros. Studios.[175][176]


Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media.[177] While other foreign language broadcasting declined steadily, Spanish broadcasting grew steadily from the 1920s to the 1970s. The 1930s were boom years.[178] The early success depended on the concentrated geographical audience in Texas and the Southwest.[179] American stations were close to Mexico which enabled a steady circular flow of entertainers, executives and technicians, and stimulated the creative initiatives of Hispanic radio executives, brokers, and advertisers. Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s. The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication Sponsor from the late 1940s to 1968.[180] Spanish-language radio has influenced American and Hispanic discourse on key current affairs issues such as citizenship and immigration.[181]


Notable Hispanic-oriented media outlets include:

  • CNN en Español, a Spanish-language news network based in Atlanta, Georgia;
  • ESPN Deportes and Fox Deportes, two Spanish-language sports television networks.
  • Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
    • TeleXitos an American Spanish language digital multicast television network owned by NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises.
    • Universo, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Hispanic audiences;
  • Univisión, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall;[182]
    • UniMás, an American Spanish language free-to-air television network owned by Univision Communications.
    • Fusion TV, an English television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with news and satire programming;
    • Galavisión, a Spanish-language television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with general entertainment programming;
  • Estrella TV, an American Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by the Estrella Media.
  • V-me, a Spanish-language television network;
    • Primo TV, an English-language cable channel aimed at Hispanic youth.;
  • Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • Fuse, a former music channel that merged with the Hispanic-oriented NuvoTV in 2015.
    • FM, a music-centric channel that replaced NuvoTV following the latter's merger with Fuse in 2015.
  • 3ABN Latino, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in West Frankfort, Illinois;
  • TBN Enlace USA, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in Tustin, California;


Sports and music

Because of different cultures throughout the Hispanic world, there are various music forms throughout Hispanic countries, with different sounds and origins. Many Hispanics prefer musical genres from their home countries than music from the United States. Mostly, the recent arrivals listened to Spanish music, while Hispanics who been in the United States for generations tend to listen more to English music. Reggaeton and Hip hop are genres that are most popular to Hispanic youth in the United States.

Soccer is a common sport for Hispanics from outside of the Caribbean region, particularly immigrants. Baseball is a common among Caribbean Hispanics. Other popular sports include Boxing, Football, and Basketball.


Mexican food has become part of the mainstream American market, just as Italian food did so decades before.

Hispanic food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced American cuisine and eating habits. Mexican cuisine has become so mainstream in American culture that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Across the United States, tortillas and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and ketchup. Tortilla chips have surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean cuisines have continued to increase sales.[183] Tropical fruit, such as mango, guava and passion fruit (maracuyá), have become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies and food dishes in the United States.

Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico, Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States. Cubans brought Cuban cuisine to Miami and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba and empanadas are common mid-day snacks in the city. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had at one of the city's numerous coffee shops.[184] The Cuban sandwich, developed in Miami, is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.[185]

Family life and values

Mexican American girls at a Quinceañera celebration in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Hispanic culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Hispanic families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Hispanic families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States. The role of grandparents is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children.[186]

Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rites of passages, particularly Roman Catholic sacraments: such as baptisms, birthdays, First Holy Communions, quinceañeras, Confirmations, graduations and weddings are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Hispanic families.[187][188]

Education is another important priority for Hispanic families. Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the United States among Hispanic families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Hispanics expect their children to graduate university.[189][190]

Hispanic youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.[191]


Mariah Carey's father was of African-American and Afro-Venezuelan descent, while her mother is of Irish descent.

Hispanic Americans, like many immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Hispanic marriages in 2008.[192] The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Hispanics married a non-Hispanic (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of white people, 17.1% of black people, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with 36.2% of native-born Hispanics (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Hispanics.[193] The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity.[192]

In 2008, 81% of Hispanics who married out married non-Hispanic white people, 9% married non-Hispanic black people, 5% non-Hispanic Asians, and the remainder married non-Hispanic, multi-racial partners.[192]

Rosa Salazar is of Peruvian and French descent.[194]

Of approximately 275,500 new interracial or interethnic marriages in 2010, 43.3% were white-Hispanic (compared to white-Asian at 14.4%, white-black at 11.9%, and other combinations at 30.4%; "other combinations" consists of pairings between different minority groups and multi-racial people).[193] Unlike those for marriage to black people and Asians, intermarriage rates of Hispanics to white people do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of white/Hispanic couples are lower than those of white/white couples but higher than those of Hispanic/Hispanic couples. 23% of Hispanic men who married white women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Hispanic men who married a Hispanic woman. 33% of Hispanic women who married a white husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Hispanic women who married a Hispanic man.[193]

Attitudes among non-Hispanics toward intermarriage with Hispanics are mostly favorable, with 81% of white people, 76% of Asians and 73% of black people "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Hispanic and an additional 13% of white people, 19% of Asians and 16% of black people "being bothered but accepting of the marriage". Only 2% of white people, 4% of Asians, and 5% of black people would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Hispanic.[192]

Hispanic attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Hispanics are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to white people and 73% "being fine" with marriages to black people. A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a white and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a black. Only 5% of Hispanics objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Hispanic black and 2% to a non-Hispanic white.[192]

Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Hispanic black people varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with black people, of all major Hispanic national groups, who also has the highest overall intermarriage rate among Hispanics.[189][195][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203] Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Hispanic white people, of all major Hispanic national groups, and are the most assimilated into white American culture.[204][205]

Cultural adjustment

Camila Cabello was born in Cuba. She moved between Havana and Mexico City before locating to Miami at age 5.

As Hispanic migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them".[206] The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Hispanic in the global sphere.


Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called latinidad. This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of latinidad" which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Hispanics perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States."[206] This unites Hispanics as one, creating cultural kin with other Hispanic ethnicities.

Gender roles

In Hispanic culture, the role of a man is to be the sole breadwinner for his family, he must work hard to provide.[207] Hispanic men demand respect and obedience and carry the responsibility of being the head of the family, in which he is tasked with keeping his family composed and honorable in the eyes of society.[208]

Hispanic men working in construction

A man feels pressure from his community to prove his manhood and manliness, leading the male to exemplify behaviors of machismo.[209] There are two sides to machismo, the man who has a strong work ethic and lives up to his responsibilities, or the man who heavily drinks and therefore displays acts of unpleasant behavior towards his family.[207] To display machismo is to assert male dominance in all spheres, especially in a man's relationship with his female partner; the concept is enforced through convincing males into comporting themselves with a macho (literally, "male" or "masculine") archetype in order to establish respect, dominance, and manliness in their social ambits.[210]

Hispanic woman washing, doing household chores

The traditional roles of women in a Hispanic community are of housewife and mother, a woman's role is to cook, clean, and care for her children and husband; putting herself and her needs last.[211] The typical structure of a Hispanic family forces women to defer authority to her husband, allowing him to make the important decisions, that both the woman and children must abide by.[212] A woman must not question her husband's authority nor go against him, a woman is expected to remain submissive, take orders, and tolerate any behavior displayed by her husband.[211] In traditional Hispanic households, women and young girls are homebodies or muchachas de la casa ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... [of] respectability, chastity, and family honor [as] valued by the [Hispanic] community".[213]

A woman occupied with all the tasks required to support her household and family is often unable to work or become educated, being outside the home is deemed unacceptable and wrong.[214] Migration to the United States can change the identity of Hispanic youth in various ways, including how they carry their gendered identities.[215] However, when Hispanic women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners.[215] The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being de la calle ("of [or from] the street"), transgressive, and sexually promiscuous.[215] A women's motive for pursuing an education or career is to prove she can care and make someone of herself, breaking the traditional gender role that a Hispanic woman can only serve as a mother or housewife, thus changing a woman's role in society.[216] Some Hispanic families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... [the sending country] with family members, regardless of whether or not ... [the young women] are sexually active".[217] Now there has been a rise in the Hispanic community where both men and women are known to work and split the household chores among themselves; women are encouraged to gain an education, degree, and pursue a career; men and women are both beginning to be seen as equal members in the Hispanic community.[218]


In Hispanic culture it is expected for men to partake only in heterosexual relationships, some men often seek multiple female partners to further prove their sexuality and masculinity.[219] A man is expected to lead a heterosexual life while upholding traditional values.[219] The Hispanic community rejects men who identify themselves as homosexuals, homophobia is deeply embedded in these communities, forcing gay men to hide and remain ashamed of their sexuality.[220] Due to the homophobia present in the Hispanic community, gay men feel a high sense of shame and guilt which leads to risky sexual behavior, leaving them at a risk for HIV and other STDs.[221] The socially constructed behaviors of machismo reinforce only traditional gender roles and sexual preferences; while simultaneously upholding homophobia and prejudice for those that identify as lesbians and gay men.[222]

With the Catholic Church remaining a large influence on the Hispanic culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo.[223] There is a lack of conversation and communication regarding sexuality and sexual behavior in these communities, leaving Hispanic adolescents at a higher risk of STDs and unwanted pregnancies.[223] It is believed that women should not participate in or know about sexual behaviors which produce a sense of naivety regarding the topic and results in discomfort and embarrassment.[224] It is taught in many Hispanic cultures that the best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual until marriage.[225] All are to be straight and women are to be virgins.[225] A woman must carry herself like Mary in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor.[226] Marianismo dictates the traditional role of a Hispanic women, a woman is expected to remain sexually pure, submissive, and is seen as an object of pleasure for men.[227]

The Catholic religion preaches for heterosexual marriages and the preservation of family; and condemns and stigmatizes homosexual or bisexual relationships.[228] Latino sexual minorities who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender often do not reveal their sexual preferences out of fear of being excluded or rejected by their community.[222]

Natalie Morales interviewing Jill Biden at the White House in 2016.

Relations towards other minority groups

Sunny Hostin American lawyer, columnist, journalist, and television host. Hostin was born to a Puerto Rican mother and an African-American father, and her maternal grandfather was of Sephardic Jewish descent

As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, there has been some tension with other minority populations,[229] especially the African-American population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively black areas.[230][231][232][233][234][235][236][237][238][239][240] There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence.[241][242][243][244][245]

  • A 2007 UCLA study reported that 51% of black people felt that Hispanics were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Hispanics said they feared African-Americans, identifying them (African-Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Hispanics credited American black people and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the United States.[246][247]
  • A Pew Research Center poll from 2006 showed that black people overwhelmingly felt that Hispanic immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%); 34% believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans, 22% of black people believed that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant, and 34% of black people wanted immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: Chicago (with its well-established Hispanic community); Washington, D.C. (with a less-established but quickly growing Hispanic community); and Raleigh-Durham (with a very new but rapidly growing Hispanic community). The results showed that a significant proportion of black people in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington, DC (48%).[248]
  • Per a 2008 University of California, Berkeley Law School research brief, a recurring theme to black/Hispanic tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor", which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by black people). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Hispanic immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large.[249]
  • A 2008 Gallup poll indicated that 60% of Hispanics and 67% of black people believe that good relations exist between US black people and Hispanics[250] while only 29% of black people, 36% of Hispanics and 43% of white people, say black–Hispanic relations are bad.[250]
  • In 2009, in Los Angeles County, Hispanics committed 30% of the hate crimes against black victims and black people committed 70% of the hate crimes against Hispanics.[251]


Current Hispanics in the United States government
Name Political party State First elected Ancestry
Supreme Court
Sonia Sotomayor2009[lower-alpha 5]Puerto Rican
State Governors
Chris SununuRepublicanNew Hampshire2016Salvadoran, Cuban
Michelle Lujan GrishamDemocraticNew Mexico2018Hispanos of New Mexico
US Senate
Bob MenéndezDemocraticNew Jersey2006Cuban
Marco RubioRepublicanFlorida2010Cuban
Ted CruzRepublicanTexas2012Cuban
Catherine Cortez MastoDemocraticNevada2016Mexican
Ben Ray Luján Democratic New Mexico 2020 Hispanos of New Mexico
Alex PadillaDemocraticCalifornia2021[lower-alpha 6]Mexican
US House of Representatives
José E. SerranoDemocraticNew York1990Puerto Rican
Lucille Roybal-AllardDemocraticCalifornia1992Mexican
Nydia VelázquezDemocraticNew York1992Puerto Rican
Grace NapolitanoDemocraticCalifornia1998Mexican
Mario Díaz-BalartRepublicanFlorida2002Cuban
Raúl GrijalvaDemocraticArizona2002Mexican
Linda SánchezDemocraticCalifornia2002Mexican
Henry Roberto CuellarDemocraticTexas2004Mexican
Albio SiresDemocraticNew Jersey2006Cuban
John GaramendiDemocraticCalifornia2009Spanish
Bill FloresRepublicanTexas2010Spanish
Jaime HerreraRepublicanWashington2010Mexican
Tony CárdenasDemocraticCalifornia2012Mexican
Joaquin CastroDemocraticTexas2012Mexican
Raúl RuizDemocraticCalifornia2012Mexican
Juan VargasDemocraticCalifornia2012Mexican
Filemon Vela Jr.DemocraticTexas2012Mexican
Pete AguilarDemocraticCalifornia2014Mexican
Ruben GallegoDemocraticArizona2014Colombian
Alex MooneyRepublicanWest Virginia2014Cuban
Norma TorresDemocraticCalifornia2014Guatemalan
Nanette BarragánDemocraticCalifornia2016Mexican
Salud CarbajalDemocraticCalifornia2016Mexican
Lou CorreaDemocraticCalifornia2016Mexican
Adriano EspaillatDemocraticNew York2016Dominican
Vicente GonzálezDemocraticTexas2016Mexican
Brian MastRepublicanFlorida2016Mexican
Darren SotoDemocraticFlorida2016Puerto Rican
Jimmy GomezDemocraticCalifornia2017Mexican
Antonio DelgadoDemocraticNew York2018Puerto Rican
Veronica EscobarDemocraticTexas2018Mexican
Chuy GarcíaDemocraticIllinois2018Mexican
Sylvia GarciaDemocraticTexas2018Mexican
Anthony GonzalezRepublicanOhio2018Cuban
Mike LevinDemocraticCalifornia2018Mexican
Alexandria Ocasio-CortezDemocraticNew York2018Puerto Rican
Mike GarciaRepublicanCalifornia2020Mexican
Carlos A. GiménezRepublicanFlorida2020Cuban
Tony GonzalesRepublicanTexas2020Mexican
Teresa LegerDemocraticNew Mexico2020Mexican
Nicole MalliotakisRepublicanNew York2020Cuban
Maria Elvira SalazarRepublicanFlorida2020Cuban
Ritchie TorresDemocraticNew York2020Puerto Rican


Republican Texas 2022 Mexican
Congressional Hispanic Conference members met with Attorney General Al Gonzales

Political affiliations

Delegate Joseph Marion Hernández of the Florida Territory, elected in 1822, the first Hispanic American to serve in the United States Congress in any capacity

Hispanics differ on their political views depending on their location and background. The majority (57%)[252] either identify as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify as Republicans.[252] This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. While traditionally a key Democratic Party constituency at-large,[253] beginning in the early 2010s, Hispanics have begun to split[254] between the Democrats and the Republican Party.[255][256][257] In a 2022 study, it was found that 64% of Latinos surveyed had positive attitudes towards President Obama’s executive actions on immigration, which was notably four percentage points lower than that of non-Hispanic Black respondents. It was also noted that support for undocumented immigrants was lowest among Latinos living in developing 'bedroom communities' or newly built suburbs designed for commuters. This was also the case for Latinos of affluent income levels, however they were still most likely to display a positive attitude towards undocumented immigrants, especially when compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts.[258]

Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Chilean Americans, and Venezuelan Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor progressive political ideologies and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall.

Some political organizations associated with Hispanic Americans are League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation and the National Institute for Latino Policy.

Political impact

The United States has a population of over 60 million of Hispanic Americans, of whom 27 million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters); therefore, Hispanics have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%.[259][260][261][262]

Elections of 1996-2006

U.S. President George W. Bush announces Alberto Gonzales nomination as the Attorney General
Barbara Vucanovich the first Hispanic elected to the United States House of Representatives, in which she served representing Nevada

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics backed President Bill Clinton. In 2000, the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 54-44 against Bush.[263] Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Hispanics voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Hispanics by a smaller 56–43 margin. Texas Hispanics were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate and Florida Hispanics (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin.

In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal Hispanic immigration and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Hispanics for the first time split evenly.

The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Hispanic politics. Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Hispanic voters; majority-Hispanic counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.

Elections 2008-2012

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen became the first Cuban American Hispanic in congress and first Hispanic chair of the Congressional Hispanic Conference.

In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary, Hispanics participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.[264] Pundits discussed whether Hispanics would not vote for Barack Obama because he was African-American.[265] Hispanics voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama.[266] Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) white people.[266] Obama defeated Clinton.

Susana Martinez, first elected Hispanic woman Governor in the United States

In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain, Hispanics supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the June 30 Gallup tracking poll.[267] This was higher than expected, since McCain had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort (John McCain was born in Panama to parents who were serving in the US Navy, but raised in the United States).[268] However, McCain had retreated from reform during the Republican primary, damaging his standing among Hispanics.[269] Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish highlighting McCain's reversal.[270]

In the general election, 67% of Hispanics voted for Obama.[271][272] with a relatively strong turnout in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Virginia, helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans who have a strong presence in Florida. The relative growth of non-Cuban vs Cuban Hispanics also contributed to his carrying Florida's Hispanics with 57% of the vote.[271][273]

While employment and the economy were top concerns for Hispanics, almost 90% of Hispanic voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.[274] Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 had damaged the party's appeal to Hispanics, especially in swing states such as Florida, Nevada and New Mexico.[274] In a Gallup poll of Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans.[267]

Hispanics voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger Mitt Romney receiving about 27% of the vote.[275][276] Some Hispanic leaders were offended by remarks Romney made during a fundraiser, when he suggested that cultural differences[277] and "the hand of providence"[278][279] help explain why Israelis are more economically successful than Palestinians, and why similar economic disparities exist between other neighbors, such as the United States and Mexico, or Chile and Ecuador.[280] A senior aide to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the remarks racist,[279][281] as did American political scientist Angelo Falcón, president of the National Institute of Latino Policy.[282] Mitt Romney father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico.

Elections 2014–present

Debbie Mucarsel-Powell, first South American immigrant member of Congress, elected in 2018
U.S. Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (NY), also known as AOC, representing parts of The Bronx and Queens, became at age 29, the youngest woman ever to be elected to Congress in November 2018.

"More convincing data" from the 2016 United States presidential election[283] from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain).[284] Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's.[285]

On June 26, 2018, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a millennial, won the Democratic primary in New York's 14th congressional district covering parts of The Bronx and Queens in New York City, defeating the incumbent, Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, in what has been described as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election season and at the age of 29 years, became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress.[286][287] She is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America and has been endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and individuals.[288] According to a Pew Research Center report, the 2020 election will be the first one when Hispanics are the largest racial or ethnic minority group in the electorate. A record 32 million Hispanics were projected to be eligible to vote in the presidential election, many of them first-time voters. On September 15, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announces his intent to nominate and appoint Eduardo Verastegui, to be a member of the President's Advisory Commission on Hispanic Prosperity if re-elected after days of the Democratic convention.[289]

Hispanic communities across the United States were long held as a single voting bloc, but economic, geographic and cultural differences show stark divides in how Hispanic Americans have cast their ballots in 2020. Hispanics helped deliver Florida to Donald Trump in part because of Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (along with smaller populations such as Nicaraguan Americans and Chilean Americans); President Trump's reelection campaign ran pushing a strong anti-socialism message as a strategy in Florida, to their success. However the perceived anti-immigrant rhetoric resonated with Arizona and the COVID-19 pandemic (Arizona being one of the states hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States). The takeaway may be this may be the last election cycle that the "Hispanic vote" as a whole is more talked about instead of particular communities within it, such as Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans and so on. In Texas like in Arizona the Hispanic community mainly being Mexican American; one in three Texan voters is now Hispanic. Biden did win the Hispanic vote in those states. But in Texas, 41 percent to 47 percent of Hispanic voters backed Trump in several heavily Hispanic border counties in the Rio Grande Valley region, a Democratic stronghold. In Florida, Trump won 45 percent of the Hispanic vote, an 11-point improvement from his 2016 performance reported NBC News.[290] Recognizing Hispanics as a population that can not only make a differences in swing states like Arizona and Texas or Florida, but also really across the country, even in places like Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania, the number of Hispanic eligible voters may be the reason for the thin margins. In 1984, 37 percent of Hispanics voted for Ronald Reagan and 40 percent voted for George W. Bush in 2004.

Year Candidate of
the plurality
% of
1980Jimmy CarterDemocratic56% Lost
1984Walter MondaleDemocratic61% Lost
1988Michael DukakisDemocratic69% Lost
1992Bill ClintonDemocratic61% Won
1996Bill ClintonDemocratic72% Won
2000Al GoreDemocratic62% Lost
2004John KerryDemocratic58% Lost
2008Barack ObamaDemocratic67% Won
2012Barack ObamaDemocratic71% Won
2016Hillary ClintonDemocratic65% Lost
2020Joe BidenDemocratic63% Won
Maria Salazar, a journalist, broadcast television anchor and Republican House Member from Florida. She is of Cuban heritage.

In Florida, even though Trump won Florida and gained Hispanic voters, Biden kept 53% of the Hispanic vote and Trump 45%. According to NBC News exit polls, 55% of Cuban Americans, 30% of Puerto Ricans and 48% of other Hispanics voted for Trump.[291]

Julie Chavez Rodriguez the granddaughter of American labor leader, Cesar Chavez and American labor activist Helen Fabela Chávez became the director of the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs in 2021.

Subsections of Hispanic voters have a range of historical influences vying to affect their votes. Cuban American voters, mostly concentrated in south Florida, tend to vote Republican in part because of their anathema for socialism, the party of Fidel Castro's government that many of their families fled. Mexican Americans, however, have no such historical relationship with either party. Puerto Rican voters who have left the island might be influenced by the territory's move towards statehood, as a referendum for Trump's relief effort after Hurricane Maria, or regarding how it is taxed.[292]

Nationwide, Hispanics cast 16.6 million votes in 2020, an increase of 30.9% over the 2016 presidential election.[293]

After representative Filemon Vela Jr. resigned, Mayra Flores won a special election to succeed him, she won the election to the United States House of Representatives in June 2022.[294][295] She will be the first Mexican-born woman to serve in the United States Congress.[295][296]

Notable contributions

Hispanic Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, film, literature, sports, business and finance, and science.[297]

Arts and entertainment

In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award was created. It is a distinction given to Hispanic performers (actors, film and television directors and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. The number of Latin nominees at the Grammy Awards lag behind. Talking to People magazine ahead of music's biggest night in 2021, Grammy nominees J Balvin and Ricky Martin reflected on what it is mean to continue to represent Hispanics at awards shows like the Grammys. Martin, who served as a pioneer for the "Latin crossover" in the '90s told "When you get nominated, it's the industry telling you, 'Hey Rick, you did a good job this year, congratulations.' Yes, I need that", the 49-year-old says. "When you walk into the studio, you say, 'This got a Grammy potential.' You hear the songs that do and the ones that don't. It's inevitable." Like Selena Gomez tapping into her roots, the influence Hispanics and reggaetón are having on the mainstream is undeniable.[298]


Desi Arnaz actor, musician, bandleader, comedian and film and television producer and generally credited as the innovators of the syndicated rerun

There are many Hispanic American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Christopher Rios better known by his stage name Big Pun, Jennifer Lopez, Joan Baez, Selena Gomez, Demi Lovato, Fergie, Pitbull, Victoria Justice, Linda Ronstadt, Zack de la Rocha, Gloria Estefan, Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Carlos Santana, Christina Aguilera, Bruno Mars, Mariah Carey, Jerry García, Dave Navarro, Santaye, Elvis Crespo, Romeo Santos, Tom Araya, Becky G, Juan Luis Guerra, Cardi B, Giselle Bellas, Bad Bunny, all of the members of all-female band Go Betty Go, Camila Cabello, and two members of girl group Fifth Harmony: Lauren Jauregui and Ally Brooke.

Jennifer Lopez, a Nuyorican often described as a triple threat entertainer, has extensive discographies performed in both English and Spanish.

Hispanic music imported from Cuba (chachachá, mambo, and rhumba) and Mexico (ranchera and mariachi) had brief periods of popularity during the 1950s. Examples of artists include Celia Cruz, who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career. Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994.

Among the Hispanic American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens, who scored several hits, most notably "La Bamba" and Herman Santiago, who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Songs that became popular in the United States and are heard during the holiday/Christmas season include "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus?", a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old Augie Ríos which was a hit record in 1959 and featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra; and "Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano. Miguel del Aguila wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy nominations.

In 1986, Billboard magazine introduced the Hot Latin Songs chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Seven years later, Billboard initiated the Top Latin Albums which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States.[299] Similarly, the Recording Industry Association of America incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish.[300]

In 1989, Univision established the Lo Nuestro Awards which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic Grammys".[301][302] In 2000, the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS) established the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese.[303] Unlike The Recording Academy, LARAS extends its membership internationally to Hispanophone and Lusophone communities worldwide beyond the Americas, particularly the Iberian Peninsula.[304] Becky G won favorite female Latin artist, a brand new category at the AMAs in 2020.[305] For the 63rd Annual Grammy Awards, the academy announced several changes for different categories and rules: the category Latin Pop Album has been renamed Best Latin Pop or Urban Album, while Latin Rock, Urban or Alternative Album has been renamed Best Latin Rock or Alternative Album.

Film, radio, television, and theatre

Two-time Academy Award winner Anthony Quinn, who was born in Chihuahua, Mexico
Chita Rivera, the first Hispanic woman and first Hispanic American awarded the Kennedy Center Honors and Presidential Medal of Freedom
Antonio Banderas, a Spanish actor who has starred in many films
Sofía Vergara, a Colombian-American actress and model, on the red carpet at the 77th Golden Globe Awards in 2020

American cinema has often reflected and propagated negative stereotypes towards foreign nationals and ethnic minorities.[306] For example, Hispanics are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Hispanic macho or the Hispanic vixen, gang members, (illegal) immigrants, or entertainers.[307] However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate Chicano oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities".[308] Filmmakers like Edward James Olmos and Robert Rodriguez were able to represent the Hispanic American experience like none had on screen before, and actors like Hilary Swank, Michael Peña, Jordana Brewster, Ana de Armas, Jessica Alba, Natalie Martinez and Jenna Ortega have become successful. In the last decade, minority filmmakers like Chris Weitz, Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and Patricia Riggen have been given applier narratives. Portrayal in films of them include La Bamba (1987), Selena (1997), The Mask of Zorro (1998), Goal II: Living the Dream (2007), The 33 (2015), Ferdinand (2017), Dora and the Lost City of Gold (2019), and Josefina López's Real Women Have Curves, originally a play which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002.[308]

Hispanics have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the film industry. Of Puerto Rican origin: José Ferrer (the first Hispanic actor to win an acting Academy Award for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac), Auliʻi Cravalho, Rita Moreno, Chita Rivera, Raul Julia, Rosie Perez, Rosario Dawson, Esai Morales, Aubrey Plaza, Jennifer Lopez, Joaquin Phoenix and Benicio del Toro. Of Mexican origin: Emile Kuri (the first Hispanic to win an Academy Award – for Best Production Design – in 1949), Ramon Novarro, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez, Anthony Quinn, Ricardo Montalbán, Katy Jurado, Adrian Grenier, Jay Hernandez, Salma Hayek, Danny Trejo, Jessica Alba, Tessa Thompson, and Kate del Castillo. Of Cuban origin: Cesar Romero, Mel Ferrer, Andy García, Cameron Diaz, María Conchita Alonso, William Levy, and Eva Mendes. Of Dominican origin: Maria Montez and Zoe Saldana. Of partial Spanish origin: Rita Hayworth, Martin Sheen. Other outstanding figures are: Anita Page (of Salvadoran origin), Fernando Lamas, Carlos Thompson, Alejandro Rey and Linda Cristal (of Argentine origin), Raquel Welch (of Bolivian origin), John Leguizamo (of Colombian origin), Oscar Isaac (of Guatemalan origin), and Pedro Pascal (of Chilean origin).

In stand-up comedy, Cristela Alonzo, Anjelah Johnson, Paul Rodríguez, Greg Giraldo, Cheech Marin, George Lopez, Freddie Prinze, Jade Esteban Estrada, Carlos Mencia, John Mendoza, Gabriel Iglesias and others are prominent.

Some of the Hispanic actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Charo, Jencarlos Canela, Christian Serratos, Carlos Pena Jr., Eva Longoria, Sofía Vergara, Ricardo Antonio Chavira, Jacob Vargas, America Ferrera, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, Hector Elizondo, Mario Lopez, America Ferrera, Karla Souza, Diego Boneta, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, Isabella Gomez, Justina Machado, Tony Plana Stacey Dash, and Charlie Sheen. Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards and Michael Jackson's memorial service.

Hispanics are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986.[309] Together with numerous Hispanic civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Hispanic on any of their new prime time series that year.[310] This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic talent and other staff in all of the networks.

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.

The 72nd Primetime Emmy Awards was criticized by Hispanics; there were no major nominations for Hispanic performers, despite the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences publicizing their improved diversity in 2020. While there was a record number of black nominees, there was only one individual Hispanic nomination. Hispanic representation groups said the greater diversity referred only to more African American nominees.[311][312] When the Los Angeles Times reported the criticism using the term "black", it was itself criticized for erasing Afro-Hispanics, a discussion that then prompted more investigation into this under-represented minority ethnic group in Hollywood.[313] John Leguizamo boycotted the Emmys because of its lack of Hispanic nominees.[314]


In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, Narciso Rodriguez, Manuel Cuevas, Maria Cornejo,[315] among others. Christy Turlington, Lais Ribeiro, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen and Lea T achieved international fame as models.


Notable Hispanic artists include Jean-Michel Basquiat, Carmen Herrera, Gronk, Luis Jiménez, Félix González-Torres, Ana Mendieta, Joe Shannon, Richard Serra, Abelardo Morell, Bill Melendez, María Magdalena Campos Pons, Sandra Ramos, Myrna Báez and Soraida Martinez.

Business and finance

Real estate developer Jorge M. Pérez

The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years.[58]

Hispanic business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company.[316] Advertising Mexican-American magnate Arte Moreno became the first Hispanic to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club.[317] Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc. and co-owner of the Colorado Rockies baseball team.

There are several Hispanics on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans. Alejandro Santo Domingo and his brother Andres Santo Domingo inherited their fathers stake in SABMiller, now merged with Anheuser-Busch InBev. The brothers are ranked No. 132 and are each worth $4.8bn.[318] Jorge Perez founded and runs The Related Group. He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami.[319][320] He is ranked No. 264 and is worth $3bn.[318]

The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States is Goya Foods, because of World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders.[321] Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station[322] and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Samuel A. Ramirez Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co.[323][324] Nina Tassler is president of CBS Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Hispanic in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series.

Since 2021, Hispanic Executive has released a list of 30 under 30 executives in the United States. Members include financial analyst Stephanie Nuesi, fashion entrepreneur Zino Haro, and Obama scholar Josue de Paz.

Government and politics

As of 2007, there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Hispanic origin.[325]

In the House of Representatives, Hispanic representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco and Manuel Lujan Jr., out of almost two dozen former representatives. Current representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jose E. Serrano, Luis Gutiérrez, Nydia Velázquez, Xavier Becerra, Lucille Roybal-Allard, Loretta Sanchez, Rubén Hinojosa, Mario Díaz-Balart, Raul Grijalva, Ben R. Lujan, Jaime Herrera Beutler, Raul Labrador and Alex Mooney—in all, they number thirty. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya and Ken Salazar. As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Hispanic members Bob Menendez, a Democrat and Republicans Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, all Cuban Americans.[326]

Numerous Hispanics hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.[327] Current Hispanic Governors include Republican Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and Republican New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Hispanic woman governor in the history of the United States.[328] Former Hispanic governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and Bill Richardson, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Romualdo Pacheco and Bob Martinez.

Catherine Cortez Masto, first Hispanic U.S. Senator
Secretary Julian Castro candidate for US President and his twin brother Representative Joaquin Castro

Since 1988,[329] when Ronald Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos the Secretary of Education, the first Hispanic United States Cabinet member, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Hispanics serving in subsequent cabinets include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Rosa Rios is the current US Treasurer, including the latest three, were Hispanic women.

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic origin.

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.

Groups like the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) work to achieve the promises and principles of the United States by "promoting education, research, and leadership development, and empowering Hispanics and similarly disenfranchised groups by maximizing their civic awareness, engagement, and participation".[330]

Literature and journalism

George Santayana was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Jorge Majfud is a professor, essayist, and novelist
Jorge Ramos has won eight Emmy Awards.

Writers and their works


Political strategists


Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point")

Hispanics have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward.[333][334][335] 11% to 13% military personnel now are Hispanics and they have been deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere.[336] Hispanics have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor). The following is a list of some notable Hispanics in the military:

American Revolution

  • Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786) – Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War; since 2014, a posthumous honorary citizen of the United States
  • Lieutenant Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755–1817) – participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy

American Civil War

David Farragut, first full admiral in the US Navy
Diego Archuleta, first Hispanic to reach the military rank of Brigadier General
  • Admiral David Farragut – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history.[337][338]
  • Rear Admiral Cipriano Andrade – Mexican Navy rear admiral who fought for the Union. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
  • Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – Cuban officer active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
  • Brigadier General Diego Archuleta (1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Hispanic to reach the military rank of brigadier general. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln.[339]
  • Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. commanding general of the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish national who fought at Gettysburg for the Union Army in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers.[340]
  • Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg[341]
  • Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army[342]
  • Colonel Santos Benavides – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army[341]
  • Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the West[342]
  • Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. Humphreys[341][343]
  • Captain Rafael Chacón – Mexican American leader of the Union New Mexico Volunteers.[344]
  • Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers; spy for the Union Army in Texas[342]
  • Lieutenant Augusto Rodriguez – Puerto Rican native; officer in the 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C., and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse Fork[345]
  • Lola Sánchez – Cuban-born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing"
  • Loreta Janeta Velázquez, also known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War

World War I

World War II

Pedro del Valle – first Hispanic to reach the rank of lieutenant general
Carmen Contreras-Bozak – first Hispanic women to serve in the Women's Army Corps

Korean War

Modesto Cartagena, most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history

Cuban Missile Crisis

Vietnam War

After Vietnam

Antonia Novello, first woman and first Hispanic to serve as Surgeon General

Medal of Honor

The following 43 Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor: Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace and Maximo Yabes.

National intelligence

Science and technology

Laser physicist and author Francisco Javier Duarte
Ellen Ochoa, first Hispanic woman to go into space

Among Hispanic Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist of Spanish descent, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster.[359] F. J. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer.[360] Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa is the director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize. Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the companies reCAPTCHA and Duolingo. Colombian-American Ana Maria Rey received a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in atomic physics in 2013.

Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases.[361] Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry.[362] Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Sarah Stewart, a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow, whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Helen Rodríguez Trías, an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. She was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Hispanic president of the American Public Health Association.

Some Hispanics have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA astronauts:[363] Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Hispanic NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and director of Mars exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

Olga D. González-Sanabria won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the International Space Station power system. Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, José M. Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John Olivas and George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts.


Tony Romo, Mexican American quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys

There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Anthony Múñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked No. 17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Ted Hendricks, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Hispanics in the National Football League (NFL).


Hispanics have played in the Major Leagues since the very beginning of organized baseball, with Cuban player Esteban Bellán being the first (1873).[364][365] The large number of Hispanic American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Sammy Sosa, Alex Rodriguez, Alex Rios, Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Adolfo Luque, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrián González, Jose Fernandez, David Ortiz, Juan Marichal, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Miguel Angel Gonzalez (the first Hispanic Major League manager),[366][367] Al López, Ozzie Guillén and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya. Hispanics in the MLB Hall of Fame include Roberto Alomar, Luis Aparicio, Rod Carew, Orlando Cepeda, Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, Tony Pérez, Iván Rodríguez, Ted Williams, Reggie Jackson, Mariano Rivera, Edgar Martinez and Roberto Clemente. Afro-Hispanic players Martin Dihigo, Jose Mendez and Cristóbal Torriente are Hispanic Hall of Famers who played in the Negro leagues.[368]


Puerto Rican NBA All-star Carmelo Anthony

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginóbili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Hispanic heritage to coach an NBA team. Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title and as well an Olympic gold medal. Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.


Tennis players includes legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández and Gigi Fernández and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig.[369]


Bocanegra with the United States national soccer team in 2010

Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across the Spanish-speaking world, and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. Major League Soccer teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans.[370][371][372]

Roger Espinoza, Honduran player of the Sporting Kansas City.

Association football players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) includes several like Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Omar Gonzalez, Marcelo Balboa, Roger Espinoza and Carlos Bocanegra.


Swimmers Ryan Lochte (the second-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history measured by total number of medals)[373] and Dara Torres (one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals), both of Cuban ancestry,[374] have won multiple medals at various Olympic Games over the years. Torres is also the first American swimmer to appear in five Olympic Games.[375] Maya DiRado, of Argentine ancestry, won four medals at the 2016 games, including two gold medals.[369]

Other sports

De La Hoya in 2008

Boxing's first Hispanic American world champion was Solly Smith. Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Brandon Ríos, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, Andy Ruiz Jr. and Mikey Garcia.

Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nate Diaz, Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Tony Ferguson, Jorge Masvidal, Kelvin Gastelum, Henry Cejudo and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) of mixed martial arts.

In 1991, Bill Guerin whose mother is Nicaraguan became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League (NHL). He was also selected to four NHL All-Star Games. In 1999, Scott Gomez won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award.[376]

Figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports.

In gymnastics, Laurie Hernandez, who is of Puerto Rican ancestry, was a gold medalist at the 2016 Games.[369]

In sports entertainment we find the professional wrestlers Hulk Hogan, Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Tyler Black and Melina Pérez and executive Vickie Guerrero.


President Trump and Senator John Cornyn while they are visiting survivors of the 2019 El Paso shooting, which was a hispanophobic terrorist attack in El Paso, Texas

In countries where the majority of the population is descended from immigrants, such as the United States, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the form of nativism, racism and xenophobia.[377] Throughout US history, Hispanophobia has existed to varying degrees, and it was largely based on ethnicity, race (see Racism in the United States), culture, Anti-Catholicism (see Anti-Catholicism in the United States), economic and social conditions in Hispanic America, and opposition to the use of the Spanish language.[378][379][380][381] In 2006, Time magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily as a result of anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.[382] According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) statistics, the number of anti-Hispanic hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Hispanic population, the number of hate crimes which were committed against Hispanics almost doubled.[383]

In 2009, the FBI reported that 4,622 of the 6,604 hate crimes which were recorded in the United States were anti-Hispanic, comprising 70.3% of all recorded hate crimes, the highest percentage of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009. This percentage is contrasted by the fact that 34.6% of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009 were anti-black, 17.9% of them were anti-homosexual, 14.1% of them were anti-Jewish, and 8.3% of them were anti-white.[384]

See also

Places of settlement in United States:



Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics:



  1. Includes Asian Americans.
  2. The 1970 US census did not allow for the selection of multiple races.
  3. The 1980 US census did not allow for the selection of multiple races.
  4. The 1990 US census did not allow for the selection of multiple races.
  5. As a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Sotomayor was nominated by Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate, not elected.
  6. After the election of California senator Kamala Harris as vice president, Padilla was appointed senator by California Governor Gavin Newsom to fill the seat vacancy.


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Further reading

Surveys and historiography

  • Bean, Frank D., and Marta Tienda. The Hispanic Population of the United States (1987), statistical analysis of demography and social structure
  • Miguel A. De La Torre. Encyclopedia on Hispanic American Religious Culture (2 vol. ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009).
  • De Leon, Arnoldo, and Richard Griswold Del Castillo. North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States (2006)
  • Garcia, Maria Cristina. "Hispanics in the United States". Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, edited by Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer, (2nd ed., vol. 3, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008), pp. 696–728. online
  • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography", Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 online
  • Gomez-Quiñones, Juan. Mexican American Labor, 1790–1990. (1994).
  • Gutiérrez, David G. ed. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960 (2004) 512pp excerpt and text search
  • Gutiérrez, David G. "Migration, Emergent Ethnicity, and the 'Third Space'": The Shifting Politics of Nationalism in Greater Mexico" Journal of American History 1999 86(2): 481–517. in JSTOR covers 1800 to the 1980s
  • Leonard, David J. Latino History and Culture: An Encyclopedia (Sharpe Reference 2009)
  • Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos & Latinas In The United States (4 vol. 2006) excerpt and text search
  • Rochín, Refugio I., and Denis N. Valdés, eds. Voices of a New Chicana/o History. (2000). 307 pp.
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. "Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History", Journal of American History, 93 (2006), 655–72. in JSTOR
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (1998)

Pre 1965

  • Bogardus, Emory S. The Mexican in the United States (1934), sociological
  • Gamio, Manuel. The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant (1931)
  • Gamio, Manuel. Mexican Immigration to the United States (1939)
  • García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989)
  • García, Mario T. Desert Immigrants. The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880–1920 (1982) 348 pp; excerpt and text search
  • Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940 (1994)
  • Grebler, Leo, Joan Moore, and Ralph Guzmán. The Mexican American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority (1970), emphasis on census data and statistics
  • Rivas-Rodríguez, Maggie ed. Mexican Americans and World War II (2005)
  • Sanchez, George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (1995) excerpt and text search

Culture and politics, post 1965

  • Abrajano, Marisa A., and R. Michael Alvarez, eds. New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic Electorate in America (Princeton University Press; 2010) 219 pages. Documents the generational and other diversity of the Hispanic electorate and challenges myths about voter behavior.
  • Aranda, José, Jr. When We Arrive: A New Literary History of Mexican America. U. of Arizona Press, 2003. 256 pp.
  • Arreola, Daniel D., ed. Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. 2004. 334 pp.
  • Badillo, David A. Latinos and the New Immigrant Church. 2006. 275 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Berg, Charles Ramírez. Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, and Resistance, 2002. 314 pp.
  • Branton, Regina. "Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation", Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, 293–303 (2007) Abstract Archived November 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  • Cepeda, Raquel. Bird of Paradise: How I Became Latina Atria Books. 2013. ISBN 978-1-4516-3586-7. A personal exploration of Dominican American identity via family interviews, travel and genetic genealogy. Synopsis and Excerpt
  • DeGenova, Nicholas and Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship. 2003. 257 pp.
  • Dolan, Jay P. and Gilberto M. Hinojosa; Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900–1965 (1994)
  • Fregoso, Rosa Linda. The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano Film Culture. (1993) excerpt and text search
  • García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989)
  • García, María Cristina. Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, The United States, and Canada. (2006) 290pp
  • Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940–1990 (1990)
  • Gutiérrez, David G. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity in the Southwest, 1910–1986 1995. excerpt and text search
  • Hammerback, John C., Richard J. Jensen, and Jose Angel Gutierrez. A War of Words: Chicano Protest in the 1960s and 1970s 1985.
  • Herrera-Sobek, Maria. Celebrating Latino Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Cultural Traditions (3 vol., 2012) excerpt and text search
  • Kanellos, Nicolás, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Literature (3 vol. 2008) excerpt and text search
  • Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. "Hispanic Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections". Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(2): 189–202. ISSN 0360-4918
  • López-Calvo, Ignacio. Latino Los Angeles in Film and Fiction: The Cultural Production of Social Anxiety. University of Arizona Press, 2011. ISBN 0-8165-2926-4
  • Martinez, Juan Francisco. Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829–1900 (2006)
  • Matovina, Timothy. Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present. 2005. 232 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutierrez, ed. Encyclopedia of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Nuno, S. A. "Latino Mobilization and Vote Choice in the 2000 Presidential Election" American Politics Research, (2007); 35(2): 273–293. Abstract Archived January 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  • Saldívar-Hull, Sonia. Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature 2000. excerpt and text search
  • Wegner, Kyle David, "Children of Aztlán: Mexican American Popular Culture and the Post-Chicano Aesthetic" (PhD dissertation State University of New York, Buffalo, 2006). Order No. DA3213898.


  • Martinez, Elizabeth. 500 Years of Chicana Women's History/500 anos de la mujer Chicana, Rutgers University Press (Bilingual Edition) 2008.

Regional and local


  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,**
  • Bedolla, Lisa García. Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles. 2005. 279 pp.
  • Burt, Kenneth C. The Search for a Civic Voice: California Latino Politics (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Camarillo, Albert. Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848–1930 (1979)
  • Camarillo, Albert M., "Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California's Minority-Majority Cities", Pacific Historical Review, 76 (February 2007), 1–28; looks at cities of Compton, East Palo Alto, and Seaside
  • Daniel, Cletus E. Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870–1941 1981.
  • García, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970 (2001),
  • Hayes-Bautista, David E. La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State. U. of California Press, 2004. 263 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Hughes, Charles. "The Decline of the Californios: The Case of San Diego, 1846–1856" The Journal of San Diego History Summer 1975, Volume 21, Number 3 online at
  • McWilliams, Carey. North from Mexico. (1949), farm workers in California
  • Pitt, Leonard. The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish speaking Californians, 1846–1890 (ISBN 0-520-01637-8)
  • Sánchez; George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Valle, Victor M. and Torres, Rodolfo D. Latino Metropolis. 2000. 249 pp. on Los Angeles

Texas and Southwest

  • Alonzo, Armando C. Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734–1900 (1998)
  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft
  • Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio 1984. excerpt and text search
  • Buitron Jr., Richard A. The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913–2000 (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Chávez, John R. The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest (Albuquerque, 1984)
  • Chávez-García, Miroslava. Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s (2004).
  • De León, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin, 1983)
  • De León, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999)
  • Deutsch, Sarah No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880–1940 1987
  • Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830–1860: The Assimilation Process" Western Historical Quarterly 7 (October 1976): 365–375. in JSTOR
  • Echeverría, Darius V., "Aztlán Arizona: Abuses, Awareness, Animosity, and Activism amid Mexican-Americans, 1968–1978" PhD dissertation (Temple University, 2006). Order No. DA3211867.
  • Fregoso; Rosa Linda. Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands (2003)
  • Garcia, Ignacio M. Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot, Texas A&M University Press, 2000. 227pp and online search from Amazon.com.
  • García, Richard A. Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929–1941 (1991)
  • Getz; Lynne Marie. Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850–1940 (1997)
  • Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940 (1994)
  • Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, editors, The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico, 314 pages (2000), ISBN 0-8263-2199-2
  • González; Nancie L. The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride (1969)
  • Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas", Journal of American History, 92 (March 2006) in History Cooperative
  • Gutiérrez; Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846 (1991)
  • Márquez, Benjamin. LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization (1993)
  • Matovina, Timothy M. Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821–1860 (1995)
  • Montejano, David. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986 (1987)
  • Muñoz, Laura K., "Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930" (PhD dissertation Arizona State University, 2006). Order No. DA3210182.
  • Quintanilla, Linda J., "Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis" (University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964.
  • Sánchez; George I. Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans (1940; reprint 1996) on New Mexico
  • Taylor, Paul S. Mexican Labor in the United States. 2 vols. 1930–1932, on Texas
  • Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850–1900 (1993)
  • de la Teja, Jesús F. San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier (1995).
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821–1836 (1994),
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos (1998).
  • Timmons, W. H. El Paso: A Borderlands History (1990).
  • Trevino, Roberto R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. (2006). 308pp.
  • Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821–1846: The American Southwest under Mexico (1982)
    • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography", Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521–528 in Project MUSE

Other regions

  • Bullock, Charles S., and M. V. Hood, "A Mile‐Wide Gap: The Evolution of Hispanic Political Emergence in the Deep South". Social Science Quarterly 87.5 (2006): 1117–1135. Online
  • García, María Cristina. Havana, USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959–1994 (1996); excerpt and text search
  • Korrol, Virginia Sánchez. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917–1948 (1994)
  • Fernandez, Lilia. Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  • Millard, Ann V. and Chapa, Jorge. Apple Pie and Enchiladas: Latino Newcomers in the Rural Midwest. 2004. 276 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. Latino Workers in the Contemporary South. 2001. 224 pp.
  • Padilla, Felix M. Puerto Rican Chicago. (1987). 277 pp.
  • Sãnchez Korrol, Virginia E. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City. (1994) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search
  • Vargas, Zaragosa. Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917–1933 (1993) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search
  • Whalen, Carmen Teresa, and Victor Vásquez-Hernández, eds. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives (2005),

Primary sources

  • Richard Ellis, ed. New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader. 1971.
  • David J. Weber; Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans (1973), primary sources to 1912
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