Carlsbad, California

Carlsbad is a coastal city in the North County region of San Diego County, California, United States. The city is 87 miles (140 km) south of downtown Los Angeles and 35 miles (56 km) north of downtown San Diego. As of the 2020 census, the population of the city was 114,746.[11] Carlsbad is a popular tourist destination and home to many businesses in the golf industry.[12]

Carlsbad, California
Downtown Carlsbad
Village by the Sea
Location of Carlsbad in San Diego County, California.
Location in the United States
Carlsbad (California)
Carlsbad (the United States)
Coordinates: 33°7′19″N 117°17′49″W
Country United States
State California
CountySan Diego
IncorporatedJuly 16, 1952[1]
Named forKarlsbad, Kingdom of Bohemia
  BodyCarlsbad City Council
  MayorMatt Hall[3]
  Mayor Pro TemKeith Blackburn, District 2[4]
  Council MemberCori Schumacher, District 1[5]
  Council MemberPriya Bhat-Patel, District 3[6]
  Council MemberTeresa Acosta, District 4[7]
  Total39.08 sq mi (101.21 km2)
  Land37.77 sq mi (97.83 km2)
  Water1.30 sq mi (3.38 km2)  3.55%
Elevation52 ft (16 m)
  Rank5th in San Diego County
56th in California
  Density3,038.02/sq mi (1,172.91/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
9200892011, 92018
Area codes442/760
FIPS code06-11194
GNIS feature IDs1660437, 2409984
City flowerBird‐of‐paradise[10]


Rancho Agua Hedionda was granted to Juan María Marrón in 1842, encompassing modern-day Carlsbad.
Statue of John Frazier

Carlsbad's history began with the Luiseño people (the Spanish name given to them because of their proximity to Mission San Luis Rey), as well as some Kumeyaay in the La Costa area. Nearly every reliable fresh water creek had at least one native village, including one called Palamai.[13] The site is located just south of today's Buena Vista Lagoon.[13]

The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition of 1769, met native villagers while camped on Buena Vista Creek.[14] Another Luiseño villages within today's city of Carlsbad was a village at the mouth of the San Marcos Creek that the Kumeyaay called 'Ajopunquile'. A Kumeyaay village that was visited by Portolá was Hakutl, in the Rancho Ponderosa area.[15]

During the Mexican period, in 1842, the southern portion of Carlsbad was granted as Rancho Agua Hedionda to Juan María Marrón.

In the 1880s a former sailor named John A. Frazier dug a well in the area. He began offering his water at the train station and soon the whistle-stop became known as Frazier's Station. A test done on a second fresh-water well discovered the water to be chemically similar to that found in some of the most renowned spas in the world, and the town was named after the famed spa in the Bohemian town of Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic).[16]

To take advantage of the find, the Carlsbad Land and Mineral Water Company was formed by a German-born merchant from the Midwest named Gerhard Schutte together with Samuel Church Smith, D. D. Wadsworth and Henry Nelson. The naming of the town followed soon after, along with a major marketing campaign to attract visitors. The area experienced a period of growth, with homes and businesses sprouting up in the 1880s. Agricultural development of citrus fruits, avocados and olives soon changed the landscape. By the end of 1887, land prices fell throughout San Diego County. However, the community survived on the back of its fertile agricultural lands.

The site of John Frazier's original well can still be found at Alt Karlsbad, a replica of a German Hanseatic house, located on Carlsbad Boulevard.

In 1952, Carlsbad was incorporated to avoid annexation by its neighbor, Oceanside.[17]

The single-runway Palomar Airport opened in 1959 after County of San Diego officials decided to replace the Del Mar Airport.[18] The airport was annexed to the City of Carlsbad in 1978 and renamed McClellan-Palomar Airport in 1982 after a local civic leader, Gerald McClellan.

The first modern skateboard park, Carlsbad Skatepark, was built in March 1976.[19] It was located on the grounds of Carlsbad Raceway and was designed and built by inventors Jack Graham and John O'Malley. The skatepark was closed in 1979,[20] leaving Del Mar Skate Ranch, approximately 20 minutes away, as the nearest skatepark for residents such as Tony Hawk.[21] The site of the original Carlsbad Skatepark and Carlsbad Raceway was demolished in 2005 and is now an industrial park.[19][22] However, two skateparks have since been developed.

In March 1999, Legoland California was opened. It was the first Legoland theme park outside of Europe and is currently operated by Merlin Entertainments.[23] Merlin Entertainments owns 70 percent of the shares, and the remaining 30 percent is owned by the LEGO group and Kirkbi A/S.[24]

Carlsbad is home to the nation's largest desalination plant.[25] Construction of the Carlsbad Desalination Plant at the Encina Power Station was completed in December 2015.[26] The Encina Power Station is currently being demolished, despite efforts to preserve it as a historical landmark.[27]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.1 square miles (101 km2) of which 37.7 square miles (98 km2) are land and 1.4 square miles (3.6 km2) are (3.55%) water, the majority of which is contained within three lagoons and one lake.

The northern area of the city is part of a tri-city area consisting of northern Carlsbad, southern Oceanside and western Vista.

The ocean-side cliffs fronting wide white-sand beaches and mild climate attract vacationers year-round.[28]

Types of Households in Carlsbad city, California in 2015–2019. 56.6% was Married-couple households, 5.1% was cohabiting couple households, 13.6% male householder no spouse, 24.7% female householder no spouse.[29]


Carlsbad has a semi-arid Mediterranean climate (Koppen classification BSh) and averages 263 sunny days per year. Winters are mild with periodic rain. Frost is rare along the coast, but sometimes occurs in inland valleys in December and January. Summer is almost rain free, but overcast and cool with fog off the Pacific. While most days have mild and pleasant temperatures, hot dry Santa Ana winds bring high temperatures on a few days each year, mostly in the fall.

Climate data for McClellan-Palomar Airport, California (normals 1998–2022, records 1998–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
Mean maximum °F (°C) 80.5
Average high °F (°C) 65.7
Daily mean °F (°C) 56.8
Average low °F (°C) 48.0
Mean minimum °F (°C) 40.0
Record low °F (°C) 33
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.75
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in.) 6.8 8.0 7.2 5.0 3.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 2.2 4.3 5.9 7.6 52.1
Source: NOAA[30]


The Old Santa Fe Depot, built in 1907, is a local landmark listed on the National Register of Historic Places and currently houses the city's Visitor's Information Center.

For city planning and growth management purposes, Carlsbad is divided into four distinct quadrants.[31]

Northwest quadrant

The northwest quadrant of Carlsbad (ZIP code 92008) includes the downtown "Village", "The Barrio", and "Olde Carlsbad." It was the first part of Carlsbad to be settled. Homes range from 1950s cottages and bungalows, 1960s ranch style houses, to elegant mansions on hills overlooking the ocean. It is also home to Hosp Grove Park, a grove of eucalyptus trees relatively untouched by development and now designated by the city for recreational use, in addition to the Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Lagoons. It is located west of El Camino Real and north of Palomar Airport Road.

"The Barrio" area is near downtown Carlsbad bordered by Carlsbad Village Drive to the north, Tamarack Avenue to the south, Interstate 5 to the east and the railroad tracks to the west. It was settled by Latinos in the early 20th century.[32] It is the site of the Centro de Aprendizaje, a Spanish division of the Carlsbad City Library.[33]

Northeast quadrant

This quadrant (ZIP code 92010) is located east of El Camino Real and north of Palomar Airport Road and consists mostly of single-family homes, with larger lots found in the older area known as Chestnut Hills and the newer developments around Calavera Hills.

The Northeast quadrant also contains the Lake Calavera Nature Preserve, a 110-acre space containing a 513-foot extinct volcano known as Mount Calavera. The preserve — notable for its small lake, wide dam, and mountain — was officially set aside in the 1990s as the surrounding land was being developed. The preserve is bordered on three sides by suburban single-family homes, and on one side by small farms and rural compounds. In 2012, Sage Creek High School was developed in the southwest corner of the preserve amid some controversy. Nature experts challenged the decision to construct the school on the preserve, but Carlsbad High School was reaching its capacity and there were few undeveloped areas that had sufficient space for an additional high school. Despite missing one of its original corners, the preserve still offers miles of hiking trails with ocean views.[34]

Calavera Lake and Mount Calavera on the eastern boundary of Carlsbad

Southeast quadrant

The southeast quadrant (ZIP code 92009) is located east of El Camino Real and south of Palomar Airport Road and features several newer expensive master-planned communities set among hillsides, golf courses, Alga Norte Community Park and permanent open spaces. It includes Bressi Ranch and the La Costa neighborhoods of Rancho La Costa, La Costa Ridge, La Costa Oaks, La Costa Greens, La Costa Valley, and Rancho Carillo. In 1965, La Costa gave its name to the Gold Medal Golf Resort, La Costa Resort and Spa, now known as the Omni La Costa Resort and Spa.[35] Residents here are served by the Carlsbad Unified School District, San Marcos Unified School District and the Encinitas Union School District.

Southwest quadrant

This quadrant (ZIP code 92011) extends along the Pacific Ocean to the south of the center of Carlsbad. It includes the Aviara neighborhood, which is home to the Park Hyatt Aviara Resort. It is located west of El Camino Real and south of Palomar Airport Road.


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[36]

Carlsbad is part of the San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area.


As of the 2010 United States Census[37] Carlsbad had a population of 105,328. The population density was 2,693.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,039.8/km2). The racial makeup of Carlsbad was 87,205 (82.8%) White, 1,379 (1.3%) African American, 514 (0.5%) Native American, 7,460 (7.1%) Asian, 198 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 4,189 (4.0%) from other races, and 4,383 (4.2%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13,988 persons (13.3%).

The Census reported that 104,413 people (99.1% of the population) lived in households, 459 (0.4%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 456 (0.4%) were institutionalized.

Out of 39,964 households in 2011, there were 26,992 (67.5%) families, of which 12,345 (30.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,705 (54.3%) were married-couple families, 1,489 (3.7%) had a male householder with no wife present, and 3,798 (9.5%) had a female householder with no husband present. There were 12,972 (32.5%) nonfamily households, of which 10,198 (25.5%) were made up of a householder living alone and 3,299 (8.3%) were a householder living alone who was 65 years or over. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.10.

The population was spread out, with 25,366 people (24.1%) under the age of 18, 6,718 people (6.4%) aged 18 to 24, 28,073 people (26.7%) aged 25 to 44, 30,373 people (28.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 14,798 people (14.0%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males.

There were 44,673 housing units at an average density of 1,142.2 per square mile (441.0/km2), of which 26,808 (64.8%) were owner-occupied, and 14,537 (35.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.6%. 69,855 people (66.3% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 34,558 people (32.8%) lived in rental housing units.

In 2011, the median household income was US$85,743 and the median family income was US$102,254, with 11.9% of households and 14.9% of families earning US$200,000 or more.[38] Males had a median income of US$80,590 versus US$54,159 for females. The per capita income for the city was US$42,712. About 6.8% of families and 8.4% of the population reported income below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over.

Of the population 25 years and over, 95.7% graduated from high school and 51.3% held a bachelor's degree or higher. 65.2% of the population 16 years and over was in the labor force.


As of the census of 2000, there were 78,247 people, 31,521 households, and 20,898 families residing in the city.[39] The population density was 2,090.2 inhabitants per square mile (807.0/km2). There were 33,798 housing units at an average density of 902.8 per square mile (348.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.6% Caucasian, 1.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 4.7% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.7% of the population.

There were 31,521 households, out of which 30.7% contained children under the age of 18, 54.3% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.7% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of single individuals, and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The mean household size was 2.46 and the mean family size was 2.96.

23.3% of residents were under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. Among those 18 and older, there were 92.8 males for every 100 females.


Local government

In 2008, Carlsbad voters passed a measure to become a charter city (as opposed to the general-law municipality they had been before), approving the proposed charter by 82% and officially becoming such that same year.[40][41]

Before the 2018 elections, city government was led by an elected mayor and four council members, elected at large; however, in July 2017, the city council voted to transition to district elections (except for the mayoral office, which remains an at-large position). Elections for Districts 1 and 3 were held in 2018, and in 2020, elections were held for the remaining Districts 2 and 4. As was the case before changing to district elections for the city council, city council members and the mayor are elected to 4-year terms.[42][43] See the official district map here Archived November 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine(not to scale).

Carlsbad's current mayor is Matt Hall, who has served since 2010 and was re-elected in 2018.[43]

In May 2018, the Carlsbad city council voted 4–1 to back the federal government's lawsuit against California sanctuary state law SB 54.[44][45]

The city has drafted ordinances protecting sensitive wildlife habitat, becoming one of the first municipalities in California to do so. The city has also pledged to protect about 40 percent of the city as permanent open space.

Federal and state representation

In the California State Legislature, Carlsbad is in the 36th Senate District, represented by Republican Janet Nguyen, and in the 76th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Brian Maienschein.[46]

In the United States House of Representatives, Carlsbad is in California's 49th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Levin.[47]


Carlsbad was a powerfully Republican stronghold during the 20th century, a classic bastion of suburban conservatism in Southern California. However, the GOP's edge in Carlsbad started to narrow in the 1990s and 2000s, with the city shifting Democratic. In 2008, Barack Obama, then the Democratic nominee for President, carried the city with a plurality. In 2012, Mitt Romney, the GOP nominee, carried the city by a 9% margin. In 2016, the city flipped back to the Democratic Party, voting for Hillary Clinton by a 10.4% margin over Donald Trump. Joe Biden expanded that margin to 17.6% over Trump in 2020.

Carlsbad city vote
by party in presidential elections
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2020[48] 57.8% 41,826 40.2% 29,110 2% 1,483
2016[49] 52.1% 30,493 41.7% 24,379 6.2% 3,636
2012[50] 44.8% 24,224 53.3% 28,852 1.9% 1,043
2008[51] 49.4% 26,668 49% 26,443 1.6% 881
2004[52] 42.3% 20,122 56.8% 27,006 0.9% 442
2000[53] 40.5% 14,873 55.1% 20,220 4.4% 1,615
1996[54] 38.7% 11,568 51.4% 15,369 9.9% 2,991
1992[55] 34.7% 10,361 41.4% 12,365 23.9% 7,145
1988[56] 33.6% 9,117 65.3% 17,732 1.1% 316
1984[57] 27% 5,034 71.8% 13,388 1.2% 229
1980[58] 20.5% 3,281 69.2% 11,085 10.3% 1,649
1976[59] 33.7% 3,141 64.7% 6,041 1.6% 152
1972[60] 28.3% 1,390 67.3% 4,401 4.4% 187
1968[61] 33.9% 1,651 59.1% 2,882 7% 341
1964[62] 47.5% 2,049 52.5% 2,262


Carlsbad's core industries include information technology, video game development, manufacturing, robotics, medical devices, life science, wireless technology, clean technology, action sports, tourism, design development and real estate. In 2013, Google named Carlsbad the digital capital of California with the strongest online business community.[63]

Carlsbad is also known as the "Titanium Valley" because of its golf manufacturing industry. Callaway Golf Company, TaylorMade-adidas Golf Company, Cobra Golf, Titleist, and Odyssey Golf are all located in Carlsbad.

Top employers

According to 2021 figures,[64] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Viasat, Inc. 2,481
2 Legoland California 2,300
3 Life Technologies Corporation 1,982
4 Omni La Costa Resort and Spa 1,300
5 Carlsbad Unified School District 1,092
6 TaylorMade Golf Company 960
7 City of Carlsbad 748
8 Nortek Security Control 637
9 HM Electronics 571
10 Gemological Institute of America 555

Notable corporate headquarters

  • Applied Spectral Imaging, multinational bioimaging technology company
  • Arkeia Software, network backup solutions
  • Atticus Clothing, Apparel
  •, online B2B marketing platform
  • Callaway Golf Company, Golf equipment and apparel manufacturer
  • Clear-Com, owned by HME; an electronics manufacturer of intercom systems
  • Cobra Golf, Golf equipment and apparel manufacturer
  • Fallen Footwear, Shoe company
  • Gemological Institute of America, Gem Nonprofit
  • Hay House, New Age Publisher
  • Hot Dog on a Stick, Restaurants
  • Islands Fine Burgers & Drinks, restaurant
  • Jazzercise, International dance fitness program
  • Jenny Craig, Inc., Weight management
  • Kisco Senior Living, senior living
  • Macbeth Footwear, apparel
  • MaxLinear, Semiconductors
  • No Fear, Apparel
  • Osiris Shoes, Shoe company
  • PC Power & Cooling, PC power supply manufacturer
  • Rockstar San Diego, Video Game Developer
  • Rubio's Coastal Grill, Quick-serve Restaurants
  • TaylorMade Golf Company, Golf equipment and apparel manufacturer
  • Upper Deck, Sports and entertainment trading card manufacturer
  • ViaSat, Satellite communications


School Districts
  • Carlsbad Unified School District
  • Encinitas Union School District-for Elementary schools South of Carlsbad
  • San Dieguito Union High School District-for Junior High and High schools in South Carlsbad
  • San Marcos Unified School District-for schools in southeast Carlsbad
Public High
Public Intermediate
  • Aviara Oaks Middle School
  • Calavera Hills Middle School
  • Valley Middle School
Public Interlevel
  • Carlsbad Seaside Academy (Independent Study)
Public Elementary
  • Aviara Oaks Elementary School
  • Buena Vista Elementary School
  • Calavera Hills Elementary School
  • Carlsbad Seaside Academy (K-6 Alternative Education)
  • El Camino Creek Elementary School
  • Hope Elementary School
  • Jefferson Elementary School
  • Kelly Elementary School
  • La Costa Heights Elementary School
  • La Costa Meadows Elementary School
  • Magnolia Elementary School
  • Pacific Rim Elementary School
  • Poinsettia Elementary School
  • Mission Estancia Elementary School
  • Olivenhain Pioneer Elementary School
  • Rancho Carillo Elementary School
Private Schools
  • Army and Navy Academy: College Prep Middle and High School
  • Carlsbad Christian Academy
  • Montessori Arts and Sciences School
  • Pacific Ridge School
  • Palisades Point Christian Academy
  • St. Patrick School
  • The Academy by the Sea: Camp Pacific
  • Nautical Oceanside Achievement School

Public libraries

  • Carlsbad City Library (three branches)

Sister cities

Carlsbad's sister cities are:[65]


Amusement Parks
  • South Carlsbad State Beach
Open Space
  • Agua Hedionda Lagoon
  • Batiquitos Lagoon
  • Buena Vista Lagoon
  • Lake Calavera Nature Preserve
  • Rancho La Costa Preserve
  • Carlsbad Historical Society Museum
  • Museum of Making Music
  • Miniature Engineering Craftsmanship Museum
  • The Flower Fields


North County Transit District (NCTD) provides public transportation services in Carlsbad, managing Coaster commuter rail (with stops at Carlsbad Village station and Carlsbad Poinsettia station), Breeze bus service, Flex on-demand transit service, and Lift paratransit service.[67] Sprinter hybrid rail, also managed by NCTD, does not pass through Carlsbad. While it passes through Carlsbad, the Amtrak Pacific Surfliner does not stop within the city.

Interstate 5 runs through the western part of Carlsbad, while California State Route 78 passes close to its northern border.

McClellan–Palomar Airport is located about 7 miles (11 km) southeast of downtown Carlsbad, and allows general aviation and limited commercial service to the city.

Notable people

See also


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