Calcium perchlorate

Calcium perchlorate is classified as a metal perchlorate salt with the molecular formula Ca(ClO4)2. It is an inorganic compound that is a yellow-white crystalline solid in appearance. As a strong oxidizing agent, it reacts with reducing agents when heated to generate heat and products that may be gaseous (which will cause pressurization in closed containers). Calcium perchlorate has been categorized as having explosive reactivity. Ca(ClO4)2 is a common chemical on the soil of planet Mars, counting for almost 1% of the Martian dust, by weight.

Calcium perchlorate
IUPAC name
Calcium perchlorate
Other names
Calcium perchlorate tetrahydrate, Calcium diperchlorate, Perchloric acid calcium salt (2:1), Calcium perchlorate, hydrated
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.411
EC Number
  • 236-768-0
  • InChI=1S/Ca.2ClHO4/c;2*2-1(3,4)5/h;2*(H,2,3,4,5)/q+2;;/p-2
  • InChI=1/Ca.2ClHO4/c;2*2-1(3,4)5/h;2*(H,2,3,4,5)/q+2;;/p-2
  • [Ca+2].O=Cl(=O)(=O)[O-].[O-]Cl(=O)(=O)=O
Molar mass 238.9792 g/mol
Appearance White to yellow crystalline solid
Density 2.651 g/cm3
Melting point 270 °C (518 °F; 543 K)
188 g/100mL (20 °C)
Solubility EtOH, MeOH
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
GHS labelling:
P210, P220, P221, P280, P283, P306+P360, P370+P378, P371+P380+P375, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references


Calcium perchlorate is a strong inorganic oxidizing agent, enhancing the combustion of other substances that can potentially lead to explosion. The perchlorate ion, ClO4, has a highly symmetrical tetrahedral structure that is strongly stabilized in solution by its low electron-donating proton-accepting power and its relatively low polarizability.

Eutectic system

Calcium perchlorate solution forms a simple eutectic system. The eutectic composition of the calcium perchlorate solution is 4.2 mol / 1000 g H2O, very similar to the composition of closely related metal cation perchlorates of strontium and barium.<[1]


Electrolyte conductance

Electrolyte conductance of Ca(ClO4)2 and double charged metal cations in the organic solvent acetonitrile has been tested.[2] The interest in metal cation perchlorate interactions with photosensitive ligands has increased due to the development of highly specific fluorescence indicators.


Perchlorate salts are the product of a base and perchloric acid. Calcium perchlorate can be prepared through the heating of a mixture of calcium carbonate and ammonium perchlorate. Ammonium carbonate forms in the gaseous state, leaving behind a calcium perchlorate solid.



Being very hygroscopic, calcium perchlorate is commonly seen in the presence of four water molecules, referred to as calcium perchlorate tetrahydrate Ca(ClO4)2·4H2O.

Cyclic hydrogenphosphonates

A hybrid organic-inorganic molecule is formed using dioxazaphosphocanes, eight-membered cyclic hydrogenphosphonates and calcium. Calcium from the calcium perchlorate contributes to the structural integrity of the oligomeric molecule; the four calcium ions are bridged between four dioxazaphosphocane moieties.

Human toxicity

Calcium perchlorate is slightly toxic to humans, by ingestion or inhalation of dust particles, or (less so) by skin contact.


  1. Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Zahnle, K.J.; Claire, M.W. (June 2010). "Modeling aqueous perchlorate chemistries with applications to Mars" (PDF). Icarus. 207 (2): 675–685. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.003. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  2. Kalugin, Oleg N.; Agieienko, Vira N.; Otroshko, Natalya A. (January 2012), "Ion association and solvation in solutions of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Ni2+ perchlorates in acetonitrile: Conductometric study", Journal of Molecular Liquids, 165: 78–86. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2011.10.012
  1. "Calcium Perchlorate", Cameo Chemicals, Office of Response and Restoration, NOAA's Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,, retrieved October 25, 2012
  2. "Calcium Perchlorate", ChemicalBook, ChemicalBook, retrieved October 25, 2012
  3. Kalugin, Oleg N.; Agieienko, Vira N.; Otroshko, Natalya A. (January 2012), "Ion association and solvation in solutions of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Ni2+ perchlorates in acetonitrile: Conductometric study", Journal of Molecular Liquids, 165: 78–86, doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2011.10.012
  4. Sutra, Elsa; Lamandé, Lydia; Gornitzka, Heinz; Bellan, Jacques (2002), "A New Oligomeric Complex of Cyclic Hydrogenphosphonates with Calcium Perchlorate", European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2002 (10): 2727–2729, doi:10.1002/1099-0682(200210)2002:10<2727::AID-EJIC2727>3.0.CO;2-D
  5. "Perchlorates", Megalomania's Method of Making Perchlorates, Megalomania's Controversial Chem Lab, retrieved October 31, 2012
  6. "Physical Constraints of Inorganic Compounds", Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, retrieved October 25, 2012
  7. Pestova, O. N.; Myund, L. A.; Khripun, M. K.; Prigaro, A. V. (2005), "Polythermal Study of the Systems M(ClO4)2–H2O (M2+ = Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+)", Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 78 (3): 409–413, doi:10.1007/s11167-005-0306-z, S2CID 95464181
  8. "Modeling aqueous perchlorate chemistries with applications to Mars" (PDF), Icarus
HClO4 He
LiClO4 Be(ClO4)2 B(ClO4)4
ROClO3 N(ClO4)3
H3OClO4 FClO4 Ne
NaClO4 Mg(ClO4)2 Al(ClO4)3
Si P S ClO4
KClO4 Ca(ClO4)2 Sc(ClO4)3 Ti(ClO4)4 VO(ClO4)3
Cr(ClO4)3 Mn(ClO4)2 Fe(ClO4)2 Co(ClO4)2,
Ni(ClO4)2 Cu(ClO4)2 Zn(ClO4)2 Ga(ClO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbClO4 Sr(ClO4)2 Y(ClO4)3 Zr(ClO4)4 Nb(ClO4)5 Mo Tc Ru Rh(ClO4)3 Pd(ClO4)2 AgClO4 Cd(ClO4)2 In(ClO4)3 Sn(ClO4)4 Sb TeO(ClO4)2 I Xe
CsClO4 Ba(ClO4)2   Lu(ClO4)3 Hf(ClO4)4 Ta(ClO4)5 W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2(ClO4)2,
Pb(ClO4)2 Bi(ClO4)3 Po At Rn
FrClO4 Ra   Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La Ce(ClO4)x Pr(ClO4)3 Nd(ClO4)3 Pm Sm(ClO4)3 Eu(ClO4)3 Gd(ClO4)3 Tb(ClO4)3 Dy(ClO4)3 Ho(ClO4)3 Er(ClO4)3 Tm(ClO4)3 Yb(ClO4)3
Ac Th(ClO4)4 Pa UO2(ClO4)2 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.