Bob Hawke

Robert James Lee Hawke AC, GCL (9 December 1929 – 16 May 2019) was an Australian politician and union organiser who was the 23rd prime minister of Australia from 1983 to 1991, holding office as the leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP). Previously he was the president of the Australian Council of Trade Unions from 1969 to 1980 and president of the Labor Party national executive from 1973 to 1980.

Bob Hawke
Official portrait, 1983
23rd Prime Minister of Australia
In office
11 March 1983  20 December 1991
MonarchElizabeth II
Preceded byMalcolm Fraser
Succeeded byPaul Keating
Leader of the Labor Party
In office
8 February 1983[1]  19 December 1991
  • Lionel Bowen
  • Paul Keating
  • Brian Howe
Preceded byBill Hayden
Succeeded byPaul Keating
Leader of the Opposition
In office
8 February 1983  11 March 1983
Prime MinisterMalcolm Fraser
Preceded byBill Hayden
Succeeded byAndrew Peacock
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Wills
In office
18 October 1980  20 February 1992
Preceded byGordon Bryant
Succeeded byPhil Cleary
Personal details
Robert James Lee Hawke

(1929-12-09)9 December 1929
Border Town, South Australia, Australia
Died16 May 2019(2019-05-16) (aged 89)
Northbridge, New South Wales, Australia
Resting placeMacquarie Park
Political partyLabor
  • Clem Hawke (father)
RelativesAlbert Hawke (uncle)
WebsitePrime Ministerial Library

Hawke was born in Border Town, South Australia.[lower-alpha 1] He attended the University of Western Australia and went on to study at University College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, during which time he set a world record for downing a yard of ale in 11 seconds.[3][4] In 1956, Hawke joined the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) as a research officer. Having risen to become responsible for national wage case arbitration, he was elected as president of the ACTU in 1969, where he achieved a high public profile. In 1973, he was appointed as president of the Labor Party.

In 1980, Hawke stood down from his roles as ACTU and Labor Party president to announce his intention to enter parliamentary politics, and was subsequently elected to the Australian House of Representatives as a member of parliament (MP) for the division of Wills at the 1980 federal election. Three years later, he was elected unopposed to replace Bill Hayden as leader of the Australian Labor Party, and within just five weeks led Labor to a landslide victory at the 1983 election, and was sworn in as prime minister. He led Labor to victory three more times, with successful outcomes in 1984, 1987 and 1990 elections, making him the most electorally successful prime minister in the history of the Labor Party.

The Hawke government implemented a significant number of reforms, including major economic reforms, the establishment of Landcare, the introduction of the universal healthcare scheme Medicare, brokering the Prices and Incomes Accord, creating APEC, floating the Australian dollar, deregulating the financial sector, introducing the Family Assistance Scheme, enacting the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 to prevent discrimination in the workplace, declaring "Advance Australia Fair" as the country's national anthem, initiating superannuation pension schemes for all workers, negotiating a ban on mining in Antarctica and overseeing passage of the Australia Act 1986 that removed all remaining jurisdiction by the United Kingdom from Australia.[5]

In June 1991, Hawke faced a leadership challenge by the Treasurer of Australia, Paul Keating, but Hawke managed to retain power; however, Keating mounted a second challenge six months later, and won narrowly, replacing Hawke as prime minister. Hawke subsequently retired from parliament, pursuing both a business career and a number of charitable causes, until his death in 2019, aged 89. Hawke remains his party's longest-serving Prime Minister, and Australia's third-longest-serving prime minister behind Robert Menzies and John Howard. He is also the only prime minister to be born in South Australia and the only one raised and educated in Western Australia. Hawke holds the highest ever approval rating for an Australian prime minister, reaching 75% approval in 1984.[6][7] Historians have generally praised the reforms implemented by the Hawke Government, and his government is often credited for the modernisation of Australia's economy.[8][9] Hawke is frequently ranked within the upper-tier of Australian prime ministers.[10][11][12][13]

Early life and family

Bob Hawke was born on 9 December 1929 in Border Town, South Australia,[14] the second child of Arthur "Clem" Hawke (1898–1989), a Congregationalist minister, and his wife Edith Emily (Lee) (1897–1979)[15][16] (known as Ellie), a schoolteacher.[17] His uncle, Albert, was the Labor premier of Western Australia between 1953 and 1959.[18]

Hawke's brother Neil, who was seven years his senior, died at the age of seventeen after contracting meningitis, for which there was no cure at the time.[18] Ellie Hawke subsequently developed an almost messianic belief in her son's destiny, and this contributed to Hawke's supreme self-confidence throughout his career.[19] At the age of fifteen, he presciently boasted to friends that he would one day become the prime minister of Australia.[20]

At the age of seventeen, the same age that his brother Neil had died, Hawke had a serious accident while riding his Panther motorcycle that left him in a critical condition for several days. This near-death experience acted as his catalyst, driving him to make the most of his talents and not let his abilities go to waste.[21][22] He joined the Labor Party in 1947 at the age of eighteen.[23][24]

Education and early career

Hawke was educated at West Leederville State School, Perth Modern School and the University of Western Australia, graduating in 1952 with Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws degrees. He was also president of the university's guild during the same year.[25] The following year, Hawke won a Rhodes Scholarship to attend University College, Oxford, where he began a Bachelor of Arts course in philosophy, politics and economics (PPE).[26] He soon found he was covering much the same ground as he had in his education at the University of Western Australia, and transferred to a Bachelor of Letters course. He wrote his thesis on wage-fixing in Australia and successfully presented it in January 1956.[27]

His academic achievements were complemented by setting a new world record for beer drinking; he downed 2+12 imperial pints (1.4 l)—equivalent to a yard of ale—from a sconce pot in 11 seconds as part of a college penalty.[3][4] In his memoirs, Hawke suggested that this single feat may have contributed to his political success more than any other, by endearing him to an electorate with a strong beer culture.[27]

In 1956, Hawke accepted a scholarship to undertake doctoral studies in the area of arbitration law in the law department at the Australian National University in Canberra.[27][28] Soon after his arrival at ANU, Hawke became the students' representative on the University Council.[28] A year later, Hawke was recommended to the President of the ACTU to become a research officer, replacing Harold Souter who had become ACTU Secretary. The recommendation was made by Hawke's mentor at ANU, H. P. Brown, who for a number of years had assisted the ACTU in national wage cases. Hawke decided to abandon his doctoral studies and accept the offer, moving to Melbourne with his wife Hazel.[29]

Australian Council of Trade Unions

Hawke is elected President of the ACTU at Paddington Town Hall, Sydney, 10 September 1969

Not long after Hawke began work at the ACTU, he became responsible for the presentation of its annual case for higher wages to the national wages tribunal, the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. He was first appointed as an ACTU advocate in 1959. The 1958 case, under previous advocate R.L. Eggleston, had yielded only a five-shilling increase.[30] The 1959 case found for a fifteen-shilling increase, and was regarded as a personal triumph for Hawke.[31] He went on to attain such success and prominence in his role as an ACTU advocate that, in 1969, he was encouraged to run for the position of ACTU President, despite the fact that he had never held elected office in a trade union.[32]

He was elected ACTU President in 1969 on a modernising platform by the narrow margin of 399 to 350, with the support of the left of the union movement, including some associated with the Communist Party of Australia.[33] He later credited Ray Gietzelt, General Secretary of the FMWU, as the single most significant union figure in helping him achieve this outcome.[34] Questioned after his election on his political stance, Hawke stated that "socialist is not a word I would use to describe myself", saying instead his approach to politics was pragmatic.[35] His commitment to the cause of Jewish Refuseniks purportedly led to a planned assassination attempt on Hawke by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and its Australian operative Munif Mohammed Abou Rish.[36]

Hawke as ACTU President in 1970

In 1971, Hawke along with other members of the ACTU requested that South Africa send a non-racially biased team for the Rugby Union tour, with the intention of unions agreeing not to serve the team in Australia. Prior to arrival, the Western Australian branch of the Transport Workers Union, and the Barmaids' and Barmens' Union, announced that they would serve the team, which allowed the Springboks to land in Perth. The tour commenced on 26 June and riots occurred as anti-apartheid protesters disrupted games. Hawke and his family started to receive malicious mail and phone calls from people who thought that sport and politics should not mix. Hawke remained committed to the ban on apartheid teams and later that year, the South African cricket team was successfully denied and no apartheid team was to ever come to Australia again. It was this ongoing dedication to racial equality in South Africa that would later earn Hawke the respect and friendship of Nelson Mandela.[37][38][39]

In industrial matters, Hawke continued to demonstrate a preference for, and considerable skill at, negotiation, and was generally liked and respected by employers as well as the unions he advocated for. As early as 1972, speculation began that he would seek to enter the Parliament of Australia and eventually run to become the Leader of the Australian Labor Party. But while his professional career continued successfully, his heavy drinking and womanising placed considerable strains on his family life.[40]

In June 1973, Hawke was elected as the Federal President of the Labor Party. Two years later, when the Whitlam Government was controversially dismissed by the Governor-General, Hawke showed an initial keenness to enter Parliament at the ensuing election. Harry Jenkins, the MP for Scullin, came under pressure to step down to allow Hawke to stand in his place, but he strongly resisted this push.[41] Hawke eventually decided not to attempt to enter Parliament at that time, a decision he soon regretted. After Labor was defeated at the election, Whitlam initially offered the leadership to Hawke, although it was not within Whitlam's power to decide who would succeed him.[42] Despite not taking on the offer, Hawke remained influential, playing a key role in averting national strike action.[43]

During the 1977 federal election, he emerged as a strident opponent of accepting Vietnamese boat people as refugees into Australia, stating that they should be subject to normal immigration requirements and should otherwise be deported. He further stated only refugees selected off-shore should be accepted.[44]

Hawke resigned as President of the Labor Party in August 1978. Neil Batt was elected in his place.[45] The strain of this period took its toll on Hawke and in 1979 he suffered a physical collapse. This shock led Hawke to publicly announce his alcoholism in a television interview, and that he would make a concerted—and ultimately successful—effort to overcome it. He was helped through this period by the relationship that he had established with writer Blanche d'Alpuget, who, in 1982, published a biography of Hawke. His popularity with the public was, if anything, enhanced by this period of rehabilitation, and opinion polling suggested that he was a more popular public figure than either Labor Leader Bill Hayden or Liberal Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser.

Informer for the United States

During the period of 1973 to 1979, Hawke acted as an informant for the United States government. During his time as ACTU leader, Hawke informed the US of details surrounding labour disputes, especially those relating to American companies and individuals, such as union disputes with Ford Motor Company and the black ban of Frank Sinatra.[46] The major industrial action taken against Sinatra came about because Sinatra had made sexist comments against female journalists.

In retaliation, unions grounded Sinatra's private jet in Melbourne, demanding he apologise. The popular view was that Mr Hawke engaged in protracted, boozy negotiations with Ol' Blue Eyes to reach a settlement. The [diplomatic] cables say the US embassy reached a deal with Mr Hawke to end the standoff, no apology was sought from Sinatra and that most of Mr Hawke's time was spent with the singer's lawyer.[47]

The dispute was the subject of the 2003 film The Night We Called It a Day. Hawke was described by US diplomats as "a bulwark against anti-American sentiment and resurgent communism during the economic turmoil of the 1970s", and often disputed with the Whitlam Government over issues of foreign policy and industrial relations. With the knowledge of US diplomats, Hawke secretly planned to leave Labor in 1974 to form a new centrist political party to challenge the Whitlam Government. This plan had the support of Rupert Murdoch and Hawke's confidant, Peter Abeles, but did not eventuate because of the events of 1975. US diplomats played a major role in shaping Hawke's consensus politics and economics.[46]

Member of Parliament

Hawke's first attempt to enter Parliament came during the 1963 federal election. He stood in the seat of Corio in Geelong and managed to achieve a 3.1% swing against the national trend, although he fell short of ousting longtime Liberal incumbent Hubert Opperman.[48] Hawke rejected several opportunities to enter Parliament throughout the 1970s, something he later wrote that he "regretted". He eventually stood for election to the House of Representatives at the 1980 election for the safe Melbourne seat of Wills, winning it comfortably. Immediately upon his election to Parliament, Hawke was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet by Labor Leader Bill Hayden as Shadow Minister for Industrial Relations.[49]

Hayden, after having led the Labour party to narrowly lose the 1980 election, was increasingly subject to criticism from Labor MPs over his leadership style. To quell speculation over his position, Hayden called a leadership spill on 16 July 1982, believing that if he won he would be guaranteed to lead Labor through to the next election.[50] Hawke decided to challenge Hayden in the spill, but Hayden defeated him by five votes; the margin of victory, however, was too slim to dispel doubts that he could lead the Labor Party to victory at an election.[51] Despite his defeat, Hawke began to agitate more seriously behind the scenes for a change in leadership, with opinion polls continuing to show that Hawke was a far more popular public figure than both Hayden and Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser. Hayden was further weakened after Labor's unexpectedly poor performance at a by-election in December 1982 for the Victorian seat of Flinders, following the resignation of the sitting member, former deputy Liberal leader Phillip Lynch. Labor needed a swing of 5.5% to win the seat and had been predicted by the media to win, but could only achieve 3%.[52]

Labor Party power-brokers, such as Graham Richardson and Barrie Unsworth, now openly switched their allegiance from Hayden to Hawke.[52] More significantly, Hayden's staunch friend and political ally, Labor's Senate Leader John Button, had become convinced that Hawke's chances of victory at an election were greater than Hayden's. Initially, Hayden believed that he could remain in his job, but Button's defection proved to be the final straw in convincing Hayden that he would have to resign as Labor Leader.[53] Less than two months after the Flinders by-election result, Hayden announced his resignation as Leader of the Labor Party on 3 February 1983. Hawke was subsequently elected as Leader unopposed on 8 February,[54] and became Leader of the Opposition in the process.[53] Having learned that morning about the possible leadership change, on the same that Hawke assumed the leadership of the Labor Party, Malcolm Fraser called a snap election for 5 March 1983, unsuccessfully attempting to prevent Labor from making the leadership change.[55] However, he was unable to have the Governor-General confirm the election before Labor announced the change.

At the 1983 election, Hawke led Labor to a landslide victory, achieving a 24-seat swing and ending seven years of Liberal Party rule.

With the election called at the same time that Hawke became Labor leader this meant that Hawke never sat in Parliament as Leader of the Opposition having spent the entirety of his short Opposition leadership in the election campaign which he won.[56]

Prime Minister of Australia (1983–1991)

Leadership style

William Cheung and Bob Hawke in traditional Chinese attire in 1983

After Labor's landslide victory, Hawke was sworn in as the Prime Minister by the Governor-General Ninian Stephen on 11 March 1983. The style of the Hawke government were deliberately distinct from the Whitlam Government, the most recent Labor Government that preceded it. Rather than immediately initiating multiple extensive reform programs as Whitlam had, Hawke announced that Malcolm Fraser's pre-election concealment of the budget deficit meant that many of Labor's election commitments would have to be deferred.[57] As part of his internal reforms package, Hawke divided the government into two tiers, with only the most senior ministers sitting in the Cabinet of Australia. The Labor caucus was still given the authority to determine who would make up the Ministry, but this move gave Hawke unprecedented powers to empower individual ministers.[58]

Hawke presenting a relief check to John Bannon, Premier of South Australia following the 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires

In particular, the political partnership that developed between Hawke and his Treasurer, Paul Keating, proved to be essential to Labor's success in government, with multiple Labor figures in years since citing the partnership as the party's greatest ever.[59] The two men proved a study in contrasts: Hawke was a Rhodes Scholar; Keating left high school early.[60] Hawke's enthusiasms were cigars, betting and most forms of sport; Keating preferred classical architecture, Mahler symphonies and collecting British Regency and French Empire antiques.[61] Despite not knowing one another before Hawke assumed the leadership in 1983, the two formed a personal as well as political relationship which enabled the Government to pursue a significant number of reforms, although there were occasional points of tension between the two.[62]

The Labor Caucus under Hawke also developed a more formalised system of parliamentary factions, which significantly altered the dynamics of caucus operations.[58] Unlike many of his predecessor leaders, Hawke's authority within the Labor Party was absolute. This enabled him to persuade MPs to support a substantial set of policy changes which had not been considered achievable by Labor Governments in the past. Individual accounts from ministers indicate that while Hawke was not often the driving force behind individual reforms, outside of broader economic changes, he took on the role of providing political guidance on what was electorally feasible and how best to sell it to the public, tasks at which he proved highly successful. Hawke took on a very public role as Prime Minister, campaigning frequently even outside of election periods, and for much of his time in office proved to be incredibly popular with the Australian electorate; to this date he still holds the highest ever AC Nielsen approval rating of 75%.[6]

Economic policy

Hawke and US President Ronald Reagan at the White House in November 1984

The Hawke Government oversaw significant economic reforms, and is often cited by economic historians as being a "turning point" from a protectionist, agricultural model to a more globalised and services-oriented economy. According to the journalist Paul Kelly, "the most influential economic decisions of the 1980s were the floating of the Australian dollar and the deregulation of the financial system".[63] Although the Fraser Government had played a part in the process of financial deregulation by commissioning the 1981 Campbell Report, opposition from Fraser himself had stalled this process.[64] Shortly after its election in 1983, the Hawke Government took the opportunity to implement a comprehensive program of economic reform, in the process "transform(ing) economics and politics in Australia".[63]

Hawke and Keating together led the process for overseeing the economic changes by launching a "National Economic Summit" one month after their election in 1983, which brought together business and industrial leaders together with politicians and trade union leaders; the three-day summit led to a unanimous adoption of a national economic strategy, generating sufficient political capital for widespread reform to follow.[65] Among other reforms, the Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar, repealed rules that prohibited foreign-owned banks to operate in Australia, dismantled the protectionist tariff system, privatised several state sector industries, ended the subsidisation of loss-making industries, and sold off part of the state-owned Commonwealth Bank.[66]

The taxation system was also significantly reformed, with income tax rates reduced and the introduction of a fringe benefits tax and a capital gains tax; the latter two reforms were strongly opposed by the Liberal Party at the time, but were never reversed by them when they eventually returned to office in 1996.[67] Partially offsetting these imposts upon the business community—the "main loser" from the 1985 Tax Summit according to Paul Kelly—was the introduction of full dividend imputation, a reform insisted upon by Keating.[68] Funding for schools was also considerably increased as part of this package, while financial assistance was provided for students to enable them to stay at school longer; the number of Australian children completing school rose from 3 in 10 at the beginning of the Hawke Government to 7 in 10 by its conclusion in 1991. Considerable progress was also made in directing assistance "to the most disadvantaged recipients over the whole range of welfare benefits."[69]

Social and environmental policy

Although criticisms were leveled against the Hawke Government that it did not achieve all it said it would do on social policy, it nevertheless enacting a series of reforms which remain in place to the present day.[70][71] From 1983 to 1989, the Government oversaw the permanent establishment of universal health care in Australia with the creation of Medicare, doubled the number of subsidised childcare places, began the introduction of occupational superannuation, oversaw a significant increase in school retention rates, created subsidised homecare services, oversaw the elimination of poverty traps in the welfare system, increased the real value of the old-age pension, reintroduced the six-monthly indexation of single-person unemployment benefits, and established a wide-ranging programme for paid family support, known as the Family Income Supplement.[72][73] During the 1980s, the proportion of total government outlays allocated to families, the sick, single parents, widows, the handicapped, and veterans was significantly higher than under the previous Fraser and Whitlam Governments.[72]

In 1984, the Hawke Government enacted the landmark Sex Discrimination Act 1984, which eliminated discrimination on the grounds of sex within the workplace.[74] In 1989, Hawke oversaw the gradual re-introduction of some tuition fees for university study, creating set up the Higher Education Contributions Scheme (HECS).[75] Under the original HECS, a $1,800 fee was charged to all university students, and the Commonwealth paid the balance. A student could defer payment of this HECS amount and repay the debt through the tax system, when the student's income exceeds a threshold level. As part of the reforms, Colleges of Advanced Education entered the University sector by various means. by doing so, university places were able to be expanded. Further notable policy decisions taken during the Government's time in office included the public health campaign regarding HIV/AIDS, and Indigenous land rights reform, with an investigation of the idea of a treaty between Aborigines and the Government being launched, although the latter would be overtaken by events, notably the Mabo court decision.[76][77]

The Hawke Government also drew attention for a series of notable environmental decisions, particularly in its second and third terms. In 1983, Hawke personally vetoed the construction of the Franklin Dam in Tasmania, responding to a groundswell of protest around the issue.[78] Hawke also secured the nomination of the Wet Tropics of Queensland as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987, preventing the forests there from being logged. Hawke would later appoint Graham Richardson as Environment Minister, tasking him with winning the second-preference support from environmental parties, something which Richardson later claimed was the major factor in the government's narrow re-election at the 1990 election.[79] In the Government's fourth term, Hawke personally led the Australian delegation to secure changes to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, ultimately winning a guarantee that drilling for minerals within Antarctica would be totally prohibited until 2048 at the earliest.[80] Hawke later claimed that the Antarctic drilling ban was his "proudest achievement".[81]

Industrial relations policy

Hawke addresses the Labour Day crowd, 1980

As a former ACTU President, Hawke was well-placed to engage in reform of the industrial relations system in Australia, taking a lead on this policy area as in few others. Working closely with ministerial colleagues and the ACTU Secretary, Bill Kelty, Hawke negotiated with trade unions to establish the Prices and Incomes Accord in 1983, an agreement whereby unions agreed to restrict their demands for wage increases, and in turn the Government guaranteed to both minimise inflation and promote an increased social wage, including by establishing new social programmes such as Medicare.[82]

Inflation had been a significant issue for the previous decade prior to the election of the Hawke Government, regularly running into double-digits. The process of the Accord, by which the Government and trade unions would arbitrate and agree upon wage increases in many sectors, led to a decrease in both inflation and unemployment through to 1990. Criticisms of the Accord would come from both the right and the left of politics. Left-wing critics claimed that it kept real wages stagnant, and that the Accord was a policy of class collaboration and corporatism. By contrast, right-wing critics claimed that the Accord reduced the flexibility of the wages system. Supporters of the Accord, however, pointed to the improvements in the social security system that occurred, including the introduction of rental assistance for social security recipients, the creation of labour market schemes such as NewStart, and the introduction of the Family Income Supplement.[83] In 1986, the Hawke government passed a bill to de-register the Builders Labourers Federation federally due to the union not following the Accord agreements.[84][85]

Despite a percentage fall in real money wages from 1983 to 1991, the social wage of Australian workers was argued by the Government to have improved drastically as a result of these reforms, and the ensuing decline in inflation.[86] The Accord was revisited six further times during the Hawke Government, each time in response to new economic developments. The seventh and final revisiting would ultimately lead to the establishment of the enterprise bargaining system, although this would be finalised shortly after Hawke left office in 1991.

Foreign policy

Hawke with wife Hazel in Moscow, 1987

Arguably the most significant foreign policy achievement of the Government took place in 1989, after Hawke proposed a south-east Asian region-wide forum for leaders and economic ministers to discuss issues of common concern. After winning the support of key countries in the region, this led to the creation of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).[87][88] The first APEC meeting duly took place in Canberra in November 1989; the economic ministers of Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and the United States all attended. APEC would subsequently grow to become one of the most pre-eminent high-level international forums in the world, particularly after the later inclusions of China and Russia, and the Keating Government's later establishment of the APEC Leaders' Forum.[87][88]

Elsewhere in Asia, the Hawke Government played a significant role in the build-up to the United Nations peace process for Cambodia, culminating in the Transitional Authority; Hawke's Foreign Minister Gareth Evans was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in negotiations.[89] Hawke also took a major public stand after the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre; despite having spent years trying to get closer relations with China, Hawke gave a tearful address on national television describing the massacre in graphic detail, and unilaterally offered asylum to over 42,000 Chinese students who were living in Australia at the time, many of whom had publicly supported the Tiananmen protesters. Hawke did so without even consulting his Cabinet, stating later that he felt he simply had to act.[90]

The Hawke Government pursued a close relationship with the United States, assisted by Hawke's close friendship with US Secretary of State George Shultz; this led to a degree of controversy when the Government supported the US's plans to test ballistic missiles off the coast of Tasmania in 1985, as well as seeking to overturn Australia's long-standing ban on uranium exports. Although the US ultimately withdrew the plans to test the missiles, the furore led to a fall in Hawke's approval ratings.[91] Shortly after the 1990 election, Hawke would lead Australia into its first overseas military campaign since the Vietnam War, forming a close alliance with US President George H. W. Bush to join the coalition in the Gulf War. The Royal Australian Navy contributed several destroyers and frigates to the war effort, which successfully concluded in February 1991, with the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. The success of the campaign, and the lack of any Australian casualties, led to a brief increase in the popularity of the Government.

Through his role on the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Hawke played a leading role in ensuring the Commonwealth initiated an international boycott on foreign investment into South Africa, building on work undertaken by his predecessor Malcolm Fraser, and in the process clashing publicly with Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher, who initially favoured a more cautious approach. The resulting boycott, led by the Commonwealth, was widely credited with helping bring about the collapse of apartheid, and resulted in a high-profile visit by Nelson Mandela in October 1990, months after the latter's release from a 27-year stint in prison. During the visit, Mandela publicly thanked the Hawke Government for the role it played in the boycott.[92]

Election wins and leadership challenges

Prime Minister's Office preserved from Hawke's time in office in 1988, Old Parliament House

Hawke benefited greatly from the disarray into which the Liberal Party fell after the resignation of Fraser following the 1983 election. The Liberals were torn between supporters of the more conservative John Howard and the more liberal Andrew Peacock, with the pair frequently contesting the leadership.[93] Hawke and Keating were also able to use the concealment of the size of the budget deficit by Fraser before the 1983 election to great effect, damaging the Liberal Party's economic credibility as a result.[94][95]

However, Hawke's time as Prime Minister also saw friction develop between himself and the grassroots of the Labor Party, many of whom were unhappy at what they viewed as Hawke's iconoclasm and willingness to cooperate with business interests. Hawke regularly and publicly expressed his willingness to cull Labor's "sacred cows". The Labor Left faction, as well as prominent Labor backbencher Barry Jones, offered repeated criticisms of a number of government decisions. Hawke was also subject to challenges from some former colleagues in the trade union movement over his "confrontationalist style" in siding with the airline companies in the 1989 Australian pilots' strike.[96]

Nevertheless, Hawke was able to comfortably maintain a lead as preferred prime minister in the vast majority of opinion polls carried out throughout his time in office. He recorded the highest popularity rating ever measured by an Australian opinion poll, reaching 75% approval in 1984.[97] After leading Labor to a comfortable victory in the snap 1984 election,[98] called to bring the mandate of the House of Representatives back in line with the Senate, Hawke was able to secure an unprecedented third consecutive term for Labor with a landslide victory in the double dissolution election of 1987. Hawke was subsequently able to lead the nation in the bicentennial celebrations of 1988, culminating with him welcoming Queen Elizabeth II to open the newly constructed Parliament House.[99]

The late 1980s recession, and the accompanying high interest rates, saw the Government fall in opinion polls, with many doubting that Hawke could win a fourth election.[100] Keating, who had long understood that he would eventually succeed Hawke as prime minister,[101] began to plan a leadership change; at the end of 1988, Keating put pressure on Hawke to retire in the new year. Hawke rejected this suggestion but reached a secret agreement with Keating, the so-called "Kirribilli Agreement", stating that he would step down in Keating's favour at some point after the 1990 election.[102] Hawke subsequently won that election, in the process leading Labor to a record fourth consecutive electoral victory, albeit by a slim margin.[103] Hawke appointed Keating as deputy prime minister to replace the retiring Lionel Bowen.[104]

By the end of 1990, frustrated by the lack of any indication from Hawke as to when he might retire, Keating made a provocative speech to the Federal Parliamentary Press Gallery. Hawke considered the speech disloyal, and told Keating he would renege on the Kirribilli Agreement as a result.[105] After attempting to force a resolution privately, Keating finally resigned from the Government in June 1991 to challenge Hawke for the leadership.[106] Hawke won the leadership spill, and in a press conference after the result, Keating declared that he had fired his "one shot" on the leadership. Hawke appointed John Kerin to replace Keating as Treasurer.[107]

Despite his victory in the June spill, Hawke quickly began to be regarded by many of his colleagues as a "wounded" leader; he had now lost his long-term political partner, his rating in opinion polls were beginning to fall significantly, and after nearly nine years as Prime Minister, there was speculation that it would soon be time for a new leader.[108] Hawke's leadership was ultimately irrevocably damaged at the end of 1991; after Liberal Leader John Hewson released 'Fightback!', a detailed proposal for sweeping economic change, including the introduction of a goods and services tax, Hawke was forced to sack Kerin as Treasurer after the latter made a public gaffe attempting to attack the policy.[107][109] Keating duly challenged for the leadership a second time on 19 December, arguing that he would better placed to defeat Hewson; this time, Keating succeeded, narrowly defeating Hawke by 56 votes to 51.[110][111]

In a speech to the House of Representatives following the vote, Hawke declared that his nine years as prime minister had left Australia a better and wealthier country, and he was given a standing ovation by those present. He subsequently tendered his resignation to the Governor-General and pledged support to his successor. Hawke briefly returned to the backbench, before resigning from Parliament on 20 February 1992, sparking a by-election which was won by the independent candidate Phil Cleary from among a record field of 22 candidates.[112] Keating would go on to lead Labor to a fifth victory at the 1993 election, although he was defeated by the Liberal Party at the 1996 election.

Hawke wrote that he had very few regrets over his time in office, although stated he wished he had been able to advance the cause of Indigenous land rights further. His bitterness towards Keating over the leadership challenges surfaced in his earlier memoirs, although by the 2000s Hawke stated he and Keating had buried their differences, and that they regularly dined together and considered each other friends.[113] The publication of the book Hawke: The Prime Minister, by Hawke's second wife, Blanche d'Alpuget, in 2010, reignited conflict between the two, with Keating accusing Hawke and d'Alpuget of spreading falsehoods about his role in the Hawke Government.[114] Despite this, the two campaigned together for Labor several times, including at the 2019 election, where they released their first joint article for nearly three decades; Craig Emerson, who worked for both men, said they had reconciled in later years after Hawke grew ill.[115]

Retirement and later life

Hawke at Parliament House for the Apology to the Stolen Generations in 2008

After leaving Parliament, Hawke entered the business world, taking on a number of directorships and consultancy positions which enabled him to achieve considerable financial success. He avoided public involvement with the Labor Party during Keating's tenure as Prime Minister, not wanting to be seen as attempting to overshadow his successor.[116] After Keating's defeat and the election of the Howard government at the 1996 election, he returned to public campaigning with Labor and regularly appearing at election launches. Despite his personal affection for Queen Elizabeth II, boasting that he had been her "favourite Prime Minister", Hawke was an enthusiastic republican and joined the campaign for a Yes vote in the 1999 republic referendum.[117][118]

In 2002, Hawke was named to South Australia's Economic Development Board during the Rann Government.[119][120] In the lead up to the 2007 election, Hawke made a considerable personal effort to support Kevin Rudd, making speeches at a large number of campaign office openings across Australia, and appearing in multiple campaign advertisements. As well as campaigning against WorkChoices, Hawke also attacked John Howard's record as Treasurer, stating "it was the judgement of every economist and international financial institution that it was the restructuring reforms undertaken by my government, with the full cooperation of the trade union movement, which created the strength of the Australian economy today".[121] In February 2008, after Rudd's victory, Hawke joined former Prime Ministers Gough Whitlam, Malcolm Fraser and Paul Keating in Parliament House to witness the long anticipated apology to the Stolen Generations.[122]

Hawke in 2012

In 2009, Hawke helped establish the Centre for Muslim and Non-Muslim Understanding at the University of South Australia. Interfaith dialogue was an important issue for Hawke, who told the Adelaide Review that he was "convinced that one of the great potential dangers confronting the world is the lack of understanding in regard to the Muslim world. Fanatics have misrepresented what Islam is. They give a false impression of the essential nature of Islam."[123]

In 2016, after taking part in Andrew Denton's Better Off Dead podcast, Hawke added his voice to calls for voluntary euthanasia to be legalised.[124] Hawke labelled as 'absurd' the lack of political will to fix the problem. He revealed that he had such an arrangement with his wife Blanche should such a devastating medical situation occur.[125] He also publicly advocated for nuclear power and the importation of international spent nuclear fuel to Australia for storage and disposal, stating that this could lead to considerable economic benefits for Australia.[126][127]

In late December 2018, Hawke revealed that he was in "terrible health". While predicting a Labor win in the upcoming 2019 federal election, Hawke said he "may not witness the party's success".[128] In May 2019, the month of the election, he issued a joint statement with Paul Keating endorsing Labor's economic plan and condemning the Liberal Party for "completely [giving] up the economic reform agenda". They stated that "Shorten's Labor is the only party of government focused on the need to modernise the economy to deal with the major challenge of our time: human induced climate change". It was the first joint press statement released by the two since 1991.[129]

On 16 May 2019, two days before the election, Hawke died at his home in Northbridge at the age of 89, following a short illness.[130][131] His family held a private cremation on 27 May at Macquarie Park Cemetery and Crematorium where he was subsequently interred.[132] A state memorial was held at the Sydney Opera House on 14 June; speakers included Craig Emerson as master of ceremonies and Kim Beazley reading the eulogy, as well as Paul Keating, Julia Gillard, Bill Kelty, Ross Garnaut, and incumbent Prime Minister Scott Morrison and Opposition Leader Anthony Albanese.[133]

Personal life

Hawke and his wife, Blanche d'Alpuget, in 2007

Hawke married Hazel Masterson in 1956 at Perth Trinity Church.[28] They had three children: Susan (born 1957), Stephen (born 1959) and Roslyn (born 1960). Their fourth child, Robert Jr, died in early infancy in 1963. Hawke was named Victorian Father of the Year in 1971, an honour which his wife disputed due to his heavy drinking and womanising.[134][135] The couple divorced in 1995, after he left her for the writer Blanche d'Alpuget, and the two lived together in Northbridge, a suburb of the North Shore of Sydney.[136][135] The divorce estranged Hawke from some of his family for a period, although they had reconciled by the 2010s.[137]

Throughout his early life, Hawke was a heavy drinker, having set a world record for drinking during his years as a student.[27] Hawke eventually suffered from alcohol poisoning following the death of his and Hazel's infant son in 1963. He publicly announced in 1980 that he would abstain from alcohol to seek election to Parliament, in a move which garnered significant public attention and support.[27] Hawke began to drink again following his retirement from politics, although to a more manageable extent; on several occasions, in his later years, videos of Hawke downing beer at cricket matches would frequently go viral.[138]

On the subject of religion, Hawke wrote, while attending the 1952 World Christian Youth Conference in India, that "there were all these poverty stricken kids at the gate of this palatial place where we were feeding our face and I just (was) struck by this enormous sense of irrelevance of religion to the needs of people". He subsequently abandoned his Christian beliefs.[139] By the time he entered politics he was a self-described agnostic.[140] Hawke told Andrew Denton in 2008 that his father's Christian faith had continued to influence his outlook, saying "My father said if you believe in the fatherhood of God you must necessarily believe in the brotherhood of man, it follows necessarily, and even though I left the church and was not religious, that truth remained with me."[141]


Bust of Hawke in the Prime Ministers Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

A biographical television film, Hawke, premiered on the Ten Network in Australia on 18 July 2010, with Richard Roxburgh playing the title character. Rachael Blake and Felix Williamson portrayed Hazel Hawke and Paul Keating, respectively.[142][143] Roxburgh reprised his role as Hawke in the 2020 episode "Terra Nullius" of the Netflix series The Crown.[144]

In July 2019, the Australian Government announced it would spend $750,000 to purchase and renovate the house in Bordertown where Hawke was born and spent his early childhood.[145] In January 2021, the Tatiara District Council decided to turn the house into tourist accommodation.[146]

In December 2020, the Western Australian Government announced that it had purchased Hawke's childhood home in West Leederville and would maintain it as a state asset. The property will also be assessed for entry onto the State Register of Heritage Places.[147]

The Australian Government pledged $5 million in July 2019 to establish a new annual scholarship—the Bob Hawke John Monash Scholarship—through the General Sir John Monash Foundation.[145] Bob Hawke College, a high school in Subiaco, Western Australia named after Hawke, was opened in February 2020.[148]

In March 2020, the Australian Electoral Commission announced that it would create a new Australian electoral division in the House of Representatives named in honour of Hawke. The Division of Hawke was first contested at the 2022 federal election, and is located in the state of Victoria, near the seat of Wills, which Hawke represented from 1980 to 1992.[149]



Foreign honours


  • August 1978: Rostrum Award of Merit, for "excellence in the art of public speaking over a considerable period and his demonstration of an effective contribution to society through the spoken word".[155]
  • August 2009: Australian Labor Party Life membership, Bob Hawke became only the third person to be awarded life membership of the Australian Labor Party, after Gough and Margaret Whitlam. During the conferring, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd referred to Hawke as "the heart and soul of the Labor Party".[156]
  • March 2014: University of Western Australia Student Guild Life membership.[157]


Honorary degrees


See also


  1. Spelt "Border Town" until 1979.[2]


  1. "Robert Hawke: timeline". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  2. Casey, T.M. (5 April 1979). "GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES ACT, 1969 (" (PDF). The South Australian Government Gazette. Government of South Australia. p. 940. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2019. the Geographical Names Board has recommended that the names "Blanche Town", "Border Town", "Farina Town", "Gambier Town", "George-Town" and "Rose Town" be changed to "Blanchetown", "Bordertown", "Farina", "Gambiertown", "Georgetown" and "Rosetown
  3. Bob Hawke (1994). The Hawke Memoirs. Heinemann. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-434-31391-4. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  4. "Media Man Australia: The Online Home of Greg Tingle, Journalist & TV Presenter". 3 December 2003. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  5. "Australia Act (Commencement) Order 1986" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  6. "The biggest hammering in history". The Sydney Morning Herald. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
  7. "Hawke PM thrived on love of his people". The Australian. 18 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  8. Woolford, Don (16 May 2019). "Bob Hawke was Labor's greatest winner". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  9. Barnes, Terry (17 May 2019). "Mr Shorten, we knew Bob Hawke..." The Spectator. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  10. "Prime ministers' rank and file". The Age. 18 December 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  11. Strangio, Paul (2 August 2021). "Who were Australia's best prime ministers? We asked the experts". The Conversation. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  12. Strangio, Paul (2013). "Evaluating Prime-Ministerial Performance: The Australian Experience". In Strangio, Paul; 't Hart, Paul; Walter, James (eds.). Understanding Prime-Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966642-3.
  13. "Ranking Australia's prime ministers". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 June 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  14. Carroll, Brian (17 May 2019). Australia's Prime Ministers: From Barton to Howard. Rosenberg Publishing Pty, Limited. ISBN 9781877058226 via Google Books.
  15. "Bob Hawke mourns his father's death". The Canberra Times. Vol. 64, no. 19, 980. Australian Capital Territory, Australia. 24 December 1989. p. 3. Retrieved 17 May 2019 via National Library of Australia.
  16. "Hawke's mother". The Canberra Times. Vol. 54, no. 16, 057. Australian Capital Territory, Australia. 10 September 1979. p. 3. Retrieved 17 May 2019 via National Library of Australia.
  17. D'Alpuget, Blanche (1982), Robert J. Hawke: A biography, Melbourne: Schwartz, p. 2, ISBN 0867530014
  18. Clench, Sam; Paine, Hannah (16 May 2019). "Legendary former prime minister Bob Hawke dead at 89". Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  19. Davidson, G., et al. (1998), p. 302
  20. Iyer, Pico (14 March 1983). "Australia: Hawke Swoops into Power, Time/CNN, 14 March 1983". Time. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  21. D'Alpuget, Blanche (1982). Robert .J. Hawke: A biography, p. 31. Schwartz, Melbourne. ISBN 0867530014.
  22. "Australia's Prime Ministers: Robert Hawke". National Archives of Australia. 2014. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  23. Hurst, J., (1983), p.18
  24. Hawke, Bob (1994), p.19
  25. "Bob Hawke qualifies for cheap coffee on campus | University News : The University of Western Australia". 27 March 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  26. Hawke, Bob (1994), p.24
  27. Hawke, Bob (1994), p. 28
  28. Hurst, J., (1983), p.25
  29. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 26
  30. Hurst (1983), p. 27
  31. Hurst (1983), p. 31
  32. Bramble, Tom (2008). Trade Unionism in Australia: A History from Flood to Ebb Tide. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107321199.
  33. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 78
  34. "Vale Ray Gietzelt". United Voice. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  35. Zinn, Christopher (16 May 2019). "Bob Hawke obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  36. Nicholson, Brendan (31 December 2006). "Terrorists plotted Hawke assassination: ASIO". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  37. D'Alpuget, Blanche (1982). Robert .J. Hawke: A biography, p. 192. Schwartz, Melbourne; ISBN 0867530014.
  38. "Australia and the issue of apartheid in sport". National Archives of Australia. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  39. "1971 Springbok tour: When campaigners scored a victory against racism". Solidarity Magazine. 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  40. Davidson, G., et al. (1998), p. 303
  41. Obituary "Labor stalwart who would not stand aside for Bob Hawke", The Age, 6 August 2004, p.9
  42. Hawke (1994), p.70
  43. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 198
  44. Neumann, Klaus (5 June 2015). "'Queue jumpers' and 'boat people': the way we talk about refugees began in 1977". Guardian Australia.
  45. Papua New Guinea Post-Courier (Port Moresby : 1969 - 1981), 3 August 1978 (p.6)
  46. Coventry, C. J. (2021). "The 'Eloquence' of Robert J. Hawke: United States informer, 1973–79". Australian Journal of Politics & History. 67 (1): 67–87. doi:10.1111/ajph.12763. S2CID 237825933.
  47. Jamie Walker, 'Secret notes claimed Hawke 'informed' for US, 28 June 2021, The Australian, pgs. 1–2,
  48. Archived 10 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  49. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 262
  50. Kelly, P., (1992), p. 24
  51. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 269
  52. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 270
  53. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 273
  54. "Robert Hawke: timeline". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  55. Hurst, J., (1983), p. 275
  56. "Bob Hawke on the America's Cup, booze, love and infidelity". ABC News. 16 May 2019.
  57. Kelly, P., (1992), p.57
  58. Kelly, P., (1992), p. 30
  59. "CONDOLENCES - Hawke, Hon. Robert James Lee (Bob), AC". Hansard. Parliament of Australia. 3 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  60. Edwards, J.,(1996), p.44
  61. Edwards, J.,(1996), p.6, p.48
  62. "Hawke memorial: Keating on a friendship that lasted to the end". Australian Financial Review. 15 June 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  63. Kelly, P., (1992), p.76
  64. Kelly, P., (1992), p.78
  65. "Hawke: 1983 National Economic Summit established success". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 January 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  66. "ParlInfo – Australian Labor party: record of achievements 1983–1990". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  67. Kelly, P., (1992), p. 175
  68. Kelly, P., (1992), p. 174
  69. Ross McMullin, The Light on the Hill: The Australian Labor Party 1891–1991
  70. "Achievements of the Federal Labor Government – 1983–1986". 23 August 2006. Archived from the original on 17 July 2001. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  71. Archived 12 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  72. Whitlam, Wran and the Labor tradition: Labor history essays, volume two By Gough Whitlam, Australian Labor Party, New South Wales Branch
  73. "Wran/1986 The Great Tradition-Labor Reform from Curtin to Hawke". Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  74. "Sex Discrimination Act 1984". Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  75. "Higher Education Funding Act 1988". 1 January 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  76. For discussion see William Bowtell, Australia's Response to HIV/AIDS 1982–2005, Lowy Institute for International Policy, May 2005
  77. Gardiner-Garden, John. "From Dispossession to Reconciliation". Australian Parliamentary Library. Australian Parliamentary Library. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  78. Kelly, P., (1992), p. 528
  79. Richardson, G., (1994), pp. 276–77
  80. "20th Anniversary of the Hawke Government's action to protect Antarctica". (Press release). Australian Antarctic Program. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  81. Walsh, Nonee (14 December 2009). "Hawke honoured for Antarctic mining fight". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  82. "1984–85 – Hawke government – Industrial relations". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  83. Australia's welfare wars: the players, the politics and the ideologies by Philip Mendes
  84. "Australian Council of Trade Unions boss Sally McManus admits she doesn't know about Bob Hawke's deregistration of the BLF". Herald Sun. 2017.
  85. "Are we in Accord? | Frank Bongiorno". Inside Story. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  86. Developments in Australian politics by Judith Brett, James A. Gillespie, and Murray Goot
  87. "History". The idea of APEC was firstly publicly broached by former Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke during a speech in Seoul, Korea, on 30 January 1969. Ten months later, 12 Asia-Pacific economies met in Canberra, Australia, to establish APEC.
  88. "Back to Canberra: Founding APEC".
  89. See Ken Berry, Cambodia From Red to Blue: Australia's Initiative for Peace (Allen & Unwin, 1997)
  90. Fang, Jason; Weedon, Alan (8 June 2020). "More than 40,000 Chinese were offered asylum in Australia exactly 31 years ago. Here are their stories". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  91. "US rocket plan became Hawke's first setback". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  92. Lennon, Troy (18 July 2019). "Australia campaigned for Mandela's freedom". The Daily Telegraph.
  93. Fraser, Andrew (13 May 1989). "Peacock's future directions". The Canberra Times. p. 9.
  94. "Fraser on the skids?". The Express Tribune. 10 March 1982. p. 2.
  95. Ormonde, Peter (23 March 1983). "Fraser's parting blow: the budget deficit - requiem for reform?". The Express Tribune. p. 3.
  96. Kelly 1992, p. 544.
  97. Coorey, Phillip (20 May 2008). "The biggest hammering in history". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  98. "1984 Federal Election". Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  99. Carlyon, Les; Kelly, Hugo (17 May 2019). "From the Archives, 1988: Bob Hawke and the Queen, a day at the races". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  100. "When historians reflect on 1990". The Canberra Times. 31 December 1990. p. 8.
  101. Scott, Keith (30 June 1987). "Hawke gives Keating his blessing as likely PM". The Canberra Times. p. 1.
  102. Kelly 1992, p. 454.
  103. Parker, Derek (10 May 1990). "Election proves value of Labor machine". The Canberra Times. p. 8.
  104. "When ambitions collided". The Australian. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  105. Hawke 1994, p. 501.
  106. Gordon, Michael (16 July 2010). "True rivals". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  107. Kelly 1992, p. 649–651.
  108. Edwards 1996, p. 435.
  109. Kelly 1992, p. 609–14.
  110. Edwards 1996, p. 441.
  111. Hartcher, Peter (20 December 1991). "Keating scrapes in". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 1.
  112. "Hawke: After office". Prime Ministers of Australia: National Archives of Australia. Government of Australia. 20 February 1992. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  113. "Hawke and Keating bury the hatchet". ABC News. Australia. 13 July 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  114. "Paul Keating hits back: 'Hawke only survived as PM with my help'". The Australian. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  115. "Bob Hawke and Paul Keating reunite for the first time in 28 years to endorse Labor's economic plan". The Sydney Morning Herald. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  116. 1994 Year in Review – Australia Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  117. "The Crown is right that Bob Hawke was a republican. But aspects of his portrayal are preposterous | Stephen Mills". The Guardian. 28 November 2020.
  118. Bob Hawke - Yes ad. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021 via YouTube.
  119. "Mayor welcomes economic development board". ABC News. 9 September 2004. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  120. "A report by the Economic Development Board March 2009" (PDF). South Australia Economic Development Board. 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  121. Ker, Peter; Grattan, Michelle (24 October 2007). "Hawke queries record of man who 'buggered' the economy". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  122. Welch, Dylan (13 February 2008). "Kevin Rudd says sorry". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  123. Ward, Amanda (December 2009). "World peace and a republic". Adelaide Review. No. 358. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  124. Kelly, Fran. "Bob Hawke on voluntary euthanasia and 'losing his marbles'". Radio National Breakfast. No. Thursday 14 April 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  125. Koziol, Michael (14 April 2016). "Absurd: Bob Hawke blasts lack of political will to legalise euthanasia". The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  126. "Bob Hawke pushes nuclear power at Woodford Folk Festival". ABC News. 28 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  127. Butler, Josh (1 January 2016). "Bob Hawke Says Nuclear Waste Dump 'A Win-Win' For Australia". HuffPost. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  128. "Bob Hawke reveals 'terrible health' as he tips Labor to win federal election". ABC. 29 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  129. "Bob Hawke and Paul Keating reunite for the first time in 28 years to endorse Labor's economic plan". The Canberra Times. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  130. "Labor legend Bob Hawke dies aged 89". The Sydney Morning Herald. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  131. "Bob Hawke, Australia's 23rd prime minister, dies aged 89". ABC News. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  132. | 'Carte Blanche', Sydney Morning Herald 24 August 2013 | Retrieved 20190623
  133. "Bob Hawke's state funeral to be held at Sydney Opera House". The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 May 2019.
  134. D'Alpuget, Blanche (1982). Robert .J. Hawke: A biography, p. 197. Schwartz, Melbourne. ISBN 0867530014.
  135. "The transformation of Hazel Hawke". NewsComAu. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  136. "Carte Blanche". Syney Morning Herald. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  137. "Bob Hawke speaks about his final visit to first wife Hazel". ABC News. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  138. "Bob Hawke's best beer moments remembered after his death".
  139. "Elders Part 5: Bob Hawke". Elders with Andrew Denton. 11 January 2010. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
  140. Blanche d'Alpuget, Robert J. Hawke, 87
  141. "ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton – episode 176: Elders Part 5 – Bob Hawke (14/07/2008)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  142. Mangan, John (19 July 2009). "Capturing the life, times and hair of Hawke". The Age. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  143. Enker, Debi (15 July 2010). "Nailing the Silver Bodgie". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  144. Idato, Michael (15 November 2020). "Bringing the drama down under, The Crown breaks the spell of a royal moment in time". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  145. "Bob Hawke's childhood home in SA to be renovated after Government sets aside $750k". ABC News. 7 July 2019. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  146. Whiteside, Grace (20 January 2021). "Bob Hawke's childhood home to be converted into visitor accommodation". ABC News. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  147. Piovesan, Anthony (27 December 2020). "WA govt pays whopping amount for Bob Hawke's Perth home". Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  148. Bell, Frances (27 January 2020). "New $70 million Perth high school named after Bob Hawke prepares to welcome its first students". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  149. "Bob Hawke honoured with Vic seat name". 19 March 2021.
  150. "It's an Honour". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  151. Wright, Tony (25 March 2014). "Tony Abbott's Bunyip Aristocracy: arise, Lord Clive and Lady Gina". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  152. "Prime facts 23" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  153. "Former Australian Prime Minister Named PNG Chief", Solomon Times, 8 January 2009
  154. "The Honourable Bob Hawke AC CGL" (PDF). University of Sydney. 9 December 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  155. Report on Anniversary Dinner 2 August 1978
  156. "ALP faithful pour love on hero Hawke". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  157. "Bob Hawke qualifies for cheap coffee on campus". 27 March 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  158. "1990 and 1991 – Hawke government". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  159. "The Hawke Government's China Policy". Australia-China Relations Institute. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  160. "Oxford honours Hawke". The Age. Australian Associated Press. 4 July 2003. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  161. "Bob Hawke biography". UniSA. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
  162. "Honorary Doctorate Awarded to Bob Hawke" (Press release). 18 September 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  163. "The Bob Hawke Prime Ministerial Centre". UniSA. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  164. "The Bob Hawke Prime Ministerial Library". UniSA. Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2007.


  • Anson, Stan (1991). Hawke: An Emotional Life. Macphee Gribble.
  • Blewett, Neal; Grattan, Michelle (2000). Australian Prime Ministers. Sydney: New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-86436-756-3.
  • Bolton, Geoffrey (1990). The Oxford History of Australia: The Middle Way: 1942–1988.
  • Bramston, Troy (2022). Bob Hawke: Demons and Destiny. Viking. ISBN 9780143788096.
  • Bramston, Troy; Ryan, Susan (2003). The Hawke Government : A Critical Retrospective. Pluto. ISBN 1-86403-264-2.
  • d'Alpuget, Blanche (1984). Robert J. Hawke, a biography. ISBN 0-86753-001-4.
  • d'Alpuget, Blanche (2011). Hawke: The Early Years. Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 978-0-522-85800-6.
  • d'Alpuget, Blanche (2019). Bob Hawke: The Complete Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-76085-326-6.
  • Davidson, Graham; Hirst, John; MacIntyre, Stuart (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553597-9.
  • Edwards, John (1996). Keating, The Inside Story. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026601-1.
  • Hawke, Bob (1994). The Hawke Memoirs. Heinemann. ISBN 0-85561-502-8.
  • Hurst, John (1983). Hawke PM. Angus & Robertson. ISBN 0-207-14806-6.
  • Jaensch, Dean (1989). The Hawke-Keating Hijack. Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-04-370192-2.
  • Jaensch, Dean; Teichmann, Max (1992). The Macmillan Dictionary of Australian Politics.
  • Kelly, Paul (1984). The Hawke ascendency: a definitive account of its origins and climax, 1975–1983. ISBN 978-0-207-14727-2.
  • Kelly, Paul (1992). The End of Certainty: The story of the 1980s. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86373-227-6.
  • Macklin, Robert (2017). Dragon and Kangaroo: Australia and China's Shared History from the Goldfields to the Present Day. Hachette Australia. pp. 273–286.
  • Mills, Stephen (1993). The Hawke Years. Viking. ISBN 0-670-84563-9.
  • Richardson, Graham (1994). Whatever It Takes. Bantam. ISBN 1-86359-332-2.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.