Mathematical statistics is the study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory and other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis.

Statistics is the science of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It deals with many aspects of data, which includes the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. (From Wikipedia)

More specifically, mathematical statistics is the study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and mathematical analysis. (From Wikipedia)

For questions which are more generally about collecting and treating data, it is advised that you post your question on Cross Validated and DSSE.