Fuji (apple)

The Fuji apple is an apple cultivar developed by growers at Tohoku Research Station (農林省園芸試験場東北支場) in Fujisaki, Aomori, Japan, in the late 1930s,[1] and brought to market in 1962. It originated as a cross between two American apple varieties—the Red Delicious and old Virginia Ralls Janet (sometimes cited as "Rawls Jennet") apples. According to the US Apple Association website it is one of the nine most popular apple cultivars in the United States.[2] Its name is derived from the first part of the town where it was developed: Fujisaki.[3]

Malus pumila, Fuji
Fuji on a tree
GenusMalus
SpeciesM. pumila
Hybrid parentageRed Delicious × Ralls Janet
CultivarFuji
OriginFujisaki, Aomori (1930s)

Overview

Fuji apples are typically round and range from large to very large, averaging 75 millimetres (3.0 in) in diameter. They contain between 9–11% sugars by weight and have a dense flesh that is sweeter and crisper than many other apple cultivars, making them popular with consumers around the world. Fuji apples also have a very long shelf life compared to other apples, even without refrigeration. With refrigeration, Fuji apples can remain fresh for up to a year.[4]

In Japan, Fuji apples continue to be an unrivaled best-seller. Japanese consumers prefer the crispy texture and sweetness of Fuji apples (which is somewhat reminiscent of the coveted Nashi pear) almost to the exclusion of other varieties and Japan's apple imports remain low. Aomori Prefecture, home to the Fuji apple, is the best known apple growing region of Japan. Of the roughly 900,000 tons of Japanese apples produced annually, 500,000 tons come from Aomori.

Outside Japan, the popularity of Fuji apples continues to grow. In 2016 and 2017, Fuji apples accounted for nearly 70% of China's 43 million tons grown.[5] Since their introduction into the US market in the 1980s, Fuji apples have gained popularity with American consumers — as of 2016, Fuji apples ranked number 3 on the US Apple Association's list of most popular apples, only trailing Red Delicious and Gala.[6] Fuji apples are grown in traditional apple-growing states such as Washington, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, and California. Washington State, where more than half of America's apple crop is grown, produces about 135,000 tons of Fuji apples each year, third in volume behind Red Delicious and Gala varieties.[7]

Fuji apples have recently been projected by the US Apple Association to be in 4th place as America's favorite apple.

In the United States and Canada, the Price look-up code (PLU code) for Fuji apples is 4131.

Mutant cultivars

Many sports (mutant cultivars) of the Fuji apple have been recognized and propagated. In addition to those that have remained unpatented, twenty had received US plant patents by August 2008:

Date "Inventor" Marketed as Mutated from Assignee Habit Pattern Earlier Color Plant patent number
Aug 29, 1989HiraragiYatakaFujiMakoto Okadastandardstripe1 MonthUS plant patent 7001
Oct 6, 1992YahagiHeisei Fuji, Beni Shogun9645Yataka7001Nakajima Tenkoenstandardsolidnodark redUS plant patent 7997
Nov 17, 1992CooperT.A.C.#114Redsport Type 2T.A.C.spurstripe10–14 daysmore brilliant red, 80—90%US plant patent 8032
Sep 26, 1995FukudaTenseiFujiFukushima Tenkoenstandard, largerstripenosameUS plant patent 9298
Apr 16, 1996LyndFuji-SpikeFujiLyndspurstripe0–5 dayssameUS plant patent 9508
Sep 24, 1996Van LeuvenMyraunknown red strainC & Ostandardblush w/ subtle stripe1 weekbright pinkUS plant patent 9645
Dec 9, 1997AuvilFuji 216T.A.C.#1148032Auvilstandardblush5–21 daysbrighter red, 90—100%US plant patent 10141
Mar 24, 1998Coopr & PerkinsFuji Compact T.A.C. #114T.A.C.#1148032T.A.C.spursamesamesameUS plant patent 10291
Jan 25, 2000Van LeuvenFieroYataka7001C & Ostandardindistinct stripe7–10 daysmore intense blushUS plant patent 11193
Sep 18, 2001SnyderSnyderBC 2Snydersemi-spurheavy stripesamesameUS plant patent 12098
Nov 27, 2001TorresTriple EBC 2standard85—100% blush10–14 dayssolid redUS plant patent 12219
Apr 16, 2002RankinRankin RedYakata7001Twin Springs Fruit Farmstandard70—90% blush5 daysmore intenseUS plant patent 12551
Nov. 11, 2003TeagueIreneBC 2standardsolid60 daysyellowUS plant patent 14299
Oct 26, 2004BraunBrakFujiKikustandardstripedearlierruby redUS plant patent 15261
Feb 21, 2006ClevengerFugacheeFujistandard70—90% blush14 days before FieroUS plant patent 16270
Jun 6, 2006BanningBanning RedDesert Rose FujiBanningstandardstriperedderUS plant patent 16624
Aug 14, 2007Lee, Edwards, DelugarCABpNagafu 6CABp 4standardstripe"superior"US plant patent 17914
Sep 11, 2007EppichEppich 2T.A.C. #1148032standardblush with light stripeunclearyellow and redUS plant patent 18004
Apr 29, 2008BraunFuji FubraxFujiKiku SRLstandarddark ruby red stripes and blushlategreen-yellowUS plant patent 18761
Jul 29, 2008Leis, MazzolaFujikoNagafu 12Consorzio Italiano Vivaististandarddiffusedmore intense redUS plant patent 19054

Unpatented Fuji mutants include:

  • BC 2
  • Desert Rose Fuji
  • Nagafu 2
  • Nagafu 6
  • Nagafu 12
  • Redsport Type 1
  • Redsport Type 2

See also

  • Grapple (fruit) — a Concord grape-flavor-infused Fuji apple

References

  1. The Research Station moved to Morioka later; now National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science 果樹試験場リンゴ研究部 http://www.naro.affrc.go.jp/fruit/kin/apple/017785.html Archived 2013-03-11 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Apple varieties by the US Apple Association
  3. "Root Growth Changes in the Winter Planting of Young 'Miyabi Fuji'Apple Trees". scholar.google.com. Retrieved 2021-11-16.
  4. Yepsen, Roger (1994). Apples. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-03690-1.
  5. "China apple exports are expected to hit a record high in 2016 | China Fresh Fruit and Produce News". www.producereport.com. Retrieved 2017-06-11.
  6. "U.S. Apple Association Forecasts a Stronger Than Average Harvest; Gala, Red Delicious and Fuji Most Popular Varieties; Honeycrisp and Pink Lady Fastest Growing - U.S. Apple Association". U.S. Apple Association. 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2017-06-11.
  7. "Apples in Washington State | Chelan & Douglas Counties | Washington State University". extension.wsu.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-11.


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