Apple I

The Apple Computer 1, originally released as the Apple Computer and known later as the Apple I or Apple-1, is an 8-bit desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. It was designed by Steve Wozniak.[4][5] The idea of selling the computer came from Wozniak's friend and Apple co-founder Steve Jobs.[6][7] The Apple I was Apple's first product, and to finance its creation, Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500 and Jobs sold a second hand VW Microbus,[8] for a few hundred dollars (Wozniak later said that Jobs planned instead to use his bicycle to get around).[9] Wozniak demonstrated the first prototype in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California.[10]

Apple I
DeveloperSteve Wozniak
Steve Jobs
TypePersonal computer / kit computer
Release dateApril 11, 1976 (1976-04-11)[1]
Introductory priceUS$666.66 (equivalent to $3,175 in 2021)
DiscontinuedSeptember 30, 1977 (1977-09-30)
Operating systemSystem monitor[2]
CPUMOS 6502 @ 1 MHz
Memory4 KB of RAM standard
expandable to 8 KB or 48 KB using expansion cards
256 B of ROM[2]
Storage456 KB (cassette tape)
Graphics40×24 characters, hardware-implemented scrolling (Signetics 2513 "64×8×5 Character Generator"[3])
SuccessorApple II

Production was discontinued on September 30, 1977, after the June 10, 1977 introduction of its successor, the Apple II, which Byte magazine referred to as part of the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing (along with the PET 2001 from Commodore Business Machines and the TRS-80 Model I from Tandy Corporation).[11]

History

On March 5, 1975, Steve Wozniak attended the first meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Gordon French's garage. He was so inspired that he immediately set to work on what would eventually become the Apple I computer.[12] After building it for himself and showing it at the club, he and Steve Jobs gave out schematics (technical designs) for the computer to interested club members and even helped some of them build and test out copies. Then, Steve Jobs suggested that they design and sell a single etched and silkscreened circuit boardjust the bare board, with no electronic partsthat people could use to build the computers. Wozniak calculated that having the board design laid out would cost $1,000 and manufacturing would cost another $20 per board; he hoped to recoup his costs if 50 people bought the boards for $40 each. To fund this small venturetheir first companyJobs sold his van and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator. Very soon after, Steve Jobs arranged to sell "something like 50" completely-built computers to the Byte Shop (a computer store in Mountain View, California) at $500 each. To fulfill the $25,000 order, they obtained $20,000 in parts at 30 days net and delivered the finished product in 10 days.[13]

The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of US$666.66,[14] because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because of a one-third markup on the $500 wholesale price.[15] Jobs had managed to get the inventory into the nation's first four storefront microcomputer retailers: Byte Shop (Palo Alto, California), itty bitty machine company (Evanston, Illinois), Data Domain (Bloomington, Indiana), and Computer Mart (New York City).[16]

The first unit produced was used in a high school math class, and donated to Liza Loop's public-access computer center.[17] About 200 units were produced, and all but 25 were sold within nine or ten months.[13]

In April 1977, the price was dropped to $475.[18] It continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the Apple II in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year.[19] In October 1977, the Apple I was officially discontinued and removed from Apple's price list.[20] As Wozniak was the only person who could answer most customer support questions about the computer, the company offered Apple I owners discounts and trade-ins for Apple IIs to persuade them to return their computers.[21] These recovered boards were then destroyed by Apple, contributing to their rarity today.[22]

Overview

Wozniak's design originally used a Motorola 6800 processor, which cost $175, but when MOS Technology introduced the much cheaper 6502 microprocessor ($25) he switched.[23] The Apple I CPU ran at 1.022727 MHz, a fraction (27) of the NTSC color carrier which simplified video circuitry. Memory used the new 4-Kbit DRAM chips, and was 4 KB, expandable to 8 KB on board, or 64 KB externally. The board was designed to use the next generation of 16-Kbit memory chips when they became available.[24] An optional $75 plug-in cassette interface card allowed users to store programs on ordinary audio cassette tapes. A BASIC interpreter, originally written by Wozniak, was provided that let users easily write programs and play simple games. An onboard AC power supply was included.

The Apple I's built-in computer terminal circuitry with TV composite output used shift registers and a character generator. All one needed was a television set and a ASCII keyboard. The Apple 1 did not come with a case. It was either used as-is or some chose to build custom (mostly wooden) cases.[25] Competing machines such as the Altair 8800 generally were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights (red LEDs, most commonly) for output, and had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletypewriter machine. This made the Apple I, along with earlier introduced Sphere 1 and other hobbyist microcomputers, an innovative machine for its day.

Apple I character set

The computer used a Signetics 2513 64×8×5 Character Generator, capable of displaying uppercase characters, numbers and basic punctuation and math symbols with a 5x8 pixel font:[26]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
0x @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
1x P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
2x  ! " # $  % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
3x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  :  ; < = >  ?

Collectors' item

As of August 2022, 62 Apple I computers have been confirmed to exist, and, according to unverified information, 20 more are likely to exist. From these, 41 were produced in the first batch, 39 in the second batch, and 2 unknown versions, potentially from other batches, also exist. Most are now in working condition.[27]

  • The 1986 official Apple IIe Owner's Guide stated "Collectors now pay between $10,000 and $15,000 for an Apple I."[28]
  • An Apple I reportedly sold for US$50,000 at auction in 1999.[29]
  • In 2008, the website Vintage Computing and Gaming reported that Apple I owner Rick Conte was looking to sell his unit and was "expecting a price in excess of $15,000 U.S." The site later reported Conte had donated the unit to the Maine Personal Computer Museum in 2009.[30]
  • A unit was sold in September 2009 for $17,480 on eBay.[31]
  • A unit belonging to early Apple Computer engineers Dick and Cliff Huston was sold on March 23, 2010, for $42,766 on eBay.[32]
  • In November 2010, an Apple I sold for £133,250 ($210,000) at Christie's auction house in London. The high price was likely due to the rare documents and packaging offered in the sale in addition to the computer, including the original packaging (with the return label showing Steve Jobs's parents' address, the original Apple Computer Inc "headquarters" being their garage), a personally typed and signed letter from Jobs (answering technical questions about the computer), and the original invoice showing "Steven" as the salesman. The computer was brought to Polytechnic University of Turin where it was fixed and used to run the BASIC programming language.[33][34][35]
  • On June 15, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Sotheby's for a then-record $374,500, more than double the expected price.[36] This unit is on display at the Nexon Computer Museum in Jeju City, South Korea.
  • In October 2012, a non-working Apple I from the estate of former Apple Computer employee Joe Copson was put up for auction by Christie's, but found no bidder who was willing to pay the starting price of US$80,000 (£50,000).[37] Copson's board had previously been listed on eBay in December 2011, with a starting bid of $170,000 and failed to sell. Following the Christie's auction, the board was restored to working condition by computer historian Corey Cohen.[38] Copson's Apple I was once again listed on eBay, where it sold for US$236,100.03 on April 23, 2015.[39]
  • On November 24, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Auction Team Breker for €400,000 (US$515,000).[40]
  • On May 25, 2013, a functioning 1976 model was sold for a then-record €516,000 (US$668,000) in Cologne.[41] Auction Team Breker said "an unnamed Asian client" bought the Apple I. This particular unit has Wozniak's signature. An old business transaction letter from Jobs also was included, as well as the original owner's manual.[42]
  • On June 24, 2013, an Apple I was listed by Christie's as part of a special online-only auction lot called "First Bytes: Iconic Technology From the Twentieth Century." Bidding ran through July 9, 2013. The unit sold for $390,000.[43][44]
  • In November 2013, a working unit speculated to have been part of the original lot of 50 boards delivered to the Byte Shop was listed by Auction Team Breker for €180000 ($242,820), but failed to sell during the auction. Immediately following the close of bidding, a private collector purchased it for €246000 ($330,000). This board was marked "01-0046," matching the numbering placed on other units sold to the Byte Shop and included the original operation manuals, software cassettes, and shipping box autographed by Steve Wozniak. The board also bears Wozniak's signature.[45]
  • In October 2014, a working, early Apple I was sold at auction for $905,000 to the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. The sale included the keyboard, monitor, cassette decks and a manual. The auction was run by Bonhams.[46]
  • On December 13, 2014, a fully functioning, early Apple I was sold at auction for $365,000 by auction house Christie's. The sale included a keyboard, custom case, original manual and a check labeled "Purchased July 1976 from Steve Jobs in his parents' garage in Los Altos".[47]
  • On May 30, 2015, a woman reportedly dropped off boxes of electronics for disposal at an electronics recycling center in the Silicon Valley of Northern California. Included in the items removed from her garage after the death of her husband was an original Apple I computer, which the recycling firm sold for $200,000 to a private collector. It is the company's practice to give back 50% of the proceeds to the original owner when an item is sold, so they want to find the mystery donor.[48][49]
  • On September 21, 2015, an Apple I bearing the Byte Shop number 01-0059 was listed by Bonhams Auctions as part of their "History of Science and Technology" auction with a starting bid of US$300,000. The machine was described as, "in near perfect condition." The owner, Tom Romkey, "...only used the Apple-1 once or twice, and ...set it on a shelf, and did not touch it again."[50] The machine did not sell.[51] However, Glenn and Shannon Dellimore, the co-founders of GLAMGLOW, a beauty company which they sold to Estee Lauder Companies, bought it after the auction through Bonhams Auction house. On the 40th Anniversary of Apple Computers 2016 the Dellimore's working Apple-1 went on loan and on display in 'Artifact' at the V&A Museum in London, England.
  • On August 26, 2016, an Apple I made and hand-built by Steve Jobs himself (according to Apple I expert Corey Cohen) and dubbed the 'Holy Grail' of computers was sold for $815,000 to winning bidders Glenn and Shannon Dellimore, the co-founders of cosmetics firm Glamglow,[52] in an auction by Charitybuzz. The for-profit internet company that raises funds for nonprofit organizations declared that ten percent of the proceeds will go to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, based in New York.[53]
  • On April 15, 2017, an Apple I removed from Steve Jobs's office in 1985 by Apple quality control engineer Don Hutmacher was placed on display at Living Computers: Museum + Labs.[54] This Apple I was modified by Dan Kottke and Bill Fernandez.[55] This previously unknown unit was purchased from Hutmacher's heirs for an undisclosed amount.
  • On September 25, 2018, a functioning Apple I was purchased at a Dallas auction for $375,000 by an anonymous buyer.[56]
  • On May 23, 2019, an Apple I was purchased through Christie's auction house in London for £371,000. This Apple I is uniquely built into the bottom half of a briefcase and the lot included a modified cassette interface card, Panasonic RQ-309DS cassette tape recorder, SWTPC PR-40 alphanumeric printer, Sanyo VM4209 monitor and Motorola M6800 microprocessor.[57]
  • On March 12, 2020, a fully-functional Apple I was purchased at a Boston auction for $458,711. The lot included the original board with a Synertek CPU, Apple Cassette Interface, display case, keyboard kit, power supply, monitor and manuals.[58]
  • On November 9, 2021, one sold with user manuals and Apple software on two cassette tapes for $500,000 (many wrote $400,000 and forgot the premium), originally purchased by a college professor then sold to his student for $650.[59]
  • On August 18, 2022, the only known Apple I prototype in existence, dubbed Production Prototype Computer A, sold on RR Auction for over $677,000 (roughly 200x the original Apple I price adjusted for inflation), after nearly a month on auction.[60] The prototype is heavily damaged—having been split down the near-middle—and only the left-hand portion (bearing the "Apple Computer A" marking) survives. This prototype was thought lost for nearly 40 years, surviving in only several Polaroids taken by Paul Terrell, whose Byte Shop computer outlet was the first to stock Apple I in 1976. Terrell signed on to order shipments of the Apple I after viewing this prototype, which is said to have been hand-soldered by Wozniak.[61][62][63]

Serial numbers

Both Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak have stated that Apple did not assign serial numbers to the Apple l. Several boards have been found with numbered stickers affixed to them, which appear to be inspection stickers from the PCB manufacturer/assembler. A batch of boards is known to have numbers hand-written in black permanent marker on the back; these usually appear as "01-00##". As of January 2022, 29 Apple-1s with a serial number are known. The highest known number is 01–0079. Two original Apple-1s have been analyzed by PSA, Los Angeles, concluding the serial numbers had been hand-written by Steve Jobs.[64]

Museums displaying an original Apple 1 Computer

United States

  • American Computer & Robotics Museum in Bozeman, Montana
  • Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California
  • Computer Museum of America in Roswell, Georgia
  • Smithsonian Museum of American History in Washington, DC
  • Living Computers: Museum + Labs in Seattle, Washington
  • System Source Computer Museum in Hunt Valley, Maryland

Australia

  • Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, New South Wales

Germany

  • Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum in Paderborn (working condition)[65]
  • Deutsches Museum in Munich (working condition)

United Kingdom

  • Science Museum, London in London, United Kingdom

South Korea

  • Nexon Computer Museum in Jeju Island, South Korea

Switzerland

  • ENTER Computer Museum in Solothurn, Switzerland (ONLY the case is visible. It is unknown if an original Apple-1 is really inside. No picture of the Apple-1 can be found there.)

Clones and replicas

Several Apple I clones and replicas have been released in recent years. These are all created by hobbyists and marketed to the hobbyist/collector community. Availability is usually limited to small runs in response to demand.

  • Replica 1: Created by Vince Briel. A software-compatible clone, produced using modern components, released in 2003 at a price of around $150.[66][67][68][69]
  • PE6502: Created by Jason Putnam. A single board computer kit made with all through-hole and current production components. Runs Apple 1 "Integer BASIC", a clone of AppleSoft BASIC (floating point capable), Wozmon and Krusader- all built-in ROM. 32k of RAM, and a Parallax Propeller terminal. Software compatible with the Apple 1.[70]
  • A-One: Created by Frank Achatz, also using modern components.[71]
  • RC6502 Apple I Replica, which uses a modern or period CPU and MC6821 PIA, and usually modern RAM and ROM. The system is modular, with multiple boards plugging into a backplane, but a single-board version (using an Arduino Nano to replace the keyboard and video hardware with a serial interface) is also available.[72]
  • Obtronix Apple I reproduction: Created by Steve Gabaly, using original components or equivalents thereof. Sold through eBay.[73]
  • Mimeo 1: Created by Mike Willegal. A hardware kit designed to replicate a real Apple I as accurately possible. Buyers are expected to assemble the kits themselves.[74]
  • Newton 1: Created by Michael Ng and released in 2012. Similar to the Mimeo 1, but is made using the same materials and same obsolete processing technique commonly used in the 1970s. Over 400 bare boards, kits and assembled boards were sold. There are Newton NTI and non-NTI versions available.[75][76]
  • Brain Board, a plug-in firmware board for the Apple II that, with the optional "Wozanium Pack" program, can emulate a functional Apple-1.[77]
  • Replica by MDesk. An accurate PCB copy of original Apple 1 was researched in 2012–2014.[78] A few PCBs without components were sold for $26 in 2014.
  • SmartyKit 1 computer kit: created by Sergey Panarin with package design by Greg Chemeris and released in 2019. A hardware kit on breadboards designed to replicate a real Apple I with modern components (ROM, RAM, Arduino controllers for video and keyboard) and real 6502 CPU. Made to teach anyone how to build a computer and how it works. Was presented at CES 2020 in Las Vegas and then featured in Apple Insider, WIRED, Tom's Hardware.[79]
  • JRM2020: Created by Justin McDermid and released in 2020. Apple 1 replica motherboards in both regular and NTI versions based on edited open source Russian design.
  • Spartan: A very accurate Apple 1 clone motherboard design created in 2022 by Justin McDermid with both non-NTI and NTI versions available as well as a special Apple Computer A version of the Apple 1 prototype motherboard.[80]

Emulation

  • Apple 1js, a web-based Apple I emulator written in JavaScript.[81]
  • MESS, a multi-system emulator able to emulate the Apple I.
  • OpenEmulator, an accurate emulator of the Apple I, the ACI (Apple Cassette Interface) and CFFA1 expansion card.
  • Pom1, an open source Apple I emulator for Microsoft Windows, Arch Linux and Android devices.[82]
  • Apple 1 Emulator, an emulator for the SAM Coupé home computer.[83]
  • CocoaPom, a Java-based emulator with a Cocoa front-end for Macintosh.[84]
  • Sim6502, an Apple I emulator for Macintosh.[85]
  • Green Delicious Apple-1, an emulator for the Commodore 64.[86]

See also

  • Computer museums
  • History of computer science
  • History of computing

References

Citations

  1. "11 April 1976: Apple Releases Its First Computer". National Geographic. Archived from the original on May 24, 2016.
  2. "Apple-1 Operation Manual" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018 via Apple Fritter.
  3. "Datasheet Archive 2513 datasheet download". Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  4. "Co-founder tells his side of Apple story". Reuters. September 27, 2006. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  5. "A Chat with Computing Pioneer Steve Wozniak". NPR.org. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  6. Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World's Most Colorful Company. No Starch Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781593270100.
  7. O'Grady, Jason D. (2009). Apple Inc. ABC-CLIO. p. 3. ISBN 9780313362446.
  8. "Ventura County Star". Ventura County Star. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  9. "Steve Jobs: Steve Wozniak Remembers". www.groovypost.com. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on March 10, 2023. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  10. Freiberger, Paul; Swaine, Michael (2000). Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 265–267. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. At a Homebrew meeting in July 1976, Woz gave a demonstration of the Apple 1. Paul Terrell, one of the industries earliest retailers, was in attendance.
  11. "Most Important Companies". Byte. September 1995. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  12. Wozniak, Steve (2006). iWoz. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-393-33043-4. After my first meeting, I started designing the computer that would later be known as the Apple I. It was that inspiring.
  13. Williams, Gregg; Moore, Rob (December 1984). "The Apple Story / Part 1: Early History". BYTE (interview). Vol. 9, no. 13. pp. A67–A71. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
  14. "Video: Wozniak: $500.66 seemed like a good idea". CNET News. November 7, 2005. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
  15. Wozniak 2006, p. 180.
  16. Dr. Webster (August 27, 2012). "Chapter 1: Apple History (Ray Borrill interview)". applefritter. Archived from the original on September 22, 2022. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  17. Turner, Daniel (May 1, 2007). "MIT Technology Review". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on April 13, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  18. "April 1977 Price List - Applefritter". www.applefritter.com. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  19. "Bill of Sale - Applefritter". www.applefritter.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  20. "October 1977 Price List - Applefritter". www.applefritter.com. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  21. "The Apple II, cont". Apple II History. December 2008. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  22. "The Huston brothers' Apple-1 Back Story". Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
  23. Starr, Michelle (June 29, 2016). "10 facts about the Apple-1, the machine that made computing history". cNet. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  24. See advertisement reproduced on this page
  25. "The Apple 1 Case". The Geek Pub. September 16, 2021. Archived from the original on September 18, 2021. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  26. "Datasheet Archive 2513 datasheet download". Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  27. "The Apple 1 Registry". Archived from the original on February 16, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
  28. "Apple IIe Owner's Guide" (PDF). Apple Computer. p. 112. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  29. Ong, Josh (November 11, 2010). "Auction of Apple's first computer expected to top $160k". Apple Insider. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  30. Edwards, Benj (September 15, 2008), "Apple I For Sale", Vintage Computing and Gaming, archived from the original on March 14, 2016, retrieved April 1, 2016.
  31. "The Apple 1 Registry". Apple I Mimeo Project. Archived from the original on June 2, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  32. Calande, John (March 24, 2010). "Another very nice Apple-1 sold on ebay yesterday". Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  33. BBC News (November 23, 2010). "First Apple computer fetches £130,000 at auction". BBC News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  34. "Christie's Sale 7882 / Lot 65". Christie's. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  35. Heater, Brian. "$211,000 Apple-1 up and running, wants to know what this 'cloud' thing is all about". engadget. engadget.com. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  36. Austin, Scott (June 15, 2012). "Original Apple 1 Computer Sells for $374,500 in Auction". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  37. "Rare apple 1 computer no sale at christies auction". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  38. "Rare working Apple-1 pops up on eBay with Cassette board accessory". iPhone Hacks. April 15, 2015. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  39. "Early 1976 Apple-1 computer, from the garage of Steve Jobs". ebay. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  40. "the-saleroom.com". ATG Media. Archived from the original on November 28, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  41. "How much?! Working Apple-1 sells at auction for record-breaking $671,400". digitaltrends.com. May 27, 2013. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  42. "Vintage Apple computer auctioned off for $668,000". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  43. "First Apple Computer Sells for $390,000 in Christie's Technology Auction". International Business Times. July 9, 2013. Archived from the original on July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  44. "Apple I auction fails to break 500K". Macmint. July 14, 2013. Archived from the original on September 30, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
  45. "Apple 1 Sold for $330k After Auction Close". Cult of Mac. November 19, 2013. Archived from the original on March 29, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  46. "Apple-1 computer sold at auction for $905,000". Fox News. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
  47. "Computer sold by Steve Jobs out of his parents' garage raises $365,000 at auction". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  48. "Mystery Woman Dumps Rare, Collectable Apple Computer Worth $200K At Recycling Center". CBS News. Milpitas. May 30, 2015. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  49. "Apple 1 computer worth $200K left at recycling centre". CBC News. Associated Press. May 31, 2015. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2015. A recycling centre in the Silicon Valley is looking for a woman who dropped off an old Apple computer that turned out to be a collectible item worth $200,000 US.
  50. "Lot 77 Apple-1 Computer". Bonhams Auctions. September 21, 2015. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  51. "Early Apple computer fails to sell". BBC News. September 22, 2015. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  52. Fried, Ina (August 26, 2016). "This rare Apple 1 prototype, possibly assembled by Steve Jobs, sold to cosmetics executives for $815,000". Recode. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  53. "'First Apple computer' sells for $815,000". BBC News. August 26, 2016. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  54. "Rare Apple I exhibit in the heart of Microsoft country". seattlepi.com. April 13, 2017. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  55. "Apple-1 Registry". Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  56. Lee, David (September 25, 2018). "Original working Apple I computer fetches $375,000 at auction". BBC News. Archived from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  57. "Rare Apple I fetches $471,000 at Christie's auction". Apple Insider. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  58. "Rare functional Apple-1 computer sold at auction for $458,711". Apple Insider. Archived from the original on March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  59. "Apple's original computer fetches $400,000 at US auction". BBC News. November 10, 2021. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
  60. Associated Press (August 19, 2022). "Jobs' Apple-1 computer prototype auctioned for nearly $700K". KKTV.com. Gray Television, Inc. Archived from the original on August 24, 2022. Retrieved August 24, 2022.
  61. Szondy, David (July 24, 2022). ""Lost" Apple computer prototype goes on the auction block". New Atlas. Archived from the original on July 25, 2022.
  62. "'Production prototype Computer A' Apple-1 - number 2 in the Registry". Apple-1 Registry. July 2022. Archived from the original on July 23, 2022.
  63. Staff writer (July 23, 2022). "Steve Jobs' original Apple computer prototype up for auction". KKTV.com. Gray Television, Inc. CNN. Archived from the original on July 23, 2022.
  64. "The Apple 1 Registry - THE SOLVED RIDDLE OF THE SERIAL NUMBER". Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  65. Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum. "Inbetriebnahme Apple I – Teil 4". YouTube. Archived from the original on November 22, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  66. replica I – the apple I(c) clone Archived May 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved August 15, 2009
  67. replica I Archived January 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine at official Briel computers web site, retrieved August 15, 2008
  68. Gagne, Ken (August 14, 2009). "Image gallery: Building an Apple-1 replica from scratch". Computerworld. Archived from the original on August 16, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2009. story with pictures for assembling a Briel replica I from a kit
  69. Owad, Tom (August 15, 2009). "Apple I Replica Creation". Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2005.
  70. putnamelectronics Archived January 21, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, PE6502 Apple 1 replica kit.
  71. Achatz Electronics, retrieved July 29, 2013, archived May 13, 2012
  72. "RC6502 Apple 1 Replica". Hvetebolle. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
  73. Vectronics Apple World: Obtronix Apple I Reproduction Archived July 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved July 8, 2013
  74. Mimeo 1 kit Archived August 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved July 8, 2013
  75. Apple 1 Replica (Newton 1) Running Test Program Archived March 26, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved September, 2016
  76. Album of Newton 1 (by Michael Ng) including a side by side comparison with what believed to be one of the original boards Archived July 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved September, 2016
  77. The Brain Board with Wozanium Pack Archived February 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved February 2, 2014
  78. "Apple I (реплика)" [Apple I (replica)]. mdesk.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 17, 2019. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  79. SmartyKit project website Archived June 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved June 17, 2021
  80. "Apple1clone Spartan". Apple1clone. Justin McDermid. Archived from the original on December 6, 2022. Retrieved December 6, 2022. Retrieved December 1, 2022
  81. "Apple 1js: An Apple 1 Emulator in JavaScript". Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  82. Pom1 Apple 1 Emulator Archived August 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved July 17, 2013
  83. Apple 1 Emulator - SAM Coupé Archived November 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved July 17, 2013
  84. CocoaPom Apple 1 Emulator Archived June 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved July 17, 2013
  85. Sim6502 Apple I emulator Archived November 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine retrieved July 17, 2013
  86. "Green Delicious Apple-1 Emulator". Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.

Sources

  • Price, Rob (1987). So Far: The First Ten Years of a Vision. Cupertino, Calif.: Apple Computer. ISBN 1-55693-974-4.
  • Owad, Tom (2005). Apple I Replica Creation: Back to the Garage Archived April 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Rockland, Mass.: Syngress Publishing. ISBN 1-931836-40-X.

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.