Verbenaceae

The Verbenaceae (/ˌvɜːrbəˈnsi./ VUR-bə-NAY-see-ee), the verbena family or vervain family, is a family of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.[2]

Verbenaceae
Flowers, fruit and leaves (on the right) of a Lantana cultivar
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Verbenaceae
J.St.-Hil.
Synonyms[1]
  • Durantaceae J.Agardh
  • Petreaceae J.Agardh

The family Verbenaceae includes 32 genera and 800 species.[3] Phylogenetic studies[4] have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in the Verbenaceae[5] or in its own family, Avicenniaceae,[6] has been placed in the Acanthaceae.[7]

Economically important Verbenaceae include:

Taxonomy

Golden dew drops (Duranta erecta)
Frog fruit (Phyla nodiflora)
Glandularia pulchella in Kerala

Tribes and genera in the family[8] and their estimated species numbers:[3]

Casselieae (Schauer) Tronc.

  • Casselia Nees & Mart. - 6 species
  • Parodianthus Tronc. - 2 species
  • Tamonea Aubl. - 6 species

Citharexyleae Briq.

  • Citharexylum L. (fiddlewoods) - 60 species
  • Rehdera Moldenke - 3 species

Duranteae Bent.

  • Bouchea Cham. - 13 species
  • Chascanum E.Mey - 27 species
  • Duranta L. - 31 species
  • Recordia Moldenke - 2 species
  • Stachytarpheta Vahl - 120 species

Lantaneae Endl.

  • Aloysia Palau (beebrushes) - 36 species
  • Burroughsia Moldenke - 2 species
  • Coelocarpum Balf.f. - 6 species
  • Diphyllocalyx (Griseb.) Greuter & R.Rankin - 6 species
  • Isidroa Greuter & R.Rankin - 1 species
  • Lantana L. (shrub verbenas, lantanas) - 100 species
  • Lippia L. - 140 species
  • Nashia Millsp. - 1 species
  • Phyla Lour. (frogfruits) - 5 species

Neospartoneae Olmstead & N.O'Leary

  • Diostea Miers - 1 species
  • Lampayo Phil. ex Murillo - 3 species
  • Neosparton Griseb. - 3 species

Petreeae Briq.

  • Petrea L. (sandpaper vines) - 12 species

Priveae Briq.

  • Pitraea Turcz. - 1 species
  • Priva Adans. - 20 species

Verbeneae Dumort.

  • Glandularia J.F.Gmel. - 88 species
  • Hierobotana Briq. - 1 species
  • Junellia Moldenke - 38 species
  • Mulguraea N.O’Leary & P.Peralta - 11 species
  • Verbena L. (verbenas/vervains) - 57 species

Unassigned

  • Dipyrena Hook. - 1 species
  • Rhaphithamnus Miers - 2 species

Excluded genera

Various genera formerly included in the family Verbenaceae are now treated under other families:[9]

Moved to Acanthaceae
Moved to Lamiaceae
  • Amasonia L.f.
  • Brachysola (F.Muell.) Rye
  • Callicarpa L.
  • Caryopteris Bunge
  • Chloanthes R.Br.
  • Clerodendrum L.
  • Congea Roxb.
  • Cornutia L.
  • Cyanostegia Turcz.
  • Dicrastylis J.Drumm. ex Harv.
  • Discretitheca P.D.Cantino
  • Faradaya F.Muell.
  • Garrettia H.R.Fletcher
  • Glossocarya Wall. ex Griff.
  • Gmelina L.
  • Hemiphora (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
  • Holmskioldia Retz.
  • Hosea Ridl.
  • Hymenopyramis Wall. ex Griff.
  • Kalaharia Baill.
  • Karomia Dop
  • Lachnostachys Hook.
  • Mallophora Endl.
  • Monochilus Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
  • Newcastelia F.Muell.
  • Oncinocalyx F.Muell.
  • Oxera Labill.
  • Peronema Jack
  • Petitia Jacq.
  • Petraeovitex Oliv.
  • Physopsis Turcz.
  • Pityrodia R.Br.
  • Premna L.
  • Pseudocarpidium Millsp.
  • Pseudocaryopteris P.D.Cantino
  • Rotheca Raf.
  • Schnabelia Hand.-Mazz.
  • Spartothamnella Briq.
  • Sphenodesme Jack
  • Symphorema Roxb.
  • Tectona L.f.
  • Teijsmanniodendron Koord.
  • Teucridium Hook.f.
  • Tripora P.D.Cantino
  • Vitex L.
Moved to Oleaceae
  • Dimetra Kerr
  • Nyctanthes L.
Moved to Orobanchaceae
  • Asepalum Marais
  • Cyclocheilon Oliv.
  • Nesogenes A.DC.
Moved to Phrymaceae
  • Phryma L.
Moved to Stilbaceae
  • Campylostachys Kunth
  • Euthystachys A.DC.
  • Stilbe P.J.Bergius
  • Thesmophora Rourke

References

  1. "Family: Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
  2. Stevens, P. F. (July 12, 2012). "Verbenaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  3. Cardoso PH, O'Leary N, Olmstead RG, Moroni P, Thode VA (2021). "An update of the Verbenaceae genera and species number". Plant Ecology and Evolution. 154 (1): 80–86. doi:10.5091/plecevo.2021.1821.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In Harley, R.M. & Reynolds, T. (eds) Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages. Vol. 1. Elsevier. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5.
  6. Nelson, Gil (1994). The Trees of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3.
  7. "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Lamiales". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  8. Marx H, O’Leary N, Yuan Y, Lu-Irving P, Tank DC, Múlgura ME, Olmstead, RG (2010). "A molecular phylogeny and classification of Verbenaceae". American Journal of Botany. 97 (10): 1647–1663. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000144.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. "GRIN genera sometimes placed in Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
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